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Session 1: Global Surveillance: European neighborhood and global situation
 

Session 1: Global Surveillance: European neighborhood and global situation

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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly contagious, infects a wide variety of domestic and wildlife hosts and occurs as seven virus serotypeswith multiple subtypes known as topotypes. Its presence ...

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly contagious, infects a wide variety of domestic and wildlife hosts and occurs as seven virus serotypeswith multiple subtypes known as topotypes. Its presence reduces production and restricts trade opportunities for endemic countries and poses a constant threat to those countries free of the disease. FMD viruses are not randomly dispersed throughout the world but are associated with particular ecological niches. The distribution is affected by recurring upsurges in the prevalence of particular strains that may be associated with viral evolution, waning population immunity and/or opportunities presented by the increasing and more frequent movements of animals and their products. This can give rise to pandemic spread affecting new regions. Current global surveillance for FMD aims to identify the current hazards and to predict heightened risk so
that appropriate diagnostics and vaccines can be made available for their detection and
control.

The World Reference Laboratory for FMD (WRLFMD®) at The Pirbright Institute, UK, is the centre of an OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratory Network that regularly receives samples for FMD diagnosis from many parts of the world. FMD virus isolates are identified by serotyping, vaccine matching with a range of current FMD vaccine strains and by nucleotide sequencing to provide precise characterisation of new isolates and tracing of their origin by comparison with viruses held in the extensive WRLFMD®and other collections. This analysis assists the monitoring of the ‘real time’ emergence and spread of FMD virus globally. Studies on FMD virus occurrence over many years have provided the information to suggest the clustering or grouping of FMD viruses into 7 virus pools, with 3 pools covering Europe, the Middle-East and Asia, 3 pools covering Africa and 1 pool covering the Americas.
This concept has provided the platform to enable a targeted approach to progressive FMD control at the national, regional and global level. This presentation will focus on the global FMD surveillance provided by the OIE/FAO network of FMD reference laboratories and highlight the regional differences in virus populations and current needs for diagnosis and control.

(c) Jef Hammond / EuFMD (eufmd@fao.org)

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    Session 1: Global Surveillance: European neighborhood and global situation Session 1: Global Surveillance: European neighborhood and global situation Presentation Transcript

    • Previously The Institute for Animal HealthAVRINOW
    • FMD : Global Surveillance andEuropean Neighbourhood Situation EuFMD October 2012 The World Reference Laboratory for FMD Dr Jef M. Hammond WRLFMD® Donald King, Nick Knowles, Valerie Mioulet and Yanmin Li The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Pirbright, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UNITED KINGDOM
    • FMD Reference Laboratories at Pirbright• European Community Reference Laboratories for FMD – Support and diagnosis for EU Member States• OIE Reference Laboratory for FMD – support of safeguarding and promoting international trade• World Reference Laboratory for FMD designated by FAO – WRLFMD – Global surveillance and threat recognition – Reference Laboratory Network of OIE/FAO FMD Labs
    • World Reference Laboratory for FMD- WRLFMD ® FAO, OIE, EU and National Responsibilities• 24/7 Diagnostic Service• Global surveillance• Strain characterisation• Vaccine matching (Bulgaria, South Korea, Egypt)• Extensive library of isolates• Test improvement & Development, validation,• Quality assurance• Reagent supply• Training• Advice & Reports
    • Global SurveillanceEndemicIntermediate, sporadicFree with vaccinationCountries with multiples zones:FMD-free, free with vaccination or not freeFree. Virus present in game parksFree
    • Visualization of Regional Virus Pools as an Aid to Global ControlDivides the Globe into 7 pools each with• Multiple serotypes but topotypes mainly confined to that pool• Each pool may need tailored vaccines and strategies
    • The conjectured status of FMD showing approximate distribution of regional virus pools. Pool 3 O, A, Asia 1 Pool 1 O, A, Asia 1 Pool 2 O, A, Asia 1
    • The conjectured status of FMD showing approximate distribution of regional virus pools. Pool 5 O, A, SAT 1, 2 Pool 4 A, O, SAT 1, 2, 3 Pool 6 SAT 1, 2, 3
    • The conjectured status of FMD showing approximate distribution of regional virus pools.Pool 7O, A
    • Enhanced Surveillance: OIE/FAO Lab network• WRLFMD: Pirbright, UK• RRLSEA: Pakchong, Thailand• LVRI: Lanzhou, China• FGI ARRIAH: Vladimir, Russia• PDFMD: Mukteswar, India• RRLSSA: Gabarone, Botswana• FMD-Laboratory: Embakasi, Kenya• PANAFTOSA: Rio de Janeiro, Brazil• LFADLCT: Argentina Approximately ~2400• ARC-OVI: Onderstepoort, RSA samples tested during 2011• PIADC: Plum Island, USA OIE/FAO FMD Reference Laboratory Network• CODA-CERVA-VAR: Ukkel, Belgium Annual Report 2011 Editor: Dr Jef Hammond, IAH, Pirbright, UK.
    • SAT 2 Serotyping results for 2011 1% SAT 3 SAT 1 2% 1% 0% ASIA 1 12% A 24% O 60%The network labs received >2,400 samples in 2011 from 34 countries60% were serotype OIncreased Asia 1 activity…………………………..Serotype C was not detected
    • WRLFMD Serotyping results for 2012- upto 3rd Quarter ® Asia 1 16% O SAT2 40% 19% SAT1 A 2% 23%From > 650 samples in 2012 from 25 countries Increased Asia 1 activity40% were serotype O Increased SAT 2 activity Still No Serotype C (not reported since 2004)
    • 25 countries FMD Outbreaks 2012 Bahrain O & SAT 2~650 samples~ 300 positive ~ 650 Samples from 25 Countries Kuwait Sudan PAT UAE O Egypt O, A & SAT 2 SAT 2 O Iran O, A & SAT 2 O, A & Asia 1 Turkey KSA Libya O, A & Asia 1 O Afghanistan O & SAT 2 Israel O O, A & Asia 1 Russia O China O Kazakhstan O&A Chinese Taipei O Pakistan Vietnam A & Asia 1 O Zambia SAT 2 Tanzania O, A, SAT 1 Thailand Ethiopia & SAT 2 O&A O Namibia Kenya SAT 1 Eritrea Hong Kong O, SAT 1 & SAT 2 O O South Africa Malaysia FMD -Free Endemic SAT 2 Free with vaccination O&A Countries with multiples zones: Free. Virus present in game parks Intermediate, sporadic FMD-free, free with vaccination or not free
    • Turkey 2012- Dıstrıbutıon >1000 OutbreaksThe majority of these have been Asia-1.
    • FMD Outbreaks 2012SAT 2 in North Africa and Middle East
    • Total number of notifications of FMD received from governorates for Feb-March 2012 suspicious total No of serial governorates animals dead animals 1 cairo 1059 23 2 Alex 2229 299Diseased/Dead Animals per day 3 Port said 451 170 4 Suez 4045 299 5 Domitta 1799 636 6 Dakahlia 8058 1176 7 Sharkia 388 36 8 Quliobia 1219 176 9 Kafrelshik 1215 933 10 Gharbia 23766 3151 11 Menofia 1456 629 12 Behira 3588 815 13 Ismailia 171 20 14 Giza 2228 107 15 Benisuef 1296 361 16 Fayoum 744 278 17 Menia 1792 421 18 Assuit 1107 171 19 Sohag 1120 206 20 Quina 1054 119 21 Asswan 227 52 22 Luxor 701 82 23 Red sea 0 0 24 New valley 168 21 25 Matroh 59 11 26 North sinia 1 0 27 South sinia 0 0 total 59941 10192
    • FMD Outbreaks 2012 Vaccination against SAT 2 in EgyptAugust 2012Vaccination with monovalent SAT2 – 1st round with locally produced vaccineTotal= 827954 in 21 governorates .cattle 431568Buffaloes 211352sheep 159398goat 256362nd round vaccination with monovalent locally produced SAT2 vaccine = 148741cattle 114439buffaloes 31946sheep 1289goat 1067Information provided by Dr Soheir Hassan Abd El KaderUnder Secretary of centeral adminstration of preventive medicineGeneral Organization for Veterinary ServicesMinistry of AgricultureCairo, Egypt
    • Egypt- Recent FMD OutbreaksEgypt has at least 3 serotypes of FMDVand a number of topotypes1. O/ME-SA/Egy-72 (2006-2009)2. O/ME-SA/PanAsia 2 (Egy-09) (2009 & 20113. A/Africa/G-VII (Ken-05) (2006 & 2009)4. A/Asia/Iran-05 (Bar-08) (2010-2011)5. A/Africa/G-IV (ISM-12) (2012)6. SAT2/VII/Alx-12 (2012)7. SAT2/VII/Ghb-12 (2012)
    • Recent Observations- SAT 2 in Sudan 2010
    • Recent Observations- SAT 2 in Sudan 2010
    • Recent Observations- A in Sudan 2011
    • Recent Observations- A in Sudan 2011
    • Regional Analysis- 2012 Pool 3 O, A, Asia 1 Pool 5 O, A, SAT 1, 2 Pool 1 O, A, Asia 1Pool 7O, A Pool 2 O, A, Asia 1 Pool 4 A, O, SAT 1, 2, 3 Pool 6 SAT 1, 2, 3
    • Regional Analysis- 2012 Asia 1 and SAT 2 on the move Pool 3 Pool 3 O, A, Asia 1 O, A, Asia 1 2 & SAT Pool 5 O, A, SAT 1, 2 Pool 1 O, A, Asia 1Pool 7O, A Pool 2 O, A, Asia 1 Pool 4 A, O, SAT 1, 2, 3 Pool 6 SAT 1, 2, 3
    • Current FMD Threat Analysis : from reported incidence Serotype O- widespread circulation – FMDV type O – ME-SA topotype – PanAsia-2 lineage – FMDV type O – SEA topotype – Mya-98 lineage Serotype A- widespread circulation – FMDV type A – ASIA topotype – Iran-05 lineage – FMDV type A – ASIA topotype – other Serotype Asia 1 – limited circulation- BUT risk of further spread – Reports from 6 countries in 2011 and now more in 2012 – Pirbright Vaccine trial carried out for EU- – High potency vaccine protected animals challenged with current isolate Serotypes SAT – restricted circulation – Have not established outside of Africa – But recent spread of SAT 2 into North Africa and Middle East being monitored Serotype C - No reports of serotype C since 2004
    • Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 • Vaccine matching carried out on representative isolates from each submission • 2dm VNT carried out with a variety of Merial, Intervet (MSD) and ARRIAH bovine vaccinal reference sera • Results presented as traffic light system WRLFMD® Pirbright vaccine Result matching by 2dm VNT Good match Some matches No match
    • Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 Serotype O vaccine matching Country Serotype Topotype Lineage/ Sub of Origin strain Lineage O 3039 O 4625 O Manisa O PA2 Afghanistan O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 Bahrain O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 Congo O ME-SA PanAsia - Egypt O ME-SA PanAsia-2 - Ethiopia O EA-3 - - Iran O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 O ME-SA PanAsia-2 FAR-09 Israel O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 Japan O SEA Mya 98 - Kenya O EA-2 - - Kuwait O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 Libya O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 O EA-3 - - Malaysia O SEA Mya-98 - Kingdom Saudi O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 Arabia Sudan O EA-3 - - Thailand O SEA Mya-98 - O ME-SA PanAsia - Turkey O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 UAE O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 Vietnam O ME-SA PanAsia -
    • Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 Serotype O vaccine matching Country Serotype Topotype Lineage/ Sub of Origin strain Lineage O 3039 O 4625 O Manisa O PA2 Malaysia O SEA Mya-98 - Thailand O SEA Mya-98 - O ME-SA PanAsia - Vietnam O ME-SA PanAsia -
    • Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 Serotype O vaccine matchingCountry Serotype Topotype Lineage/ Subof Origin strain Lineage O 3039 O 4625 O Manisa O PA2Afghanistan O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10Bahrain O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10Egypt O ME-SA PanAsia-2 -Iran O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 O ME-SA PanAsia-2 FAR-09Israel O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10Kuwait O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10Libya O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10 O EA-3 - -Kingdom Saudi Arabia O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10Sudan O EA-3 - -Turkey O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10UAE O ME-SA PanAsia-2 ANT-10
    • Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 Serotype O vaccine matching Country Serotype Topotype Lineage/ Sub of Origin strain Lineage O 3039 O 4625 O Manisa O PA2 Congo O ME-SA PanAsia - Ethiopia O EA-3 - - Kenya O EA-2 - -
    • Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 Serotype A vaccine matching Country Serotype Topotype Lineage/ Sub of Origin strain Lineage A A A A A Eri Saudi Iran Tur MAY 98 95 A22 05 06 97 Afghanistan A Asia Iran-05 HER-10 Iran A Asia Iran-05 SIS-10 A Asia Iran-05 HER-10 A Asia Iran-05 AFG-07 Pakistan A Asia Iran-05 HER-10 Turkey A Asia Iran-05 SIS-10 Good match Some matches No match
    • Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 Serotype A vaccine matching Country Serotype Topotype Lineage/ Sub of Origin strain Lineage A A A A A Eri Saudi Iran Tur MAY 98 95 A22 05 06 97 Congo A Africa G-I - Egypt A Africa G-IV - A Asia Iran-05 BAR-08 Sudan A Africa G-IV - Good match Some matches No match
    • Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 Serotype A vaccine matching Country Serotype Topotype Lineage/ Sub of Origin strain Lineage A A A A A Eri Saudi Iran Tur MAY 98 95 A22 05 06 97 Malaysia A Asia Sea-97 - Thailand A Asia Sea-97 - Good match Some matches No match
    • Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 Serotype Asia 1 vaccine Matching Country Serotype Topotype Lineage/strain Asia 1 of Origin Asia 1 Asia 1 Shamir India Shamir >6PD50 Afghanistan Asia 1 Asia Sindh-08 Iran Asia 1 Asia Sindh-08 Pakistan Asia 1 Asia Sindh-08 Turkey Asia 1 Asia Sindh-08 Good match Some matches No match
    • Current FMD Threat Analysis: Vaccine matching 2012 SAT Serotypes Vaccine Matching Country Serotype Topotype of Origin SAT 1 Rho Kenya SAT 1 I (NWZ) SAT 2 Zim SAT 2 Eri Bahrain SAT 2 IV Egypt SAT 2 VII Kenya SAT 2 IV Libya SAT 2 VII PAT SAT 2 VII Sudan SAT 2 VII Tanzania SAT 2 IV Good match Some matches No match
    • Vaccine Recommendations(National & European Antigen Banks) O Manisa* HIGH O PanAsia -2* * or additional O BFS or CamposPRIORITY A-Iran-05 strain A24 Cruzeiro A22 Iraq Asia 1 Shamir* SAT 2 Saudi Arabia (or equivalent - SAT 2 Eritrea) A Argentina 01 A Iran 96 MEDIUM A Iran 99 A EritreaPRIORITY A Iran 87 or A Saudi Arabia 23/86 (or equivalent) A Malaysia 97 (or Thai equivalent such as A/Sak/97)* O Taiwan 97 (pig-adapted strain or Philippine equivalent)* SAT 1 South Africa SAT 2 Zimbabwe A15 Bangkok related strain A Kenya LOW A87 Argentina related strain SAT 1 KenyaPRIORITY SAT 2 Kenya Within category: not in order of importance SAT 3 Zimbabwe C Noville
    • European NeighbourhoodIs that only pool 3?
    • European Neighbourhood?
    • European Neighbourhood?
    • European Neighbourhood?
    • Know Your Neighbours• What is it going to be?• O? quite likely• A?• Asia 1?• SAT 2?• This is why we need the ref labs• Improve and enhance• Why we need to remain constantly on our guard
    • WRLFMD Summary www.wrlfmd.org• A major combined effort both National and Global is needed for control• Accurate & Timely disease information is vital• The FMD Reference Laboratory Network provides the Engine Room for the Global Control InitiativePirbright designated global coordinating lab for OIE/FAO GCP
    • AcknowledgementsJemma Wadsworth,Bob Statham,Pip Hamblin,Ginette Wilsden,Geoff Hutchings,Nigel Ferris,Claudia Doel, Miki Madi,Begona Valdazo-Gonzalez,Caroline Wright,Bryony Armson, Nicola Camping,Anna Ludi,Liz Wilson, Gareth Shimmon,Trish Ryder,& Suzie Hammond