Synergies with Multilateral Environmental Conventions towards Smart Policy Making tools


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Synergies with Multilateral Environmental Conventions towards Smart Policy Making tools, By Nermin Wafa, Head of Programs & Activities Division - The Technical Secretariat of CAMRE League of Arab States, , Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

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  • Integration of biodiversity-related Conventions did not take adequately place in the earlier generations of NBSAPs. The current revision and updating of NBSAPs provides a possibility to improve this situation.
    The integration and synergies will have direct benefits to both the CBD and other biodiversity-related Conventions.
    - First, CBD’s large, near-universal membership of Parties could allow an increased visibility, awareness, and support of other biodiversity-related conventions at the political level.
    - On the other hand, the specific interest groups that the other biodiversity-related Conventions caters to, will benefit CBD by bringing more public attention to biodiversity issues in general. The specific sectoral focus of these Conventions could also provide important biodiversity indicators.
  • Synergies with Multilateral Environmental Conventions towards Smart Policy Making tools

    1. 1. Synergies with Multilateral Environmental Conventions towards Smart Policy Making tools Near East and North Africa Land and Water days 15-18/12/2013 Nermin Wafa Head of Programs & Activities Division The Technical Secretariat of CAMRE League of Arab States Division of Programs & Activities
    2. 2. Why need synergies ? • • • • • • • We need to produce more food on less land with les water and less energy , In amore challenging environment. A growing more affluent world population will demand an increase in global food production of up to 70% by 2050 , By 2050, an estimated 6.3 billion people will inhabit the world’s towns and cities -- an increase of 3.5 billion from 2010. The area directly transformed in the next four decades will be roughly the size of South Africa,,. Urban growth will have significant impacts on biodiversity, natural habitats and many ecosystem services that society relies on , Biodiversity and ecosystems services are critical natural capital Maintaining functioning urban ecosystems can significantly enhance human health and well being , developing urban areas that improve air quality , water purification , climate regualation and active living. Ecosystems services must be integrated in urban policy and planning. Successful Management of biodiversity and ecosystems services must be based on multi scale , multisectoral , and multi stakeholders involvement. Division of Programs & Activities
    3. 3. Multilateral Environmental Conventions, Mainstreaming into National Policies Division of Programs & Activities T ou ri s m Farmers ers ists d n t ra atio v & ser rs n Co nte Hu Bird ers Awareness & support at political level Linkage of Science into Policy G e n t i c d ie v r s iy t
    4. 4. Biodiversity & Aichi Targets 2011- 2020 • • • • • In 2010, at the 10th Conference of the Parties to the CBD held in Nagoya, Japan . T supporting implementation of the new Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020. The Strategic Plan consists of 20 new biodiversity targets for 2020, termed the ‘Aichi Biodiversity Targets’. Target 2: By 2020, at the latest, biodiversity values have been integrated into national and local development and poverty reduction strategies and planning processes and are being incorporated into national accounting, and reporting systems Target 4: By 2020, at the latest, Governments, business and stakeholders at all levels have taken steps to achieve or have implemented plans for sustainable production and consumption and have kept the impacts of use of natural resources well within safe ecological limits Target 5: By 2020, the rate of loss of all natural habitats, including forests, is at least halved and where feasible brought close to zero, and degradation and fragmentation is significantly reduced. . Division of Programs & Activities
    5. 5. • • • Target 13: By 2020, the genetic diversity of cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and of wild relatives, including other socio-economically as well as culturally valuable species, is maintained, and implemented for minimizing genetic erosion and safeguarding their genetic diversity. Target 14: By 2020, ecosystems that provide essential services, including services related to water, and contribute to health, livelihoods and well-being, are restored and safeguarded, taking into account the needs of women, indigenous and local communities, and the poor and vulnerable. Target 20: By 2020, at the latest, the mobilization of financial resources for effectively implementing the Strategic Plan 2011-2020 from all sources and in accordance with the consolidated and agreed process in the Strategy for Resource Mobilization should increase substantially from the current levels. This target will be subject to changes contingent to resources needs assessments to be developed and reported by Parties. Division of Programs & Activities
    6. 6. Aichi Targets 2020 & Invasive Alien Species • • • • Target 9: By 2020, invasive alien species and pathways are identified and prioritized, priority species are controlled or eradicated, and measures are in place to manage pathways to prevent their introduction and establishment . Definition of invasive species According to CBD: "Alien invasive species" means an alien species which becomes established in natural or semi-natural ecosystems or habitat, is an agent of change, and threatens native biological diversity The degradation of natural habitats, ecosystems and agricultural lands (e.g. loss of cover and soil, pollution of land and waterways) made it easier for alien species to establish and become invasive. In addition, the direct economic costs of alien invasive species run into many billions of dollars annually. Ballast water is now regarded as the most important vector for trans-oceanic and inter-oceanic movements of shallow-water coastal organisms. Division of Programs & Activities
    7. 7. Major threats of Invasive alien species Division of Programs & Activities
    8. 8. : Division of Programs & Activities
    9. 9. •Number of species Comparing number in the countries, Morocco occupied the first position with 102 species followed by Egypt (82 species) and Algeria (81 species). The lowest number of species was recorded in Palestine (5 species) and Qatar (8 species The list of 100 of the world worst invasive alien species Division of Programs & Activities
    10. 10. • • • Case studies of some invasive species from some Arab countries Water hyacinth (Eichlorina crassipes) Water hyacinth is a free-floating perennial plant that can grow to a height of 3 feet. The dark green leave blades are circular to elliptical in shape attached to a spongy, inflated petiole.. Impact of Water hyacinth The plant increased evapotranspiration and thus an increase in the rate of water loss. In Egypt, total amount of water loss by evapotranspiration : 3.5 billion m3 per year. This amount is sufficient to irrigate about 432 km2 every year. In Sudan, the annual water loss from evapotranspiration more 4 billion m3 per year. in delta-In Sudan, ,, Palestine, Jordan, Ira Syria and Lebanon Division of Programs & Activities
    11. 11. Case studies of some invasive species from some Arab countries • Date Palm: one of the oldest fruit trees in the Arabian Peninsula , palm weevil Attacking the palm under the age of twenty (20) years, Division of Programs & Activities
    12. 12. The most high-risk invasive species in Arab countries • Red palm weevil, Prosopis trees, water hyacinth, red swamp crayfish, Lessepsian migration of fish, carp, Acacia trees, goldfish, whiteflies and aphids on tomatoes, Conocarpus trees, Indian Myna bird. Division of Programs & Activities
    13. 13. Regional Cooperation • • • • • • • • • • • The first regional Workshop on Invasive alien species , February 2013 identified Operational elements of the National Invasive alien Species Strategy It is suggested that the National Strategy should comprise the Strategy’s vision of a nation in which the negative impacts of Invasive alien Species on the economy, environment, and society are minimised; 1. Prevention; 2. Early Detection and Rapid Response; 3. Eradication; and control 4. Restoration and Monitoring. Four “Cross-Cutting Elements” cover enabling actions that must be undertaken if the management elements are to successfully address the Strategy’s vision. 5. Legal, Policy and Institutional Frameworks; 6. Capacity Building and Education; 7. Information Management and Research; and 8. Public Awareness and Engagement. Division of Programs & Activities
    14. 14. The (ABS) ,Traditional Knowledge, • • • • Target 16: By 2015, the Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization is in force and operational, consistent with national legislation. Target 18: By 2020, the traditional knowledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities relevant for sustainable use of biodiversity, , are respected,, and fully integrated at all relevant levels. The Parties to CBD Convention recognizes the crucial importance of traditional knowledge to the objectives of the CBD ,.. Generate benefits for poverty alleviation & nature conservation. 25 parties to the Convention have deposited their instruments of ratification or accession, including 2 Arab States Division of Programs & Activities
    15. 15. • • • Division of Programs & Activities Farmers rights Farmers rights are essential for maintain crop genetic diversity , which is the basis of all food & agriculture production in the world , food Security . Article 9 of the Plant treaty ( ITPGRFA is devoted to farmers ‘Rights) . It recognizes the enormous contributions farmers have made and will continue to make for the maintenance of crop genetic resources , that national governments are responsible for the realization of farmers rights , including the protection of traditional knowledge related to plant genetic resources for food and agriculture , equitable benefit sharing , right to participate in relevant derision making at national level. In addition , the right of farmers to save , use ,exchange and sell farm saved seed/ propagating material are addressed. The fifth Governing Council of the ITPGRFA (Muscat :2428/9/2013), Consider develop action plans for the implementation of article 9, , providing financial &technical support for the implementation of farmers ‘s rights in developing countries, ( Las , UNEP, AOAD is working on capacity building )
    16. 16. What are wetlands? • Inland wetlands: • Coastal wetlands aquifers, chott, oasis, rivers, streams, wadis : sabkhas salt pans, mangroves, tidal flats, sea grass beds, coral reefs Division of Programs & Activities
    17. 17. What are the values of wetlands? Wetlands provide a wide range of ecosystem services that contribute to human well-being: •A source of water, e.g. for household use, agriculture, industry, etc; •Areas for food production, e.g. coastal and pond fisheries, rice cultivation; •Climate change mitigation, by acting as a store of carbon; •Land formation •Coastal protection, floods Protection , storms and regulate sediment transport , thereby contribute to land formation & coastal zone stability , reducing the impacts from floods and pollution. •Cultural values, e.g. oasis, sebkhas, •Economic values , The total economic value of 63 million hectares of wetland around the world is estimated at $3.4 billion per year. © Ms. Ikram Qasim © Ms. M. Kodami © Dr. M. Fouda Division of Programs & Activities © Ms. Ikram Qasim
    18. 18. 2. Lakes Lake Bardaweel, Egypt It is important bird sites due to their habitat and their geographical position along the migration routes. Division of Programs & Activities 1. Lagoons Ghar El Melh, Tunisia An ancient sea bay now almost totally laden with sediments. Migratory fish use the site for feeding, especially during the winter period before reaching the sea. Fishing is practiced by the local population.
    19. 19. The Ramsar Convention in the Arab Region Designation and Restoration of Wetlands of International Importance: Protected area Of the 118 Ramsar Sites in the Arab region, 47 are in Algeria, 24 in Morocco and 20 in Tunisia. -Development of management plans •Restoration of degraded wetlands: •CBD Decisions reaffirm the role of the Ramsar Convention as lead partner : to provide policy-relevant messages on maintaining the ability of biodiversity to continue to support the water cycle Designation and Restoration of Wetlands of International Importance Wetland Education and Public Awareness: education center, e.g. in Ras Al Khor (UAE). Coral Reef Center in Sharm El Sheik. Promoting wise use of the basins of the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Uncoordinated construction of water control is having severe impacts on wetlands in the lowers parts of the basin, e.g. Mesopotamian Marsh, where water levels have dropped dramatically and the water itself has become more saline; impacts in the adjacent parts of the Persian Gulf and Kuwait where the fisheries have declined are also felt © Dr. M. Fouda © D. Landenbergue Division of Programs & Activities © D. Landenbergue
    20. 20. Regional strategy for Wetlands • Cairo Statement, June 2009: ‘was formally approved by the Council of Arab Ministers Responsible for the Environment at their meeting in Marsa Alam, Egypt. • Muscat Action Plan , June 2010: ‘Workshop on Wetlands and the Ramsar Convention in the Arabian Peninsula, Conducting a study on the economic value of wetlands in Arab region to raise awareness of their economic, social and environmental values (one of the recommended activity of the Muscat Action Plan). • To encourage all members of the League of Arab States to accede to the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands; • The declared Statement by CAMRE in 2010 on the Importance of the adoption of Regional Study on the Economic Valuation of Wetlands. • Declaration of more Ramsar Sites of wetland importance in Egypt AND UAE.. Division of Programs & Activities © Dr. M. Fouda
    21. 21. • • • • • • • Other supporting Initiatives TEEB is about making nature values visible into decision making. Soil land issues rarely get attention of policy makers : the Cairo Declaration on Biodiversity and Innovative financial Mechanisms & Aichi Targets 2010. has made it clear to incorporate these values into national action plans, The estimate economic benefits of nature is 85billion$ excluding health benefits, In castkill Mountain in New York people were paid to improve farm management techniques to prevent runn off nutrient running into Hudson river and other water courses, the alternative man made filtrations system would have cost 6-8 bn$ , doubled water bills the natural solutions costs 1-5 bn $) . The available Arable land per in earth habitants will be reduced by 2050 to half , 10 cm of fertile soil are created in 2000 yrs , soil we deplete in few yrs, erosion costs 70 dollars for each yr per annum, Cities are grown rapidly ,, , investors have transformed million of hectares of land, they destroy forests for land for survival. value of forests industry is growing , , the emission payment agreement recently signed by Costa Rica and forest carbon partnership facility for 65 m$ for paying countries to conserve forests , ( TEEB4 me statistics2013) Many Arab Countries have effectively mainstreamed Biodiversity values into National Action Plans Division of Programs & Activities
    22. 22. Regional Strategy for UNCCD • The 68 session of the UN , based on the outcomes of 11th COP of UNCCD ( Namibia :Sept 2013), , has called for immediate action to combat desertification, Draught on national & regional Level in arid , semi arid Areas , to achieve SLM , and the outcomes of 2nd Scientific Conference ( don’t leave our Future for draught , Water Scarcity & Desertification) , a world free of draught & desertification , by 2030. • Regional joint Program of Action for Capacity Building for North Africa & West Asia Region was emphasized by CAMRE 24th session ( IRAQ 2012). capacity building on the Economics of Land Degradation, FP7( linking science with Local knowledge , ( PRAIS Program ), . • calling on , financial & technical assistance of UNCCD , ACSAD, UNEP , GIZ, GM to implement the regional Program of Capacity Building in alignment with tenth Strategic Plan. Division of Programs & Activities
    23. 23. Thank you Simply no life without soil , it feeds us . Division of Programs & Activities