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Features of islamic civilization...by farooq akbar mtePresentation Transcript
FEATURES OF ISLAMICCIVILIZATION
FEATURES OF ISLAMIC CIVILIZATION Submitted by: Farooq Akbar S/2010/634 M.Mubashir S/2010/607 Submitted to: Tariq Hussain M.T.E: 4th semester
Table of contents:• Definition of civilization and feature• Traits of civilization• Difference between Islamic and modern civilization• Important questions about Islamic civilization• Islamic cities• Religion• Social classes• Art and architecture etc.
Meaning of civilization• Civilization comes from the latten word civil which means “universal”. Madana: The establishment of a city. Darcy Rabario: Expansion of a city and its effects to its surroundings.
Sum-upCivilization means achievements ,growth,movement, thinking, manner that forms awell-mannered personality and society thatshape a country.
What is civilization?Civilization is a place where they have hada organized form of leadership and waysto represent and record themselves.They have a government to lead. writingto record what happened art andarchitecture to show there culture andreligion to show that what they believe in.Continue....
What is civilization?They also have different social classesand they learned, each person should havejob they specialize in.They also have marked in places calledwhere a lot of people live and trade in.
Meaning of feature Features ? Prominent aspect of something.“The map showed road and other features”.Definition : Feature, characteristic, peculiarity referto a distinctive trait of an individual or of aclass. Feature suggests an outstanding ormarked property that attracts attention
Basic traits of civilization• Cities• Religion• Social classes• Arts and architecture• Organized central government• Job specialization• Writing• Public works
Difference between Islamic and western civilization Islamic civilization Western civilizationSources of civilization Al-QURAN & AS- SUNNAH Logical thinkingand central values Balance between Rational explanation physical and spiritual elements of humanWorld view Extremism, Always right Terrorism Trustworthy Technologically Technologically advance Out dated
Cities• MECCA was the most important trade center in Arabia. It was dominated by the powerful tribe of the Quraysh.
THE KAABA:Mecca was also the locationof the shrine known as theKaaba, founded accordingto Arab tradition by Abrahama. For centuries people fromall over Arabia had madepilgrimages to Mecca to visitthe Kaaba.
Religion• Islam- submission to the will of Allah• Allah- one true God• Muhammad(P.B.U.H)- prophet• Mecca- holy place• Mosque- holy establishment• Koran or Qur’an- holy book
Life of Muhammad(P.B.U.H)• EARLY LIFE: Muhammad(P.B.U.H) was born in 570 to a respectable though not wealthy or powerful clan of the Quraysh tribe. His father died before he was born, his mother shortly afterward, leaving Muhammad(P.B.U.H) under the care of his grandparents and uncle.
CARAVAN TRADE: LIKE MANY YOUNGMECCANS, HE ENTERED THE CARAVANTRADE. BY THE TIME HE WAS 30, HE HADA REPUTATION FOR COMPETENCE ANDHONESTY, AND SO BECAME FINANCIALADVISER TO A WEALTHY QURAYSHWIDOW,
MARRIAGE:Although older thanMuhammad(P.B.U.H),Khadija became hiswife in 596, and theyhad a loving marriageuntil her death. Shebore him three sons (all died inchildhood) and fourgirls (allsurvived). Only onedaughter, Fatima, livedafter him.
THE REVELATIONS: A man of spiritual insight, Muhammad(P.B.U.H) received in 610 the first of many revelations that commanded him to teach all people a new faith that called for: Belief in one God, Allah
FLIGHT TO MEDINA:At this point, citizens fromMedina, a smaller tradingcommunity was in trouble,asked Muhammad(P.B.U.H)to become their leader. Thejourney from Mecca toMedina is called the Hijraand the event was seen asso important that 622 is theyear in which the Islamiccalendar begins.
UNITY:In Medina,Muhammad(P.B.U.H)gathered around him alarge community ofbelievers. This groupwas to become thefoundation of the Islamicstate. The faith for bloodties was able to uniterival Arab tribes andbring about politicalunity.
MUHAMMAD’S(P.B.U.H)TEACHING People were asked to surrender completely to Allah, the one true God. Those who surrendered became Muslims and joined the umma muslima – a new kind of community
FAITH PRAYERALMSGIVING FASTING The Five Pillars of IslamPILGRIMAGE
THE QURAN-E-PAK• When Muhammad(P.B.U.H) communicated God’s teaching to his followers, he always insisted that he was transmitting a direct, verbal revelation and not offering his own interpretation. That revelation came in the form of “recitations” that make up the Quran, the scriptures of Islam. They are arranged into 114 Suras, or chapters.
THE SUNNAAfter the prophet’s death, his followers compiledcollections called the sunna, the “good practice” (i.e., the words and customs ofMuhammad(P.B.U.H) himself.) Included are the sayings of the prophet and the comments he made about how God’s revelation was to be understood and applied.
JIHAD: Muslim warriorsbelieved they wereengaged in a holywar (jihad) tospread Islam tononbelievers andthat those who diedin the jihad wereassured a place inparadise.
Islamic society• Ulama- religious leader• Qadi- judge• Madrasa- special school• Jihad- holy war• Dar-al-Islam- House of Islam• Dar-Al- Harb - House of War
ISLAMIC CULTURE• CULTURAL INTEGRATION: In the 8th and 9th centuries, under the Abbasid caliphs, Muslim civilization entered its golden age. – Islamic civilization creatively integrated Arabic, , Persian, and Indian cultural traditions. – During the Early Middle Ages, when learning was at a low point in western Europe, the Muslims preserved the philosophical and scientific heritage of the ancient world.
Islamic ArtPICS Calligraphy Rugs Literature Music Miniatures Architecture
Islamic art and architecture Mosque, Madrasah, Palace, Fort, House No evidence that early Muslim artists ever thought of their work as Islamic. No dominant style or influence that defines Islamic art. The most striking feature is the focus on interior space as opposed to the outside . Feeling of weightlessness - presence of water: fountains, pools, etc -- a Paradise on earth.
Islamic art and architecture
The blue mosque Istanbul
ORGANIZED CENTRAL GOVERNAMENT• Caliphate• System of government• Head is called ‘caliph’
DEFENDER OF THE FAITH• After Muhammad(P.B.U.H),s death in 632, his friend and father-in-law, Abu Bakr, became his successor, or caliph.• Regarded as the defender of the faith, whose power derived from Allah, the caliph governed in accordance with Muslim law as defined by the “Quran”.
BEDOUINS(nomadicpastoralists) provided for their own needs with: Herds of sheep & goats Small-scale trading in towns Regular trades on one another and on caravans.
FARMERS:Some farmers workedthe land, but in manyareas soils were toopoor and rain was tooinfrequent to supportagriculture.
TRADERS: CITIES SUPPORTED TRADERS WHOCARRIED LUXURY GOODS (SPICES, PERFUMES)FROM THE INDIAN OCEAN REGION ANDSOUTHERN ARABIA ALONG CARAVAN ROUTESTO THE CITIES OF THE EASTERNMEDITERRANEAN. THESE TRADERS FORMED THEECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ELITE OF ARABIA,AND THEY LED THE TRIBES.
Islamic calligraphy/ writingcalligraphy, is the artisticpractice of handwriting, orcalligraphy, and by extension,of bookmaking, in the landssharing a common Islamiccultural heritage. This artform is based on theArabic script, which for a longtime was used by all Muslimsin their respective languages.
Islamic calligraphy/ writing
Public works, contributions Agriculture- domestication of sheep Industry- collected diff. techniques of material construction Trade- issued receipts, checks, and letters of credit Physics- process of sight The Canon of Medicine, a school of medicine Chemistry- alchemy Math and Astronomy, movement of stars and planets.