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  • This chart is from a recent report that analyzed the impact of higher education for development in Africa. As you can see, Bloom et al tried to model the effects of tertiary education but it ’ s hard to quantify the impact. Thus, due to the limited data and the methodological problems that arise when calculating rates of return, we find a more cogent argument is based on higher education as a driver of economic growth and development.
  • These are the challenges that is facing tertiary inst in many countries in SSA. We will discuss each of the challenges in detail later. Based on the main challenges that we identified and on countries’ best practices, we will make recommendations which can serve as areas of focus for potential USAID support.
  • Transcript

    • 1. Capacity building in the East, Central and Southern African TAE landscape: Opportunities and future directions Capacity building in the East, Central and Southern African TAE landscape: Opportunities and future directions Ms Nodumo Dhlamini 6th FARA Agricultural Science Week 16th July 2013 – ACCRA, GHANA
    • 2. The HypothesesThe Hypotheses  Capacity for responsive research and training of high performing graduates is critical  Broad but practical training of post-graduate students is key  Achieving rapid and sustainable agricultural productivity growth is essential to raising overall economic growth and meeting the MDGs  The welfare of smallholder farmers throughout much of Africa remains linked to agriculture. Food Security achievable through support for smallholder driven research
    • 3. LandscapeLandscape • Strong TAE Actor support in ECSA- RUFORUM, FARA, ANAFE, AAU, NEPAD, CTA, AGRA, …….. • Uncoordinated investments (and limited investments) in the TAE in ECSA - at times there is duplication of efforts • Investment challenges: Donor dependency leading to volatility • Capacity challenges: High staff turnover - Staff departures and an aging pool of well-qualified researchers is a concern in ECSA; Limited training opportunities - SSA universities face constraints such as increased workloads, affecting quality of teaching and student supervision
    • 4. Examples of leading Agricultural Capacity Building Networks in Africa Examples of leading Agricultural Capacity Building Networks in Africa Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM) University network: 32univs. in 18 East, Central & Southern Africa countries •Competitive MSc (375) research grants •Collaborative PhD training (85) •Community-action research program. & institutional grants •National stakeholder forums AERC: Collaborative MSc in Agricultural & Applied Economics (CMAAE) Network of departments: 18 univs. in 12 countries •MSc (242) •Shared electives facility •African & external subject specialists • PhD (11) support •department building grants • professional peer review AGRA: Education for African Crop Improvement (EACI) Network of departments: 10 univs. & 2 regional hubs for 13 countries •Redeployment to national programs of PhD (80) and MSc (170) crop scientists and breeders •Cornell U. back-up Biosciences eastern and central Africa (BecA) Hub and nodes model : One hub & 5 institutional nodes for 17 countries •Top expertise & facilities •Visiting scientists (60) •MSc/PhD students (100) •Alumni lead research programs at home universities; return to BecA as visiting scientists supervising own grad students The African Network for Agriculture, Agroforestry and Natural Resources Education (ANAFE) A network of 132 educational institutions in 37 African countries whose objective is to strengthen the teaching of multi-disciplinary approaches to land management.
    • 5. Source: Bloom, et al. 2006. Higher Education and Economic Development in Africa. Linking higher education and developmentLinking higher education and development
    • 6. Transforming Africa’s agriculture: The need for a strong innovation capacity Transforming Africa’s agriculture: The need for a strong innovation capacity Observation: Full potential of Africa’s arable land is from 150 – 700% per region, = 300m. Ha. 1.Economy-wide challenges: Inadequate investments in non-conventional inputs especially public goods (transport, education) and policies that stimulate private initiative and market development. 2.Agriculture sector challenges: Inadequate or inappropriate use of conventional inputs such as land, labor, fertilizer, seed, pesticides Source: Hugo Ahlenius, 2006. UNEP/GRID- Arendal Source: Henao, J. and Baanante, C. 2006
    • 7. Tilting the imbalance for agricultural growthTilting the imbalance for agricultural growth
    • 8. 8 – Demand increasingly exceeds capacity- improved primary, secondary education programmes; – Quality Issues: lack of resources, human capacity – proliferation of TAE institutions; burgeoning private programmes – Inequity: gender, socio-economic – Missing linkages with labor markets- growing private and civil society sectors; – Mis-match with development needs- skills mix – Inadequate incentive structure, lack of financing Critical TAE Challenges exist in Africa
    • 9. Challenges cont…Challenges cont… • Problematic Curriculum review and reform processes and implementation • Agricultural Development hampered by limited capacity. Limited funding to support post- graduate training in African universities. • Ageing Agricultural Scientists • Mandate from African Heads of States to implement CAADP as a concerted and comprehensive strategy for achieving Vision for African Agriculture
    • 10. Opportunities and Future DirectionsOpportunities and Future Directions
    • 11. Underpinnings for TAE investmentUnderpinnings for TAE investment Consider: • Fragile environments - Vulnerability may increase • Food security & Sovereignty issues - 54% in Africa living in urban centers by 2030 • How to tap into local resources - Africa’s per capita income is increasing in tandem with other developing countries, IMF forecasts Africa will grab seven of the top ten places over the next five years
    • 12. Moving forward: Future Directions (I)Moving forward: Future Directions (I)  Sustainable Financing Models: Mobilize greater government support for TAE  Develop policy reforms to facilitate private-sector engagement and participation  Human resource development to assure the success of CAADP : Halt the prevailing high turnover of agricultural scientists; Strengthen institutional capacity to create an enabling environment  Restore the quality of higher education in agriculture - develop innovative teaching / training methods – harness ICT; practical field based learning; Harmonize Quality Assurance systems
    • 13. Moving forward: Future Directions (II)Moving forward: Future Directions (II)  Data collection and analysis to support the TAE agenda in ECSA. Audit what has worked well in terms of the higher education successful models and scale up  Advocacy and constant lobbying for increased support and engagement of the African higher education networks in policy making and programme implementation for agricultural training and research by the AUC, RECs, NEPAD- PCA and FARA.  Strengthen the collaboration and innovation platforms for higher educations to still remain relevant
    • 14. Moving forward: Future Directions (III)Moving forward: Future Directions (III)  Strengthening capacities of universities for implementing SYSTEMIC CHANGES  Strengthening partnerships for capacity building initiatives – based in comparative advantages  A comprehensive assessment of institutional strengths and weaknesses of member universities - - -needed for design of a comprehensive and coordinated Capacity building Strategy for the region (RUFORUM, ANAFE, ASARECA, ETC)  Strengthening M&E - Establishment of a “UNIT” to monitor what is happening in the very DYNAMIC landscape, and coordinating responses in terms of Capacity Building.
    • 15. Regional Universities Forum for Capacity Building in Agriculture (RUFORUM) Plot 151 Garden Hill, Makerere University Main Campus P.O. Box 7062, Kampala, Uganda. Tel.: +256-414-535939 Email: secretariat@ruforum.org URL: http://www.ruforum.org

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