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AASW6: Support to Agricultural Research for Development of Strategic Crops (SARD-SC) in Africa: the Case of Wheat
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AASW6: Support to Agricultural Research for Development of Strategic Crops (SARD-SC) in Africa: the Case of Wheat

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  • 1. Overview on “Adapting conservation agriculture for rapid adoption by smallholder farmers in North Africa - CSE-2011-025” FARA Science Week Accra July 15-20, 2013 Mohammed El Mourid ICARDA/NARP Regional Coordinator m.elmourid@cgiar.org
  • 2. Conservation agriculture (ZT)  Introduced in North Africa, starting in Morocco during the early 1980s, in Tunisia during the mid-1990s and in Algeria in the mid-2000s.  Areas under CA limited to about 6000 ha in Morocco, 12000 ha in Tunisia, and 5500 ha in Algeria (2011)  Why? Two major constraints: stubble/ residue management and machinery costs
  • 3. Conservation agriculture Stubble grazing, an old and persisting practice in cereal-based farming systems, poses a great challenge to conservation agriculture adoption in North Africa Locally made low-cost NT seed drill should help disseminate CA technology in North
  • 4. • Duration: 5 years (2012-2016) • Partners: ACIAR, RSSA, ICARDA, NARES of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia + Libya and Mauritania • Linkages: – CRP1.1 – IFAD-ICARDA “Integrated Crop-Livestock Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Intensification of Cereal-based Systems in North Africa and Central Asia – ACIAR project “Development of conservation cropping systems in the drylands of Northern Iraq – The SIMLESA Program: CIMMYT-ACIAR Sustainable Intensification of Maize-Legume Systems for Food Security in Eastern and Southern Africa – In Tunisia: AFD (Agence Française de Développement)-funded project to support the development of CA – In Morocco: INRA-ICARDA integrated natural resources management project – In Morocco and Tunisia, CIRAD-led EU-funded project (CA2Africa) – RMSD/ Rencontres Méditerranéennes sur le semi direct
  • 5. Aims & Objectives Aims: Promote adoption of conservation agriculture practices to reduce natural resource degradation, and to increase productivity, profitability and sustainability of the crop/livestock systems in North Africa Objectives: 1. To identify constraints to adoption of CA by smallholder farmers and ways of enhancing adoption, most importantly identifying and testing socioeconomic options 2. To identify and test improvements in seeding machinery, and in weed and biomass management of CA systems 3. To enhance the capacity of NARES staff and other stakeholders to practice and promote CA
  • 6. Research questions The project will address 3 major research questions to bridge the knowledge gap: Question 1: How is CA adoption driven by farmer and institutional behaviour and incentives (e.g. markets, research linkages)? For example: - How is CA adoption influenced by farm size and crop/livestock balance? - How is CA adoption influenced by specific local organisational and institutional support? - How is CA adoption influenced by the degree of availability and cost of appropriate equipment (including seeding equipment) and inputs?
  • 7. Research questions Question 2: To what extent do CA systems have household, livelihood and environmental benefits? For example: - Noting that CA systems change weed and pest profiles, what changes in the management of weeds and pests will reduce biotic pressure? - How will CA systems characterized by crop rotations and varying agronomic practices spread farmers’ production risk? Question 3: What are the biomass management trade-offs of CA? For example - Noting the demand from livestock for crop residues, will CA remain beneficial even with low residue retention? - What are alternative feeds and forages that might be incorporated into CA systems?
  • 8. Platforms: 3 different agro-ecosystems • High potential crop/livestock: Fernana (Jendouba), North West Tunisia: Characterised by subhumid, high rainfall (≥600mm); deep soils with relatively good fertility; the farming system is mainly based on cereals (wheat & barley) and legumes associated with livestock. • Semiarid crop/livestock: Chaouia/Ouardigha, Central Morocco: Characterised by low and variable rainfall (300-350 mm); silty-loamy-calcareous soils with medium fertility; the farming system is based on the integration of crop and livestock (sheep & goats). • Semiarid arid highland crop/livestock: Setif, North Eastern Algeria: Characterised by highly variable rainfall (330- 400 mm); high plateaus, calcarous soils, medium-low fertility, prone to erosion; the farming system is based on cereals with important livestock component (sheep).
  • 9. Algerian Platform Characterization Wilaya of SETIF: Semi-arid Highland crop/livestock agro –ecosystem Agric.Land 361.140 ha  Rainfall: 330 - 400 mm  Altitude: 900-1200 m  Number of farmers: 42 417  Topography: 90% High Plateau.  Mean cereal yield: 1.4 t/ha  Cereal area/ Total agric. area: 78%
  • 10. Moroccan Platform Characterization Région Chaouia-Ouardigha (Province de Khouribga): Semi-arid crop/livestock agro –ecosystem Agric.Land 425.700 ha  Rainfall: 300 mm (C.V. 40%)  Altitude: 600 m  Number of farmers: 169 000  Topography: 63% Plane and 32% hills.  Mean cereal yield: 1 t/ha  Cereal area/ Total agric. area: 67%
  • 11. Tunisian Platform Characterization Delegation of Fernana (Governorate of Jendouba): High Potential crop/livestock agro –ecosystem 155 Km Agric.Land 24900 ha  Rainfall: 820 mm (CV 32.6%)  Number of farmers: 4 200  Topography: 2/3 Hills and mountains.  82% Farm size < 20 ha  Mean cereal yield: 1.2 t/ha  Cereal area/ Total agric. area: 52% 2/3 of Arable soil (= 12800 ha) subject to Water Erosion
  • 12. Conservation agriculture (CA) innovation system framework
  • 13. A schematic representation of the CA innovation platform for North Africa
  • 14. Outcomes 1. Wider adoption of conservation agriculture among small and medium-scale farmers in North Africa 2. Affordable ZT seeding machinery available through local manufacturing 3. Improved productivity, profitability and sustainability of cereal crop-livestock systems in North Africa 4. Improved capacity of NARES, farmers, NGOs, machinery manufacturers, and agricultural institutions to plan and implement natural resources conserving practices in Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco and 3 neighbouring countries (Libya, Mauritania and Sudan)
  • 15. Objectives/expected results 1. To identify constraints to adoption of CA by small holder farmers and ways of enhancing adoption, most importantly identifying and testing socio-economic options 2. To identify and test improvements in seeding machinery, and in weed and biomass management of CA systems : 2.1. Develop and test affordable ZT seeding machinery and crop establishment systems for small to medium- sized farms; 2.2. Fine-tune weed management and crop sequences for sustainable land and water management; 2.3. Optimize crop residue management and test alternative livestock feeding systems under CA 3. To enhance the capacity of NARES staff and other stakeholders to practice and promote CA
  • 16. Algeria
  • 17. Morocco
  • 18. Tunisia Vetch/triticale