The Artic Ocean - Fisheries

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Presentation by Árni M. Mathiesen Assistant Director-General Fisheries and Aquaculture Department Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, 31 October – 2 November 2014 Reykjavik, Iceland

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  • The latest FAO estimates indicate that global hunger reduction continues: about 805 million people are estimated to be chronically undernourished in 2012–14, down more than 100 million over the last decade, and 209 million lower than in 1990–92. In the same period, the prevalence of undernourishment has fallen from 18.7 to 11.3 percent globally and from 23.4 to 13.5 percent for the developing countries.
  • The aim of the Blue Growth Initiative BGI is to promote the sustainable use and conservation of aquatic renewable resources, in an economically, socially and environmentally responsible manner. It is a cross-cutting initiative which would provide global, regional and national impact to increase food security, improve nutrition, reduce poverty of coastal and riparian communities and support sustainable management of aquatic resources.

    Within the SPF and for the implementation of PWB 14-15, the Blue Growth Initiative is now a Major Area of Work anchored in SO2 where it clusters relevant P/S and underpinning activities, but reaches out to related P/S in other SOs and activities in the other technical units, which impact on the health and performance of the aquatic eco-systems and dependent communities.

    At the regional level, it aligns its support with the RAP regional initiative on aquaculture and contributes to other regional initiatives such as water scarcity in RNE and Rice Initiative in RAP.

    At the national level, several countries have adopted national strategies for blue growth and are seeking FAO technical support in implementing these strategies. Work has been recently initiated in Indonesia, and about to be initiated for Gabon, Algeria and Senegal.

    Finally, at the global level, the BGI aligns with major organizations (such as UNEP, OECD, World Bank and the EU) and their initiatives launched to promote the concept. These organizations have welcomed a collaboration with FAO on the Blue Growth/Blue Economy. As Global Initiative, it is conducive to resource mobilization (e.g. GEF 6) and advocacy in major events discussing major issues related to Oceans.

    It encompasses 4 components:

    1- Capture Fisheries: The aim is to provide policy, technical and capacity-building support to Governments, regional fisheries bodies (RFBs) and industry to ensure that adequate institutional, scientific and legal framework is in place for introducing, supporting and enforcing fisheries management and good practices to combat IUU, reduce overcapacity, restore stocks and minimize the impact of fishing on the environment.

    2- Global Aquaculture Advancement Partnership (GAAP): The aim here is to support an increase in global aquaculture production to meet increased demand for fish as the world population grows. GAAP will contribute to this aim by providing technical and capacity building support to Governments and farmers to develop national strategies for aquaculture development, disseminate and adopt better management and governance policies and best practices that increase productivity and reduce environmental and disease risk to stimulate investment.

    3- Livelihoods and food systems: Under this component, FAO would assist members and industry organizations to develop policies for value addition and trade promotion integrating economic performance, food security, sustainability and social protection. With the transition to more sustainable fisheries management, it will promote public/private partnerships that support investment in infrastructure, technology and practices to increase fisheries value addition and quality. Livelihoods?

    4- Ecosystem Services: Under this component, FAO will contribute expertise to conduct and disseminate national and regional studies on carbon binding possibilities in sea grass beds, mangroves as defense for coastal erosion and storm and wave damage, fish-crop (rice etc.) systems, seaweed cultivation as well as other possibilities. The information will be used to assist communities to create income and livelihoods in coastal communities, reduce poverty, strengthen and improve social conditions.




  • Notes:
    Climate will impact fish migration, breeding, spawning and feeding patterns.
    Fish redistribution: fish populations are shifting away from tropical latitudes, and there will be high local extinction rates in the tropics and semi-enclosed seas
    Fish seize: large fish will have a smaller maximum body size due to reduced oxygen capacity of seawater
    More “Dead zones”: areas depleted of oxygen will become more common due to stratification from warming water

    Effects on all marine animals – from microscopic phytoplankton to large predatory fish like marlins – could seriously disrupt food webs.
    Rapidly eroding reef habitats threaten collapse for some coastal fisheries and fish nurseries. More than half the world’s coral reefs are at medium- or high-risk.
    Harmful algal blooms could cause mass die-offs of wild and farmed fish

    Potential negative implications for aquaculture:
    Inability to catch sufficient feed-fish
    Lower catches impacting fishmeal and fish oil produc0on
    Acidic water affecting shellfish growth
    Increasing flood risks to fish and shrimp ponds
    Coastal species at increased risk of extinction
    Algal blooms causing possible mass die-offs in farmed fish

    Positive effects of climate change for aquaculture and fishing include:
    Faster growth rates;
    Faster food conversion efficiency;
    Longer growing seasons;
    Range expansion;
    New fishing areas available from decreases in ice cover

    Economics and governance issues for fisheries
    Shifting fish stocks in international waters may present issues for governments attempting to reach fishing agreements.
    Global fisheries’ losses are estimated at $17-41 billion by 2050
    Fish yield is project to increased by 30-70% in high latitudes but to fall by 40-60% in the tropics and Antarctica

  • The Artic Ocean - Fisheries

    1. 1. Second Assembly of the Arctic Circle, 31 October – 2 November 2014 Reykjavik, Iceland THE ARCTIC OCEAN – FISHERIES Presentation by Árni M. Mathiesen Assistant Director-General Fisheries and Aquaculture Department Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
    2. 2. Hunger • 805 million people estimated to be suffering from chronic hunger in 2012–14, down 100 million in the last decade. • The vast majority, 791 million, live in developing countries. 1014.5 929.9 946.2 World Developing regions 840.5 805.3 994.1 908.7 930.8 824.9 790.7 1,100 1,050 1,000 950 900 850 800 750 700 1990-92 2000-02 2005-07 2009-11 2012-14 Number of undernourished (millions) and prevalence (%) of undernourishment 1990–92 2000–02 2005–07 2008–10 2012–14* No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % WORLD 1 014.5 18.7 929.9 14.9 946.2 14.3 840.5 12.1 805.3 11.3
    3. 3. Millions of children suffering nutrition deficiency Vitamin A deficiency Causing blindness 250 million preschool children affected Iron deficiency Anaemia contributes to 20% of all maternal deaths. 40% of preschool children anaemic in developing countries. Iodine deficiency Impairing cognitive development in children 54 countries still iodine-deficient Source: WHO 805 million hungry people Source: WHO Trend Billions of obesity or overweight people  Worldwide obesity has nearly doubled since 1980. Adults (aged 20 or older)  More than 1.4 billion (35% of total) overweight in 2008  Over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women (11 % of total) obese in 2008. Children (under the age of 5)  More than 40 million children overweight or obese in 2012. Source: WHO Food security and nutrition status Hunger hand-in-hand with poverty
    4. 4. Contribution of fish to human nutrition Fish provides high quality animal protein Fish especially important to countries with low animal protein intake 19.4 22.9 6.5 10.3 11.6 7.6 24.1 16.7 World LIFDCs Latin America &… 0 10 20 30 Northern America Oceania Europe Africa Asia % Fish as a percentage of total animal protein intake Protein Vitamin A DHA EPA Vitamin B12 Zinc Iron Vitamin D Calcium Selenium Iodine Fish, a source of nutrients Daily need (RDI) for children: DHA+EPA (Ω-3); seafood main source 150 (250) μg Vitamin A; 250 million preschool children deficient 150 (250) mg Iron; 1.6 billion people deficient 8.9 mg (at 10% bioavailability) Iodine; seafood natural source, 2 billion people deficient 120 μg Zinc; 800 000 child deaths per year 5.6 mg (at moderate bioavailability)
    5. 5. Socioeconomic contribution of aquaculture and fisheries
    6. 6. FAO’s strategic goals ERADICATE HUNGER, FOOD insecurity and MALNUTRITION ELIMINATE RURAL POVERTY THROUGH SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT SUSTAINABLE MANAGEMENT AND UTILIZATION OF NATURAL SOURCES
    7. 7. The Blue Growth Initiative To promote the sustainable use and conservation of the Aim aquatic renewable resources Four Main Components • Fisheries • Aquaculture • Livelihoods and food systems • Eco-system Services Global •Implementation of International Instruments and EAF •Combat IUU fishing •Reduction of Over-capacity, restoring fish stocks, habitats and aquatic biodiversity •GAAP •International advocacy and coop Regional •Regional Initiative on Blue Growth (FAO RAP) • Regional Fisheries Bodies • Other FAO Regional Initiatives Country level •Development and implementation of national policies and strategies for blue growth •BGI-RAP, regional •BGI-RNE, regional, sub-regional •BGI- RAF, national, sub-regional
    8. 8. Climate Change Implications for Fisheries and Aquaculture Key findings from IPCC AR 5 Holmyard, 2014
    9. 9. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Fisheries in the Arctic Major fisheries (cod, haddock, saithe, redfish, Greenland halibut, and capelin stocks in Barents Sea and Norwegian Sea) may change its abundance and distribution (e.g. Arctic cod larval survival may increase ). Some sub-Arctic species are expanding northwards into the Arctic (known northward-movement: snow crab in the Bering and Chukchi seas, several crab and mollusk species in the Chukchi Sea, blue mussel in Svalbard, sand eel in the North Sea, etc). Some Arctic-adapted species are losing habitat along the southern edges of their ranges (Pacific walrus in Bering Sea). Warming ocean temperatures, migrating fish stocks and shifting sea ice conditions from a changing climate may potentially favor the development of new commercial fisheries.
    10. 10. Fisheries governance and management The global policy and legislative framework for the conservation and management of living marine resources is laid down principally in UNCLOS, the UN Fish Stocks Agreement, and the FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries and related instruments. UNGA, FAO-COFI. States have sovereign responsibility with in EEZs. RFMOs play a key role in fostering cooperation among States to ensure the long-term sustainability of fisheries, through the adoption and implementation of regionally-agreed management and conservation measures, based on the best scientific evidence. Two long-established RFMOs in the northern hemisphere are NEAFC and NAFO, which enjoy a strong cooperative relationship, including in the joint management of the pelagic redfish – Sebastes mentella. NEAFC also has a special agreement with ICES, an intergovernmental scientific organization, which provides scientific information and advice, on the basis of which NEAFC adopts fisheries management measures.
    11. 11. RFMO Convention Areas
    12. 12. NEAFC’s Convention Area extends into the Arctic Ocean and includes significantly sizeable Regulatory Areas (orange) within the Arctic Circle.
    13. 13. When new areas in the Arctic become “harvestable”, fishing activities will fall under the general regulatory regime established by NEAFC’s Scheme of Control and Enforcement (SCE), applicable to Contracting Parties, non-Contracting Parties (NCP) and Cooperative NCP vessels. The SCE includes MCS requirements and procedures for vessels targeting Regulated Resources and non- Regulated resources (including Port State Control and IUU listing). If harvesting in a new area will involve bottom fishing activities, it will be considered a “new bottom fishing area” as defined by NEAFC’s Recommendation 19:2014. In practice, “new bottom fishing areas” are “closed areas” with very strict conditions for access: initially for “exploratory bottom fisheries” and later (if so decided) to become “existing bottom fishing areas” As the distribution of certain fish stocks gradually moves further north due to climate change, the fisheries governance and management in the Arctic Ocean is becoming increasingly important and sensitive; a significant portion of international waters in the Arctic Ocean is not currently covered by a specific fisheries regulatory framework.
    14. 14. Considerations for sustainable fisheries development in the Arctic A holistic cross-sectoral approach: -safeguarding the environment -ensuring sustainable fisheries management/development to be adopted in face of uncertain changes due to climate change and acceleration of economic development in the Arctic region. -research. Adaptive actions at the local, regional or global level to provide Arctic communities with a broad suite of tools to help them respond to the change. The need for an agreement(s) on responsible fisheries development in the Arctic, in particular, preventing unregulated fishing in the unregulated part of the Central Arctic Ocean.

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