T9: Case study 1: Assessment of approaches for improving soil fertility - conservation agriculture in Sinnar State, Sudan.
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T9: Case study 1: Assessment of approaches for improving soil fertility - conservation agriculture in Sinnar State, Sudan.

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Case study 1: Assessment of approaches for improving soil fertility - conservation agriculture in Sinnar State, Sudan, ICARDA, Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, ...

Case study 1: Assessment of approaches for improving soil fertility - conservation agriculture in Sinnar State, Sudan, ICARDA, Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

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  • Main constraints to poor crop production <br /> low and erratic rainfall <br /> culminating into severe drought in some years <br /> Spanning 103 years <br /> With in-season dry periods (15-21 days) <br /> lack of soil and water conservation practices <br /> prevalence of traditional agricultural production <br /> minimum inputs with consequent reduction in soil fertility <br /> crop losses to pests and diseases, increased infestation of parasitic and noxious weeds <br /> lack of extension services (and technological gap) <br />
  • Dominant tillage practice <br /> used for primary tillage, but designed for secondary tillage (pulverization) <br /> depth of cut is very shallow (3 – 5 cm) and thus not appropriate for water conservation. <br /> 1st - dry disking is applied after few showers of rains and when (100 – 150 mm) is received and enough to seal the cracks; for incorporation of the left over from previous season crop residues and elimination of newly germinating weeds. <br /> 2nd - green disking for seed broadcasting and also control of weeds when applied after 1 – 2 weeks from first operation, depending on the rainfall. <br /> speedy and at low cost, but <br /> tillage efficiency in weed control and soil tilling is extremely poor <br /> variable plant establishment <br /> recurrent use has caused: <br /> clay pan and hard compacted soil surface hindering water infiltration <br /> late planting - missing more than 30 – 40 % of annual rainfall <br />

T9: Case study 1: Assessment of approaches for improving soil fertility - conservation agriculture in Sinnar State, Sudan. Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ICARDA 2013 T9: Building resilience in agricultural systems: soil conservation and fertility management Case study 1: Assessment of approaches for improving soil fertility conservation agriculture in Sinnar State, Sudan. December 17th, 2013
  • 2. Supporting the Small-Scale Traditional Rainfed Producers in Sinnar State (SUSTAIN) Project Rationale: Responding to ↑ levels of land degradation • Introduction of environmentally friendly and productivity enhancing technical packages Location: • 3 of 7 localities in Sinnar State • Dinder, Abu Hajar, & Dali/Mazmoum Project Beneficiaries: • 100 villages over 3 localities Target: • Smallholders (9 fed & ≤5 SR) • Settled pastoralists • Destitute women •
  • 3. Thirty years ago..
  • 4. 2012…
  • 5. Constraints •low and erratic rainfall • severe drought (1-3 years, 15-21 days in-season) •lack of soil and water conservation practices •minimum inputs - ↓ soil fertility
  • 6. Wide level disc (WLD) • 1° tillage, designed for 2° tillage (pulverization) • shallow (3 – 5 cm), thus ↓ water conservation. • 1st - dry disking (after 100 – 150 mm) - seal cracks; incorporate trash, weeds. • 2nd - green disking – seeding, 1 – 2 weeks later dependent on rainfall. Recurrent use has caused: • clay pan and compacted soil surface - ↓ water infiltration • late planting - missing more than 30 – 40 % of annual rainfall
  • 7. Poor water infiltration – leading to runoff/erosion Compaction Crusting
  • 8. Promotion of minimum tillage – prior to 1 st rain - water harvesting Under minimum tillage: – 133% increase in sorghum grain yield – 355mm rainfall average
  • 9. Assumed that creating furrows would collapse cracks and improve water retention into the surface layer.
  • 10. Following chisel ploughing Following first rainfall
  • 11. Crusting and Poor water Infiltration
  • 12. Thank you