The African Context: emissions, projections and mitigation plans
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The African Context: emissions, projections and mitigation plans

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Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in Africa. ...

Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in Africa.
Useful information can be obtained from National communications; national GHG inventories need to be strengthen in terms of temporal coverage and projections.
Many mitigation options exist which can be further developed within agricultural/forestry NAMAs.
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    The African Context: emissions, projections and mitigation plans The African Context: emissions, projections and mitigation plans Presentation Transcript

    • The African Context: emissions, projections and mitigation plans Alessandro Ferrara MAGHG Team Third FAO Regional Workshop on Statistics for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Casablanca, Morocco 2-3 December 2013
    • Overview 1. The African Context: the importance of the agricultural sector 2. National Communications to the UNFCCC 3. Mitigation Actions
    • Agriculture GDP share 60.00 50.00 40.00 30.00 20.00 10.00 0.00 Source: World Bank, 2010
    • Total GHG Emissions, AFRICA Waste 9% Industrial Process 4% Energy 23% Agriculture 64% Source: IPCC, 2007 – IV Assessment Report
    • Total Agricultural emissions by category in Africa Prescribed Burning of Savannahs 13% Field Burning of Ag. Residues 1% Enteric Fermentation 26% Agricultural Soils 40% Manure left on pasture Manure applied to soils Synthetic fertilizers Burning crop residues Drained organic soils Manure Management 14% Rice Cultivation 5% Source: UNFCCC National Communications
    • Categories contribution to agricultural emissions, by country 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Field Burning of Agricultural Residues Prescribed Burning of Savannas Enteric Fermentation Manure Management Rice Cultivation Agricultural Soils Source: UNFCCC National Communications
    • Emissions/removals from LULUCF Source 1.50 1.43 0.50 0.30 0.00 -0.91 - 0.81 Sink Billions tonnes of CO2 eq 1.00 -0.50 -1.00 43 countries -1.50 39 countries 23 countries 22 countries Changes in Forest and Other Woody Biomass Stocks Forest and Grassland Conversion Abandonment of Managed Lands CO2 Emissions and Removals from Soil Source: UNFCCC National Communications
    • National Communications to the UNFCCC COUNTRIES INITIAL NATIONAL COMMUNICATION SECOND NATIONAL COMMUNICATION Published GHGI reported year Published GHGI reported year Algeria Cameroon Central African Republic Côte d'Ivoire 2001 2005 2003 2001 1994 1994 1994 1994 2010 2000 2010 2000 Democratic Republic of the Congo Egypt Ethiopia Gabon Ghana Kenya Madagascar Mali Mauritania Morocco Namibia Nigeria Rwanda Senegal South Africa Sudan 2000 1999 2001 2004 2001 2002 2004 2000 2002 2001 2002 2003 2005 1997 2003 2003 1994 1990 1990 1994 1990 1994 1994 1995 1995 1994 1994 1994 2002 1994 1990 to 1994 1995 2009 2010 1999 to 2003 2000 --- -2011 2011 2000 1990 to 2000 -- 2010 2012 2008 2010 2011 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 -- 2012 2010 2011 2005 2000 2000 -- Source: UNFCCC National Communications
    • GHG Projections from the National Communications COUNTRY CATEGORY UNIT Algeria Overall Gg CO2eq South Africa Overall Gg CO2eq Mauritania Overall Gg CO2eq Morocco Agriculture Morocco BASELINE 2017 2020 100,980 2025 2030 2034 % 63% 164,160 111% 450,000 950,000 7,980 16,710 Gg CO2eq 28 54 93% Forest Gg CO2eq 3.5 2.1 -40% Cote d Ivoire Forest Gg CO2eq Nigeria Deforestation Gg CO2eq Senegal Egypt LULUCF All CH4 emission Livestock Rice cultivation Agricultural soils Fishery & Livestock Gg CO2eq Gg CO2eq Gg CO2eq Gg CO2eq Gg CO2eq Gg CO2eq Madagascar Cameroon 1,104 1,760 34,833 -10166 56,833 -7700 x 337 24 55 35 109% 397 28 75 48 Source: UNFCCC National Communications 59% 63% -24% 35% 18% 17% 36% 37%
    • Mitigation Actions
    • Mitigation options in Africa Agriculture LULUCF Agroforestry Practices Sustainable native forest management and decreased soil degradation Improved post-harvest management to reduce burning of farming wastes Maintenance of non-timber forest product areas to serve as buffers to mitigate desertification Adequate use of crop sequences and appropriate use of fertilizers Sustainable management of national parks and wetlands Improved varieties and biotechnology Sustainable land use planning Improved collection and storage of manure Promotion of small afforestation/reforestation activities at the community level Improved technologies to reduce emissions from cattle Increased areas of certified forest Improvement in nutrition and genetics of grazing livestock Reduction of forest fires Animal breeding programs and usage of adapted species REDD+ Initiatives Effective utilisation of animal waste (in production of manure and biogas) Integrated Water Resource Management and Planning Promotion of organic farming and minimisation of chemical fertiliser use Promotion of agroforestry activities Promotion of growing upland rice as opposed to paddy rice Sustainable biomass energy Source: UNFCCC National Communications
    • Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) Country Agriculture Forestry Cameroon ___________ REDD+ and CDM projects Central African Republic ___________ Reforestation, Forest Management Sustainable Farming Sustainable management of forests Cote d’Ivoire Ethiopia ___________ Reforestation, national parks, wetlands Gabon ___________ Afforestation, Agroforestry Ghana ___________ Sustainable forestry, REDD+ Madagascar ___________ Large-scale reforestation, REDD+ Mali ___________ Reforestation, Afforestation Mauritania ___________ Reforestation Morocco Farm land yield improvement Swaziland Overall Agriculture system improvements Reforestation, Forest Fire Prevention ___________ Source: UNFCCC SBI, Bonn, June 2013 FCCC/SBI/2013/INF.12/rev.2
    • Concrete examples of NAMAs in Africa Ethiopia: Mitigation Actions Reduction By 2030 (in Mt of CO2eq) Changed herd mix for more efficient feed conversion 18 Improved feed, breeds, and management 17 Reduced draught animals population 4 Improved range management 40 Increased yields through improved seeds, fertilizers, and agronomic practices Mitigation Actions Reduction By 2030 (in Mt of CO2eq) Agroforestry 4.2 Conservation tillage 1.1 Fire reduction in crop and grasslands 1.2 3 Improved agronomic management of soils Kenya: 27 Morocco: Mitigation Actions Cropland Management Reduction per year (in Mt of CO2eq) 2.0 Source: National Planning for GHG Mitigation in Agriculture: A Guidance Document (FAO MICCA Series N 7 , 2013)
    • Conclusions • Agriculture is the dominant economic activity in Africa. • Useful information can be obtained from National communications; national GHG inventories need to be strengthen in terms of temporal coverage and projections. • Many mitigation options exist which can be further developed within agricultural/forestry NAMAs.
    • Thank you! Contact: MAGHG@fao.org MAGHG website: www.fao.org/climatechange/micca/ghg FAOSTAT website: http://faostat.fao.org Financed by: