Synthesis of findings and preliminary assessment of gaps in research and policy

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  • Linear, rational process Implicit assumption that the when the best options are formulated, then it can be implemented Predominantly formal process Research inputs at particular points of the process only
  • Climate change is a major challenge to the sustainability of urban areas in Africa Stress on water, energy, food systems, human health, coastal zones, particularly for the poorest and most vulnerable High urbanisation rates leading to increasing numbers of people living in slums on marginal land with high exposure to climate risks Infrastructure and service delivery not keeping pace
  • So far limited focus on climate change in urban sector policy and planning Limited acknowledgement of the importance of urban areas in NAPAs and national climate change strategies Good practice examples Climate change and urban focus in South Africa Profitable urban agriculture in Nairobi
  • Need for more awareness and focus on rural-urban interconnectedness and migration dynamics - Awareness and capacity Need for more proactive urban authorities with improved capacity and ‘downscaled NAPAs’ Need for capacity strengthening from assessment to planning Address current limited knowledge exchange and missing areas and spaces for research to policy engagement Researchers need to engage more in policy processes, not only scientific conferences Particular need for research on poorest and most marginalised groups - Gender, women and children even in the absence explicit national strategies Particular lack of research on inland cities Missing comprehensive view on rural and urban interconnections Overcome rural bias To overcome Inherent thinking by policy-makers that migration is a problem Need more focus on the role of urban planning in supporting and accommodating mobility and addressing the informal systems and inequalities in the region’s urban areas Missing areas and spaces for research – policy interface
  • Rapidly increasing body of evidence on impacts of climate change on agriculture, particularly crop systems - Crop diseases, agricultural ecosystems at risk (forest, crops, fisheries) Increasing evidence of autonomous adaptation by crop farmers, pastoralists and fisherfolk for the most part in the absence of external support Sustainability of adaptation within the agriculture sector? (Signs of spread of crop diseases, ecosystems at risk Focus on technical issues at the expense of policy barriers
  • Agriculture key focus in NAPAs and national climate change strategies, but so far limited integration of climate change considerations in sector policies Growing itnerest in CSA -But surprisingly little mentioned in reviews (reflecting newness, lack of research, external agenda????) Some promising examples of integration of local and scientific knowledge - East Africa, Southern Africa A number of factors (political, economic, social) hinder uptake of growing body of research findings - scepticism, of the future, unclear carbon markets? Agriculture key focus in NAPAs and national climate change strategies, but limited integration of climate change considerations in agricultural policy Marginalisation of pastoralist systems A number of factors hinder uptake of research findings Perception of CC being for the future – low on the political agenda Marginalisation of pastoralists hinder for adaptation
  • Need focus on the whole food chain from (smallholder) producers to consumers to test whether it leads to increased resilience Promising ‘climate smart’ agricultural practices and technologies needs further field testing Lack of focus on fisheries and pastoralist systems as compared to crop farming systems E.g. limited knowledge on new strains of aquaculture species tolerant of lower quality water and higher levels of salinity induced by climate change and on national fishing stocks and decline and change in habitats Gap in coordination between environment (CC lead) and agriculture policies and actors
  • Focus on links between climate change and health limited to a few major diseases Malaria, rift valley fever, meningitis Relationship between vector borne diseases and CC poorly studied in Central Africa Increasing concern about the link between climate change and HIV/AIDS Direct – heat stress; indirect through malnutrition reducing the immune system, lack of clean water reduces effectiveness of treatment Increasing focus on climate change and malnutrition FEWS Net study in West Africa suggests direct link Evidence also suggest mortality and higher temperatures Adaptation hampered by the health sector in disaster management rather than prevention mode E.g. Limited support to date to the development of epidemic prediction models for early warning Few health and climate change projects implemented despite health being a top priority in NAPAs Little formal recognition of contribution of local knowledge in health policies 
  • Few health and climate change projects implemented despite health being a top priority in NAPAs Sometimes recognised, but few projects Little formal recognition of climate change in health policies Sometimes recognised as a threat, but little more 
  • Detection of changes in disease geographic distribution and the role of CC in affecting these Focus on a broader range of diseases Early warning systems for disease prevention Treating health as separate from national development agendas Lack of research-policy dialogues Ex. ‘National Policy Dialogues’ in Senegal, Ghana and Nigeria
  • Tackling CC without thinking of the structures risk a situation where solutions (such as new technologies) are available but not accessible (or accessible to only a few) Tackling structures without considering development (=”good development” risks committing us to pathways that increases rather than reduces vulnerability (traditional development paths could lead to technology lock-in, bigger, irreversible change, action now more cost-effective than retrospective adaptation)
  • Social protection?
  • Synthesis of findings and preliminary assessment of gaps in research and policy

    1. 1. Review of research and policies for climate change adaptation in sub- Saharan Africa Synthesis of findings and preliminary assessment of gaps in research and policy Lars Otto Naess Research Fellow, Climate Change Team Institute of Development Studies, Brighton, UK FARA Side Event on Climate Smart Agriculture Africa Agriculture Science Week, 16 July 2013
    2. 2. Outline of presentation • Background and assumptions for research-policy linkages • Synthesis of key messages and research & policy gaps on urban areas, agriculture and health • Reflections on findings
    3. 3. Future CC impacts Temp Precipitation Seasonality Variability Flood Drought Landslide Biological National & International Political Economy Power relations Environmental Trends Debt Crises Etc Social Structures & Power Systems Class Gender Ethnicity Caste Other power relationships Effects on livelihoods Infrastructure Health Ecosystems Local dimensions 1. Livelihood 2 Well-being 3 Individual protection 4 Collective Protection 5 Governance S O C I A L F R A M E R O O T C A U S E S Climate change makes hazards worse Cannon 2012
    4. 4. Adaptation and development ‘pyramid’ (Sources: DFID; McGray et al. 2007) Drought resistant crops, livestock breeds, flood defences, sea walls
    5. 5. What does ‘enabling research-to-policy linkage for adaptation’ mean? • Partly depends on approach to policymaking processes • ‘Traditional’ view: Policymaking as linear process with a clearly defined start and finish – Limited arena for research inputs Or • A complex, incremental and “messy” process, not limited to formal process of formal policy formulation and implementation – Multiple entry points or ‘policy spaces’
    6. 6. Policymaking: the ‘traditional’ view
    7. 7. What does ‘enabling research-to-policy linkage for adaptation’ mean? • Partly depends on approach to policymaking processes • ‘Traditional’ view: Policymaking as linear process with a clearly defined start and finish – Limited arena for research inputs Or • A complex, incremental and “messy” process, not limited to formal process of formal policy formulation and implementation – Multiple entry points or ‘policy spaces’
    8. 8. Regional reviews on urban areas, agriculture, health - Key messages from regional reviews - Research & policy gaps
    9. 9. Urban areas: findings - research • Climate change is a major challenge to the sustainability of urban areas in Africa • Rapid urbanisation rates leading to increasing numbers of people living in slums on marginal land with high exposure to climate risks • Infrastructure development and service delivery have not kept pace with urbanisation rates • Most research on urban adaptation so far on coastal cities • Evidence of success of urban and peri-urban agriculture (e.g. in Nairobi, Maputo, Dakar) – leading the way?
    10. 10. Urban areas: findings - policy • So far limited focus on climate change in urban sector policy and planning • Climate change policies (NAPAs, national climate change strategies) tend to focus on rural areas • But also emerging lessons, e.g. examples of successful integration of climate change in city strategies in South Africa
    11. 11. Urban areas: key recommendations • Need for more awareness and focus on rural-urban interconnectedness and migration dynamics • Need for more proactive urban authorities with improved capacity and ‘downscaled NAPAs’ • Address current limited knowledge exchange and missing areas and spaces for research to policy engagement • Particular need for research on poorest and most marginalised groups, particularly women and children
    12. 12. Agriculture: findings - research • Rapidly growing body of evidence on impacts of climate change on agriculture, particularly crop systems • Increasing evidence of autonomous adaptation by crop farmers, pastoralists and fisherfolk, using local knowledge • Much adaptation happens despite lack of institutional support, but growing focus around ‘climate-smart’ farming systems • Impacts of climate change and variability on agriculture is moderated by political, economic and social factors
    13. 13. Agriculture: findings - policy • Agriculture key focus in NAPAs and national climate change strategies, but so far limited climate change consideration in sector policies • Growing interest in climate smart agriculture • A number of factors (political, economic, social) hinder uptake of research evidence • Some promising examples of integration of local and scientific knowledge (e.g. forecasts for improved agricultural productivity)
    14. 14. Agriculture: key recommendations • Adaptation measures should be tested for contribution to resilience through the whole food chain from producers to consumers • Need for further research to field test promising ‘climate smart’ agricultural technologies and practices • Need to tackle root causes for vulnerability in the agricultural sector such as resource access and property rights, closely linked with gender concerns • Technology and service delivery gaps highlighted (cultivars, credits, markets, extension, forecasts) • Need more focus on fisheries and pastoralist systems as compared to crop farming systems • Need for better coordination and coherence between agriculture and environment ministries
    15. 15. Health: findings - research • Climate change will increase the disease burden on overstretched health services • To date, evidence on links between climate change and health limited to a few major diseases (malaria, rift valley fever, meningitis) • Increasing research on the direct and indirect linkages between climate change and HIV/AIDS • Increasing focus on climate change and malnutrition
    16. 16. Health: findings - policy • Adaptation hampered by the health sector in disaster management rather than prevention mode • Few health and climate change projects implemented despite health being a top priority in NAPAs • Climate change often not integrated in health sector policies • So far little policy support for development of epidemic prediction models
    17. 17. Health: key recommendations • Detection of changes in disease spatial and temporal distribution and the role of climate change in affecting these • Need to expand the range of diseases that are considered • Suggested early warning systems for disease prevention • Need for more inclusion of stakeholders in formulating adaptation policies in the health sector, including the use of local knowledge
    18. 18. Crosscutting issues and reflections
    19. 19. Crosscutting concerns • Significant overlap in the issues covered • The need to tackle gender issues across all areas and regions • The key role of water for health, agriculture and in urban areas • Gaps in research capacity, awareness raising • The need for more resources for research • Need for integration of urban, agriculture and health concerns both in climate change and sector policies
    20. 20. Crosscutting concerns, cont. • Needs to strengthen research-policy interaction in several areas –The need for researchers to involve stakeholders – including policymakers – at the outset and throughout research projects –Need to expand opportunities for research- policy engagement –Lack of awareness of climate change challenges, perception of climate change as ‘of the future’ and less pressing than other issues: how prevalent?
    21. 21. Types of gaps: adaptation responses • Findings highlight the need to cover all areas of the ‘adaptation pyramid’ – None of the areas sufficient on their own to build resilience – Technology without structure: issues of access – Structure without climate change responses: risk of lock-in to vulnerable pathways – Thus, supporting adaptation means technical solutions as well as structural changes to enable uptake 1. Responses to climate projections 2. Climate information and risk mapping 3. Instruments to reduce vulnerability 4. Addressing the ‘development gap’
    22. 22. The reviews demonstrate - • An increasing knowledge base on how people and societies are responding to changes • Increasing regional research capacity, signs of emerging best practice • Need for improved policies in key areas, gaps in research-policy interface • Need for more resources for research, awareness raising and capacity strengthening And also that - • More work is needed on how to ensure that the poorest and most vulnerable will benefit from climate funding? • Politics of adaptation: actors, interests and outcomes • Who wins, who loses? Final reflections
    23. 23. Thank you Further information: l.naess@ids.ac.uk

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