Africa r&d for accra july 2013
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  • 1. Agricultural Research, Extension and Education in Africa Stocktaking and Future Challenges Accra (July, 2013)
  • 2. 2003 2  NARIs – working largely independently, funding eroding  T&V prevalent – 100K extensionists around Africa  Ag universities struggling  SROs – ASARECA and CORAF small but growing, SACCAR gone  SPAAR becoming FARA – FARA not yet Pillar lead agency  CGIAR strong but very independent actor  Fragmented external support - projects  Idea of CAADP emerging – but not yet clear what to do
  • 3. 2008 3  NARIs stagnation continues  T&V in decline – nothing to replace it at scale, many interesting boutique approaches  Ag universities struggling - Tsunami of students, continued decline  Fragmented support from partners - projects  CGIAR strong but very independent actor  CAADP process starting in earnest  FAAP developed  country level processes launched  FARA and SROs emerging as strong players
  • 4. FAAP advocates:  Use of agreed design principles for research, extension, and education – reform where needed  Scale up of investment in research, extension and education – particularly at regional/continental level  Alignment with CGIAR and take better advantage of its resources  Harmonization of external support  Human Capital approach – this leads to profitability, capital accumulation at farm level, and transfer and adoption (so not T&V)  integration of University and Research Effort  African institutions to lead this
  • 5. FAAP’s recommendations  Extension - human capital approach – build capacities of farmers to be good critical thinkers, profitable, able to access information and funding and build capital stock, better able to use purchased inputs  Decentralization  Farmer control  Pluralism  Research – alignment with priorities, closer alignment with universities, strategic use of regional resources, coordination of effort  Education – scale-up, reform, responsiveness to sectoral priorities, regional approaches, stronger links to research programs - less fragmentation of support  Build on CAADP IPs
  • 6. Selected Accomplishments of FARA and SRO MDTFs Scale-up of Programs Coherence - Comprehensive Strategic Plans and MTOPs Core Budget – roughly one third to one half of total Administrative Capacity – established Leadership role – established (but only partially realized)
  • 7. 2013 – Foundations for Transformation in Place  Conceptual directions widely agreed  Principles and Paradigms agreed (FAAP – and Pillar 4 Strategy, Science Agenda)  Roles at each level agreed  Research priority studies for all sub-regions  Supra-national Institutions in place to lead, support reform, coordinate investment  On Research – SROs and FARA scaled up and administratively capable  On Extension – AFAAS solidly launched  On Education – TEAM Africa solidly launched  Relationship w/ CGIAR strengthening (Dublin Process)  CAADP processes and IPs at Country and Regional Levels  Harmonization of support at Continental and Regional levels
  • 8. Scale of programs at supra- national levels  Regional Ag Research Institutions  ASARECA (US$93 Million)  CORAF (US$120 Million)  CCARDESA (US$50 Million)  FARA (US$108 Million)  Regional Centers of Excellence in Ag Research  West Africa (US$500 Million)  East Africa (US$120 Million)  Southern Africa (US$90 Million)  AFAAS (US$17 Million)  Tertiary Agricultural Education  TEAM Africa (US$8 Million)  Regional Projects (US$150 Million)  MDTF Investment Fund (? Million)
  • 9. External support at supra- national levels: DPs launched – WB followed 2006 – from a group of DPs - $ 25 M / year from WB - $ 0 M / year 2013 – from a group of DPs - $ 70 M / year from WB - $ 180 M / year
  • 10. While Foundations for Progress are in place ….. ….. Transformative progress not yet achieved
  • 11. Africa - Labor & Land Productivity Low 10 100 1,000 10,000 100 1,000 10,000 100,000 Agricultural output per worker (log scale) Agriculturaloutputperhectareofland(logscale) Australia & New Zealand N America W Europe Japan & S Korea Former USSR W Asia & N Africa Latin America Sub-Saharan Africa ChinaS Asia South Africa E Europe SE Asia 1000 ha/worker 100 ha/worker 10 ha/worker 1 ha/worker0.1 ha/worker Source: Fuglie, 2011
  • 12. African Agriculture – Sources of Growth 0.80 1.00 1.20 1.40 1.60 1.80 2.00 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 Growthindex(base:1971-73=1) Output Inputs TFP
  • 13. Growth has been driven by more land, labor, (and small farms) ….. .…. not by productivity Little change (or decline) in Human Capital Purchased variable inputs Non-land Physical capital
  • 14. Human capital on farms very low 14 Source: World Bank SHIP files, 2012
  • 15. Capital per farm - low and falling
  • 16. FAAP approaches can help  Reformed extension – raise human capital at farm level (which will lead to capital accumulation as well) – also (but not only) technology transfer – greater farmer control, pluralism in delivery ….. And scale up  Reformed research – regional systems (not isolated national systems) – specialization – stronger links to university systems – demand driven elements at national level and below – pluralism in delivery – strategic investment - more effective partnerships w/ CGIAR ….. And scale up  Reformed ag education and training – raise human capital at professional levels - stronger links to research system – regional approaches – responsiveness of curriculum for relevance …… And scale up
  • 17. Important elements of the FAAP agenda not yet done  Scale up, capacity building, and reform at national level  Regional approaches  Greater focus of FARA and SROs on core roles (including supporting evolution at national level)  Further reduction in fragmentation of effort
  • 18. Challenges at national level  Despite wide-spread commitment to FAAP principles and CAADP processes – reform limited so far and programs less effective than they could be  Extension and Education not sufficiently present in IPs  Growth in budgets inadequate - resource constraints matter  Making this happen is difficult
  • 19. Challenges for Continental and Regional Structures  Rapid growth of SROs and FARA  Continued proliferation of projects (diverting attention from core functions)  Developing capacity to bring FAAP to bear at national level  Dependence on (weak) national capacity to carry out regional priorities  Developing sustained and focused investments on strategic priorities (Centers of excellence) – not just spreading it around  Demonstrating and recording and communicating impact  But Africa now in a good position to go forward
  • 20. Implementing FAAP Leadership and technical work from FARA, SROs, AFAAS, TEAM Africa Development of materials to lay out implications of FAAP for program, institutional design FARA / SROs / AFAAS / TEAM Africa to support application of FAAP principles at country level Scale-up of strategic programs at regional and continental level
  • 21. Work streams to support Transformation Agenda  Ensure funding of FARA, SROs, AFAAS, and TEAM Africa where they focus on agreed roles and the Transformation Agenda  Support strategic regional investments in research and education  Scale-up and harmonization of support for REE at county level (on FAAP-consistent programs that are part of CAADP IPs) w/ integration of research and university programs  Support CAADP – CGIAR alignment and collaboration on technology platform  Focus on impact – but do not neglect long-term capacity building  Embed REE in CAADP