The Challenge of Food Security and The Evolution of the CGIAR


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  • Get slide or two with key messages of the 2012 report
  • Food security at risk. Climate change has to be set in the context of growing populations and changing diets60-70% more food will be needed by 2050 because of population growth and changing diets – and this is in a context where climate change will make agriculture more difficult.
  • Was done at large scale once before – Asia, Green revolution – can it be done again?
  • Costs of sequencing dropping even faster than Moore’s law.
  • Our new portfolio:Still: breeding / improved germplasmNRMFarming systems + policies / markets / value chainsNutrition and health
  • First large-scale R4D program to use an ‘integrated agro-ecosystems approach’. Action sites cover 11 thousand-million hectaresAction sites: West Africa, East and Southern Africa, North Africa, West Asia, Central Asia, South AsiaWest Africa:  Increased plant and livestock productivity, and rural livelihoods through improved nutrient availability and water-use efficiency reducing lean periods and risk of system shocks.East and Southern Africa:  Increased  productivity, income, and resilience among pastoralists through better crop-livestock integration and more efficient use of soil, water and other natural resources.North Africa and West Asia: Improved technology transfer to farmers and agro-pastoralists for better food, feed, health practices, and animal breeds using better policies, market access, financial tools, and extension systems.Central Asia: Improvements in mixed agricultural systems to improve productivity, human nutrition and rural employment, through integrated water and land resources management. South Asia:  Increased biomass production to provide food, feed, and reverse land degradation, reducing household vulnerability to price and climate shocks.
  • the CRP has just been approved
  • HOW?The systems approach is working to develop technologies and practices adapted to the specific needs of stakeholder communities. WHAT? Fish are an important part of this work, but so is rice, livestock and vegetables.
  • LED BY CIMMYT, in partnership with IITA and 350 public- and private-sector value-chain actors (including farmer organizations) worldwide.
  • LED BY CIMMYT, in partnership with ICARDA and over 200 public- and private-sector value-chain actors (including farmer organizations) worldwide.
  • CRP has just been approved
  • CRP has just been approved
  • EXPECTED OUTCOMES by 202015 million smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa have sustained food security because yield gaps are reduced while maintaining ecosystem functions in rainfed landscapesEnhance food security and household income for about 20 million rural people in the Eastern Gangetic Plains by improving access to irrigationMinimize the health risks associated with the use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture which can benefit an estimated 21 million vegetable farmers and 175 million consumers currently exposed to contaminated food in South Asia and sub-Saharan AfricaA portfolio of options for water storage which will provide more reliable water supply for crop production from captured flood waters in selected basins in Asia, and increase irrigated areas by 1 million ha, with over USD 1 billion of annual income to small farmersImproved national food security in selected Basins in Africa and Asia through reduced crop losses by some 50% due to alleviation of negative consequences of and direct damages caused by floods and droughtsSmallholder irrigation using motor pumps can more than double maize and horticultural yields and reach up to 112 million USD 1.25 poor people in rural Sub-Saharan Africa
  • Thisslide is on Harvest Plus activities and how all crop development goals are being met. Country delivery programs have started with clear plans for delivery to 40 million people by 2018.
  • CCAFS is not only a CGIAR program – it is actually a joint program between the CGIAR and Future Earth – Future Earth includes such organisations as the World Climate Research Program and DIVERSITAS. In the US alone the budget for global change research in the broad sense (ie not only CCAFS focussed) is about 2.5 billion. CCAFS will work with Future Earth to focus attention on cc and agric in smallholder systems.
  • The Challenge of Food Security and The Evolution of the CGIAR

    1. 1. Frank Rijsberman, CEO CGIAR Consortium, July 19, 2013 The Challenge of Food Security and The Evolution of the CGIAR
    2. 2. • Science and Technology Based Innovation Contributing to Development Outcomes • Results through Effective Partnerships • Sustainable Intensification by and for the Poor • Priority for Africa: 53% of CGIAR investments New CGIAR Priorities
    3. 3. • Strong demand for CGIAR engagement from African partners • Efforts underway: • MoU African Union - CGIAR • African Science Agenda • Regional Productivity Workshops • Mapping & Alignment Tool • Shared leadership among CAADP, CGIAR and development partners • Political momentum through the G8 and G20 in support of this process, will include Technology Innovation Platform • Involves joint planning and priority setting The Dublin Process Enhancing CAADP and CGIAR Alignment and Partnership
    4. 4. 2011 Global Hunger Index • • • Prevalence of Micronutrient Deficiencies • • • Food Insecurity and Undernutrition Remain Persistent 20 countries have alarming or extremely alarming levels of hunger
    5. 5. Our Ability to Grow Food is at risk Our ability to grow food is at risk
    6. 6. A 2 °C increase equals a difference of 440 meters altitude and major shifts of crops to new areas Coffee, Colombia
    7. 7. • 75% from land already in use • By small-scale farmers, majority women • Where the food is consumed • In a climate smart way CIAT,N.Palmer CGIAR mission: Sustainable Intensification by and for the Poor
    8. 8. Development of semi-dwarf, high-yield, and disease-resistant varieties, 1960s-70s Increased fertilizer use Massive investment in irrigation CIMMYT Past CGIAR Accomplishment: Green Revolution: Intensification in Asia
    9. 9. • 60 donors loosely coordinating through CGIAR • 15 independent research centers • 3000 bilateral projects • Unrestricted support down from 50-60% to 20-30% • Overhead costs 24% on average • Very little strategic research • Funding stagnant at about $400M/yr CGIAR in 2008 – Pre-reform
    10. 10. • Donors united in CGIAR Fund • CGIAR funding in 2012: +20% to $870M • average growth last 4 years: 12% • Centers united in CGIAR Consortium • Single Research Agenda (SRF) • Portfolio of 16 CGIAR Research Programs – 80% of CGIAR’s work in 2012 through CRPs • More focus on delivering development outcomes: scaling up technology adoption New CGIAR in 2012
    11. 11. What is the science potential ? • Life Science Revolution – molecular biology • Molecular markers for marker aided selection • Characterizing genetic diversity • Creating new gene pools • IT revolution – crop management, precision agriculture • Satellite information to predict crop growth • Cheap sensors from soil moisture to weather • Mobile phones for extension and market info • Holistic approach – ecological intensification • Landscape approach • Farming systems and livelihood strategies • Innovation Platforms and Value Chain focus
    12. 12. 10-5 human hair Nanopore Technology Will Lower Costs Even More DNA Sequencing Costs Plummeting: Life sciences more dynamic than IT
    13. 13. CGIAR Research Agenda
    14. 14. Research Outputs to Global Development Goals: An Accountability Framework MDGs - SDGs 12-18 years CGIAR SLOs CRP goals Common IDOs + Target statements + Theory of Change CRP-specific IDOs + Target statements + Theory of Change 9-12 years CRP Impact Pathway #1 ToC1; Δ behaviour  direct benefit 3-yr milestones 0-12 years CRP Activities + Outputs (research, capacity building, engagement) 0-12 years CRP Impact Pathway #2 ToC2; Δ behaviour  direct benefit 3-yr milestones CRP Impact Pathway ToC; Enabling Environment 3-yr milestones
    15. 15. A Global Rice Science Partnership ARI/Univ. (135) NARES (302) Natl. Univ., (97) CSO (115) Gov. Org. (92) Intl./Reg. Organ. (35) CGIAR (13) Private Sector (intl., 41) Private Sector (local, 72) Research Partners (435, 48%) Development & Other Partners (467, 52%) 15% 33% 11% 13% 10% 4% 5% 8%
    16. 16. Theme 1 ----- Theme 2, 3,4 -------------------------- Theme 5 Theme 6 Genes, varieties, management technologies, info rmation gateway, models, data, tools, capac ity, etc Products locally adapted and promoted by public, NGO, and private sector Products adopted by farmers, value chain actors, policy makers, other stakeholders Increased nutritious rice production Stable and affordable price of rice Increased resource use efficiency Rural Poverty Nutrition and health Food Security Sustainability Products Intermediate Development Outcomes Impact Development partnerships Science partnerships Timeline Farmers: 1000s 10.000s 100.000s millions GRiSP SRF
    17. 17. WHY? 41% of the world’s land area, home to 2.5 billion people ; widespread poverty, food insecurity, and environmental degradation EXPECTED IMPACTS • In six years, 20–30% increase in agricultural productivity in high-potential target areas; 10–20% in low potential areas • Out-scaling of technologies will have wider impact, improving standard of living for many more people • 87 million people living in dryland systems will have improved and more secure incomes Action sites cover 11 thousand million hectares Reducing the Vulnerability of Farming Communities to Drought and Climate Change Increasing community resilience and income
    18. 18. Integrated Systems for the Humid Tropics WHY? The humid and subhumid tropics – with 2.9 billion people on about 3 billion hectares of land – are critical to global food supplies, central to the maintenance of global biodiversity, and vital to the mitigation of greenhouse gases. EXPECTED IMPACT in 15 years • Increasing staple food yields by 60% • Increasing average farm income by 50% • Lifting 25% of poor households above the poverty line • Reducing the number of malnourished children by 30% • Restoring 40% of degraded farms to sustainable resource management Building on FARA’s SSA CP: Innovation Platforms
    19. 19. WHY? Reach the 400 million people - 50% living on less than USD 1.25/day - left behind by the Green Revolution EXPECTED OUTCOMES The Program will improve the lives of 10 million poor and vulnerable users of aquatic agricultural systems by 2016 - 50 million by 2022 With communities, changing lives Gender Transformative Research
    20. 20. WHY? Policies that end hunger and reduce poverty Governance models and institutions that ensure sustainable, positive change – especially for those who need it most such as women and children Long-term benefits along the agricultural value chain, from farmer to consumer EXPECTED IMPACT by 2025 7–10% reduction poverty due to improvements on market access Diversification of nonfarm income and reduced risks Global crop, livestock, and fish production increased by 10–15 % Reduced child malnutrition by 3–5 % Policies, Institutions and Markets G20 Analytical support
    21. 21. WHY? By 2025, maize will have the greatest production in the developing world, and the greatest demand growth worldwide of any crop. EXPECTED OUTCOMES • Maize productivity growth of 33% by 2030. • Enough maize for 600 million more maize consumers by 2030. • More productive, resilient and sustainable farming systems. EXPECTED REACH 640 million maize-dependent poor living on less than $2 per day, including 120 million malnourished children. MAIZE - Global alliance for improved food security and livelihoods Scaling out drought resistant maize
    22. 22. WHY? Wheat provides 21% of food calories and 20% of protein for more than 4.5 billion in 94 countries, sustains 1.2 billion wheat dependent poor (< USD 2 per day); wheat demand will grow 60% by 2050; rising temperatures will reduce yields. EXPECTED OUTCOMES • Raise yield growth to 1.6% per year, to keep pace with demand. • Boost the genetic yield potential of the wheat plant 50% or more. • Wheat grain for an additional 397 million consumers by 2030. EXPECTED REACH 800 million (84%) wheat dependent poor living on less than $2 per day. WHEAT - Global alliance for improved food security and livelihoods Releasing rust resistant varieties
    23. 23. WHY? Roots, Tubers and Bananas (RTBs) major food security staples, cheap sources of energy and key nutrients; 14-60% of daily calories of many of the world’s poor; great potential for higher yields and increased system productivity; relatively insulated from global price fluctuations; often grown by women, and among the poorest of the poor in marginal areas; significant cross crop synergies with highly heterozygote materials, vegetative propagation and bulky and perishable products EXPECTED OUTCOMES by 2021 • Play an enhanced role within a diversified global food security system • Reduce risks of food shortages and nutritional shortfalls • Improve incomes and livelihoods benefiting 200 million women, men and children Roots, Tubers and Bananas Cassava disease resistance
    24. 24. Grain Legumes WHY? Legumes are the cheapest option to improve the nutrition of poor people who often rely on inexpensive but nutritionally-imbalanced starchy diets EXPECTED IMPACT in 10 years • 300 million people in smallholder farm households benefit from an average 20% increase in yields • USD 4.5 billion saved over the decade as cumulative benefits of increased food production and saved nitrogen fertilizer • Food supplies increased by 7.1 million tons and an additional 415,000 tons of atmospheric nitrogen fixed Improved nutrition – balanced diet
    25. 25. Dryland Cereals WHY? More than a billion of the Earth’s poorest inhabitants live in harsh dryland environments Dryland cereals are often the only possible crops. About 70–80% of the grain produced is consumed by the poor as food, with the remainder used for feed and other non-food uses. Nearly all smallholder farmers use dryland cereals as fodder in integrated crop–livestock systems EXPECTED IMPACT in 10 years: • Sustainable 16% increase in dryland cereal farm-level production on at least 11.8 million hectares in Africa and Asia • Improved technologies made available to 5.8 million smallholder households – 34.0 million total beneficiaries in target regions Drought resistance
    26. 26. More meat, milk and fish, by and for the poor WHY? • Animal-source foods provide critical inputs to the health of women and children • Nearly 1 billion (70%) of the world’s 1.4 billion extremely poor people depend on livestock. • 400 million people in Africa and South Asia depend on fish for most of their animal protein • 156 million landless people keep livestock • Two-thirds of the world’s livestock keepers are rural women EXPECTED OUTCOMES • Dairy and pigs: double productivity and incomes in target value chains • Aquaculture: increase fish consumption by 20% in target value chains • Goats and sheep: increase productivity to double incomes in target value chains Focus on Value Chains
    27. 27. Water, Land and Ecosystems THE CHALLENGE: How to lift millions of farming families out of poverty and improve how land and water resources are managed while maintaining vibrant ecosystems EXPECTED OUTCOMES by 2020 • 15 million smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa have sustained food security because yield gaps are reduced while maintaining ecosystem functions in rainfed landscapes • Enhance food security and household income for about 20 million rural people in the Eastern Gangetic Plains by improving access to irrigation Reducing yield gaps and increasing resilience in rainfed landscapes
    28. 28. WHY? Responds to a call for an urgent, strong and sustained effort focused on forest management and governance, given the crucial role of forests in confronting some of the most important challenges of our time: climate change, poverty, and food security EXPECTED IMPACT in 10 years: • 0.5–1.7 million hectares of forest saved annually from deforestation • 0.16–0.68 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide emissions reduced per year = 29–123 million cars off the road annually • 3 million producers and traders and their families benefit from ecologically and socially sustainable production and management practices • Double income from forest and agroforestry products for target households Forest, Trees and Agroforestry Forests and climate change
    29. 29. Agriculture for Nutrition and Health WHY? • More than 2 billion people worldwide are micronutrient deficient • 180 million children under the age of 5 are stunted • 13 zoonoses are responsible for 2.4 billion human illnesses and 2.2 million deaths per year For these reasons, and many more, progress in improving the nutrition and health of poor farmers and consumers (especially women and young children) is vital and urgent Increased nutrition focus
    30. 30. 2011 Cassava Provitamin A DR Congo, Nigeria 2012 Beans Iron (Zinc) DR Congo, Rwanda 2012 Maize Provitamin A Zambia 2012 Pearl Millet Iron (Zinc) India 2013 Rice Zinc Bangladesh, India 2013 Wheat Zinc India, Pakistan A4NH Micronutrient Crops 2014-2018 Delivery-at-scale: 40 million people from 8 target countries
    31. 31. The largest global coalition of scientists working on developing-country agriculture and climate change Real CGIAR Reform at work CCAFS: The Partnership! CCAFS: Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security
    32. 32. The CCAFS Themes Technologies, practices, partnerships, and policies for: Adaptation to Progressive Climate Change Adaptation through Managing Climate Risk Pro-poor Climate Change Mitigation Integration for Decision Making Linking Knowledge with Action Assembling Data and Tools for Analysis and Planning Refining Frameworks for Policy Analysis Global engagement and synthesis
    33. 33. • The New CGIAR focused on S&T based innovation delivering development outcomes: – Adoption – Scale – Real Partnership • 53% of growing $1 BN budget for Africa • CAADP-CGIAR alignment is key priority • CGIAR ready to invest in partnership with FARA and the SROs: – Building on FARA’s Sub-Sahara Africa Challenge Program – Partnering on Africa Technology Adoption Platform – Aligning priorities and developing Africa Science Agenda • CGIAR ready to respond to Africa’s needs Conclusions
    34. 34. THANK YOU