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Session 2: Evaluation of the benefit and feasibility of a vaccination to live strategy in FMD free countries
 

Session 2: Evaluation of the benefit and feasibility of a vaccination to live strategy in FMD free countries

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Within the frame of the Swiss Animal Health Strategy 2010+ (www.bvet.admin.ch), the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office initiated a project in order to evaluate a vaccination-to-live strategy against Foot ...

Within the frame of the Swiss Animal Health Strategy 2010+ (www.bvet.admin.ch), the Swiss Federal Veterinary Office initiated a project in order to evaluate a vaccination-to-live strategy against Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD). Within the scope of this project, the benefit of emergency vaccination within 3 km (V3) and 10 km (V10) around an infected premises (IP) was evaluated and the technical feasibility of such an emergency vaccination was analyzed regarding the corresponding EU FMD directive (COUNCIL DIRECTIVE 2003/85/EC).

We used the Davis Animal Disease Simulation (DADS) model (Carpenter et al., 2011; Durr et al., 2012) in order to compare the conventional disease control strategy with and without an additional emergency vaccination strategy (V3 and V10, respectively). In a second step, we analyzed the implementation of a vaccination-to-live strategy with regard to its feasibility and economical consequences.

It was shown that emergency vaccination in a low-livestock density country like Switzerland would be only beneficial in a situation where the epidemic is already widely distributed (V10 strategy). On the other hand, our feasibility study with respect to the vaccination-to-live strategy revealed that the animal movement restrictions within the vaccination zone would lead to a significant increase in welfare culling especially in the pig production sector due to the long duration of the restrictions.

The expected increase in welfare culling due to the long duration of animal movement restrictions within the vaccination zone actually impedes the implementation of a vaccination-to-live strategy for ethical and economic reasons. Therefore, the implementation of animal movement restrictions during the different phases of a vaccination-to-live process has to be re-examined and adjusted accordingly.

(c) D. C. Hadorn / EuFMD (eufmd@fao.org)

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    Session 2: Evaluation of the benefit and feasibility of a vaccination to live strategy in FMD free countries Session 2: Evaluation of the benefit and feasibility of a vaccination to live strategy in FMD free countries Presentation Transcript

    • Federal Department of Economic Affairs FDEA Federal veterinary office FVO Evaluation of the benefit and feasibility of a vaccination-to-live strategy in FMD free countries D.C. Hadorn1, S. Dürr2, B. Thür3, L. Perler1, T. Jemmi11 Swiss Federal Veterinary Office, 2 Veterinary Public Health Institute, 3 Institute of Virology and Immunoprophylaxis EuFMD Open Session 2012
    • Evaluation of FMD emergencyvaccination in Switzerland Basic questions to be answered to adjust contingency planning: a) Target species for emergency vaccination (cattle – small ruminants – pigs) b) Dimension of vaccination zone (3 km = V3 or 10 km = V10) c) Time frame for emergency vaccination (immediately after detection of first case or later) d) Feasibility of a „vaccination-to-live“ strategy (Council Directive 2003/85/EC) …in order to achieve a benefit compared to conventional disease control only 2 Evaluation of benefit and feasibility of vaccination-to-live strategy | EuFMD Open Session Oct 2012 D. Hadorn
    • Materials and Methods• Simulation of FMD spread (serotype O „middle east“) within and between herds (local area spread, direct and indirect contacts) with Davis Animal Disease Simulation model1 General input parameters Value1 Initial diagnosis delay (diagnosis delay for index case) 10 days Second diagnosis delay (diagnosis delay for secondary cases) 4 days Inputs for emergency vaccination Value1 Application delay for 3 km vaccination zone 3 days Application delay for 10 km vaccination zone 6 days Protection delay for vaccination 14 days Vaccine efficacy on herd level 0.9 1Dürr et al. Evaluation of the benefit of emergency vaccination in a foot-and-mouth disease free country with low livestock density. Submitted to PVM. 3 Evaluation of benefit and feasibility of vaccination-to-live strategy | EuFMD Open Session Oct 2012 D. Hadorn
    • Resultsa) Target species for emergency vaccination Cattle Small ruminants Pigsb) Dimension of vaccination zone andc) Time frame for emergency vaccination • No benefit for emergency vaccination under Swiss situation* if vaccination campaign is started right after detection of first case (neither 3 km nor 10 km vaccination radius) * Low animal density (<167 ruminants and pigs / km2) • If the epidemic becomes extensive, vaccination with radius of 10 km around IP may be beneficial in terms of reducing the number of herds infected and the epidemic duration 4 Evaluation of benefit and feasibility of vaccination-to-live strategy | EuFMD Open Session Oct 2012 D. Hadorn
    • d) Feasibility of vaccination-to-live strategy Goal of vaccination-to-live strategy: 5Evaluation of benefit and feasibility of vaccination-to-live strategy | EuFMD Open Session Oct 2012D. Hadorn
    • Restriction Measures in terms of animal movement Minimum durationzoneProtection No animal movement between holdings within, in At least 15 days plus time for killing && At least 15 days plus time for killingZone and out of the protection zone disposal & preliminary cleansing and disinfection At least 30 daysSurveillance No animal movement out of surveillance zone; At least 30 daysZone animal movement between holdings permitted after clinical inspectionVaccination zone At least 6 months in total Phase 1 No animal movement between holdings within, in plus 30 days Time for vaccination plus 30 days and out of vaccination zone Phase 2 No animal movement between holdings within, in Time for clinical and serological survey and out of vaccination zone plus classification of herds Phase 3 No animal movement out of vaccination zone; 6 months minus time for phase 1 and animal movement between holdings is subject to phase 2 authorization; unvaccinated animals with restrictions (testing) 6 Evaluation of benefit and feasibility of vaccination-to-live strategy | EuFMD Open Session Oct 2012 D. Hadorn
    • d) Feasibility of vaccination-to-live strategy• Animal movement restriction within vaccination zone (phase 1 and 2) is as severe as in protection zone but more than twice as long Significant increase in welfare culling, mainly in pig production sector, expected 7 Evaluation of benefit and feasibility of vaccination-to-live strategy | EuFMD Open Session Oct 2012 D. Hadorn
    • Discussion Under Swiss conditions and in terms of the actual legal basis, the feasibility of a vaccination-to-live strategy is not given.Points to be discussed:• Adaptation of restriction measures if vaccination zone is established outside protection/surveillance zone (different risk)• Necessary duration of „stand-still“ within vaccination zone (only during vaccine application phase?)• Adaptation of restriction measures in holdings with and without vaccinated animals (target species of vaccination program?) 8 Evaluation of benefit and feasibility of vaccination-to-live strategy | EuFMD Open Session Oct 2012 D. Hadorn
    • Thank you 9Evaluation of benefit and feasibility of vaccination-to-live strategy | EuFMD Open Session Oct 2012D. Hadorn