Coping with Water Scarcity in Near East and North Africa: Shifting Gear
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Coping with Water Scarcity in Near East and North Africa: Shifting Gear



Plenary Session # 1: Coping with Water Scarcity in Near East and North Africa: Shifting Gear, By Prof. Mahmoud Abu-Zeid President, AWC, Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December ...

Plenary Session # 1: Coping with Water Scarcity in Near East and North Africa: Shifting Gear, By Prof. Mahmoud Abu-Zeid President, AWC, Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan



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    Coping with Water Scarcity in Near East and North Africa: Shifting Gear Coping with Water Scarcity in Near East and North Africa: Shifting Gear Presentation Transcript

    • Neat East & North Africa Land & Water Days 15 – 18 December, Amman, Jordan Plenary Session # 1 16 December 2013 Coping with Water Scarcity in Near East And North Africa: Shifting Gear Keynote Speech By Prof. Mahmoud Abu-Zeid President, AWC
    • Presentation Outline • • • • • • • • • Introduction: Near East and North Africa Region Climate Water and Agricultural Resources in the NENA Region Water Scarcity in the NENA Region: Major Causes Key Water Challenges in the NENA Region Innovative Solutions to cope with Water Scarcity in the NENA Region Regional Initiatives / Achievements Targets concluded from International Conferences The Way Forward
    • The Near East and North Africa (NENA) Region Grouped in three sub-regions based on geographic and hydro-climatic similarities: 1. North Africa: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt and Mauritania 2. Arabian Peninsula: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, KSA, Qatar, UAE & Yemen 3. Middle East: Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria and Sudan
    • The NENA Region: Facts & Figures • Land area about 15 million km2 • Total population exceeds 400 million inhabitants • About 6% of world population with only 1% of the world’s renewable water resources
    • CLIMATE • About 70% of the total area is under desert and arid conditions • One of the hardest hit regions by CC Impacts • Sea level rise and flooding in coastal areas
    • Water Resources in the NENA Region • The NENA region is one of the most water-scarce regions in the world. • The average annual precipitation is estimated at 150 mm. • Likely decrease in surface water flows. • Reduced aquifer recharge and seawater intrusion. • The Renewable Water Resources per capita is one of the lowest in the world due to population growth (690 m³ in the region vs 6400 m³/c/y in the world). • Devastating droughts occur every year in large parts of the region.
    • Comparison between WR in selected countries in NENA Region The Table shows how different the total renewable water resources and are, where Iran is the richest in terms of renewable water resources and Jordan is the least (in Billion m³/year). Country Egypt Iran Tunisia Algeria Morocco Iraq KSA Yemen Jordan Surface Water 56 106.3 3.4 10.15 22 74.33 22 2 0.65 Ground Water 1.3 49.3 1.595 1.517 10 3.28 22 1.5 0.54 57.3 137.5 4.595 11.67 29 75.61 24 2.1 0.937 Total renewable water resources
    • Agricultural Resources in the NENA Region  Agriculture is the major driver of economy and food security (employs 21% of population & contributes over 10% of regional GDP).  Most of the NENA countries use 75 to 90% of its resources for agriculture, except for Iran which uses more that 90% and Algeria 50 to 75%.  All countries are net importers of food.  Deficit in cereals is more than double between 2000 – 2030.
    • Water Scarcity in the NENA Region: Major Causes 1. Mismanagement of water especially in the agric. sector 2.Transboundary rivers and water conflict problems 3. Water quality degradation and water pollution 4. Climate change implications 5. Weak information systems
    • Key Water Challenges A) Water Scarcity and population pressure B) Food insecurity C) Access to safe water and sanitation D) Vulnerability of water resources E) Mounting environmental problems F) Inefficiencies in the governance structure 4
    • Other Related Challenges • The continuous population growth, • The growing supply/demand gap, • Lack of coordination between different sectors and stakeholders, • Uncertainty in global climate change, • High vulnerability to drought, • Problems of transboundary waters, • Limited information on water resources, • Water quality degradation and water pollution, • Limited awareness of water issues, • Lack of funds for water development, • Capacity building and institutional development.
    • A) Water Scarcity “The least per capita share in the World” Global Shares of Renewable Water Resources (2000) 40000 Per Capita Share (cu m/yr) 35808 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 21622 16368 10867 7243 4980 4270 3681 3518 1909 1060 177 C C G So ut he rn Am Ea er st ic er a n N Eu or C ro th .A pe er m n er Am ic er a & ic a Ca rib be an W or ld W .& Af Ce ric nt a ra lE ur op C e en t ra S. lA & Ea si a st er n As ia N ea rE as Ar t ab R eg io n 0 GCC = Gulf Cooperation Council
    • Features of Water Scarcity in the NENA Region With population expected to grow from around 400 million today to around 600 million in 2050, per capita availability is expected to halve by 2050 Arab Region Population & and diminishing per capita Rapidly growing populationPer Capita Water Shares share 4000 3500 500 3000 400 2500 300 2000 1500 200 1000 100 500 Population Share from IRWR IRWR= Internal Renewable Water Resources 2060 2040 2020 2000 1980 1960 0 1940 0 Water Share (cu.m/cap/yr) 4500 600 Population (Million) 700 Share from ARWR ARWR= Actual (total) Renewable Water Resources
    • B) Food Insecurity • About 80 % of food production depends on erratic rainfall. • Irrigated agriculture share is about 90% of the available water resources. • The region is net importer of food with an average 80 million tons per year, and import bill about US$ 23.5 billion annually. • Agriculture directly employs about 21% of population; many of them are females. ? ? ??
    • C) Access to Clean Water and Sanitation With distinct differences from one country to the other in the Region, further 83 million persons (27 %) need to be supplied with safe water and 96 million (30 %) with sanitation services in order to meet the MDGs.
    • Population Served / Unserved by Improved Drinking Water / Sanitation Facilities in 2008 400 Unserved Served Population (millions) 350 300 59 77 285 268 Drinking Water Sanitation 250 200 150 100 50 0
    • D) Vulnerability of Water Resources • More than 60 % of renewable water resources are generated from outside the region • Growing demands and uses increase pressure on already fragile and scarce water resources and their ecosystems • Physical and environmental destructions caused by conflicts and wars in the region
    • E) Mounting Environmental Problems • Environmental degradation including deteriorated water quality and salinization; • Pollution caused by fast-growing cities and industries; • Insufficient wastewater treatment facilities; • Poor or non-existing solid-waste management; • Weak pollution control and abatement programs.
    • F) Inefficiencies in the Water Resources Governance Structure • Dominance of centralized sectoral water management; • Transparency and accountability problems in service provision; • Insufficient financing of recurrent costs of water control and distribution systems.
    • Opportunities • The region is a leader in technological innovation, including, but not restricted to, hi-tech micro-irrigation, supplementary irrigation techniques, exploitation of wadi flash floods and shallow groundwater recharge in desert conditions. • Wastewater has to be reclassified as a renewable water resource rather than waste.
    • Solutions to cope with Water Scarcity in the NENA Region Solutions are dependent on the following 3 crucial issues 1. Political power should show suitable goodwill in protecting the water resources 2. An adequate mobilization of the financial means 3. The presence of technicians & scientists having the required ability for implementing the proposed solutions
    • Key Concepts and Innovative Solutions to cope with Water Scarcity in the NENA Region 1. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) 2. Balance between Demand Management and Supply management 3. Improvement of water use efficiency & increasing water productivity 4. Non-conventional Water Resources (Desalination; Wastewater, Drainage Water & Brackish Water Reuse; Groundwater Development) 5. Achieving Sustainable Development and Environmental Sustainability 6. Introducing the concept of green economy for sustainable development
    • Innovative Solutions to cope with Water Scarcity in the NENA Region (cont.) 7. Transboundary waters as a tool for peace and cooperation 8. The Nexus Approach (Water-Food-Energy-CC) 9. Water Governance: transparency, accountability and cost- effectiveness 10. Importance of coordination and multi-stakeholder partnerships 11. Capacity building 12. Financial security
    • 1. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) IWRM is the systematic cross-sectoral process for the sustainable development of water resources to maximize the social, economic and environmental benefits from its efficient use.
    • 2. Water Demand Management • Almost all countries in the Region are engaged in the development of appropriate instruments and institutions to manage water demands including: – Investing in technology that minimizes demands – Improving reliability and accountability in service delivery – Involvement of stakeholders at all levels of planning and management
    • Actions for Water Demand Management a) Reduce waste in the irrigation system b) Reduce water consumptive use through better crop management. c) Recycle and reuse of water and wastewater for irrigation. d) Eradicate salinity and waterlogging of affected irrigation. e) Drainage and flood control practices to preserve water quality. f) Multi-disciplinary approach to water management practices by reforming the education system g) Capacity building to carry out R & D. h) Proper guidance and training from various institutions. i) Broaden the participation of stakeholders and stimulate the private sector to invest in new technology, practices and programs.
    • 3. Water Conservation and Water Productivity Interventions include : A) Agricultural Land Drainage B) Bio-Saline Agriculture C) Supplementary Irrigation D) Water Harvesting
    • 4. Innovations in Non-conventional Water Resources Development Interventions to narrow the gap between supply and demand in the Region included: A) Desalination of sea water B) Municipal wastewater and drainage reuse C) Brackish Water Reuse D) Groundwater Development for Wadi-Systems
    • Desalination About two-thirds of the world's total desalination capacity is installed in the GCC Countries (about 3.2 billion m³/yr). • Saudi Arabia alone accounts for 25-30 % of the world’s capacity • all GCC Countries supply the bulk of municipal and industrial water from desalination • • Reliance on desalination is expected to increase as the population grows Jubail, Saudi Arabia 800 mg/d Al Taweelah , UAE Al Hidd II, Bahrain Ras Abu Fontas, Qatar
    • Brackish Water Use for Agricultural Production • Different types of brackish water reuse exist (drainage water reuse, groundwater reuse and wastewater reuse). • Constraints facing brackish water use include: increase in soil salinity, yield reductions and high cost of agricultural inputs. • On the other hand, brackish water could be looked at as an opportunity for irrigation, whether directly, or it could be desalinated or mixed with treated wastewater.
    • 5. Facing the Risk of Climate Change • The region’s climate is getting warmer, drier and more variable. • Climate change adds uncertainty to water-related decisions and is likely to change precipitation patterns. • Sea level rise could affect the most populated zones in the Region and millions of people could be displaced.
    • Climate Change & Sea Water Rise (Nile Delta Example) Nile Delta – Current situation Nile Delta – 2 Meter Sea Level Rise 24
    • • Meeting climate change challenges requires innovations, applications of science and technology, • Climate change impacts should be included in master plans for water use in all sectors in the region.
    • 6. The Nexus Approach • Applying a nexus approach between Water-Food-Energy-CC is an urgent must to create new opportunities for achieving water and energy security while reducing tensions between sectoral objectives. • Realizing these opportunities requires action for change. • In any case, a true nexus approach can only be achieved through close collaboration of all actors from all sectors including private sector
    • 7. Transboundary Waters as a Tool for Peace & Cooperation • More than 65% of the member countries surface water originates from outside their political borders. • Shared water resources must be seen as an opportunity for building cooperation and peace. • Countries need new mechanisms for conflict resolution.
    • 8. Institutional Innovations • Several countries created a unified institutional structure for integrated resource management • For example; in the GCC Countries and in Yemen, an independent ministry is responsible for managing their water resources • In Egypt; a Cabinet level Ministerial Committee is responsible for inter-sectoral coordination of water resources management
    • Institutional Innovations … continued Decentralization : – Yemen decentralized water supply and sanitation to selfaccounting autonomous corporations – Syria established independent water directorates at the basin level and decentralized water supply and sanitation services – Egypt established Integrated Water Management Inspectorates at the local level Participation : – Egypt established WUAs at tertiary canal level and Water Boards at the District level – Similarly, Morocco, Tunisia, and Yemen established WUAs. Water User Assoc
    • 9. Improvement of Water Governance • Clarifying irrigation water tenure rules and • • • • implementing dispute resolution mechanisms Increasing the capacity of institutions at all levels, and providing essential training on integrated water management Further involvement of multiple stakeholders in planning and decision-making Public awareness and information disclosure Measures to increase transparency and empower stakeholders
    • 10. Financial Sustainability Sustainable financial arrangement is being promoted through: A) Securing public investments B) Effective cost recovery schemes C) Private sector involvement
    • NEEDS Need to put Water on top of the Political Agenda The complex dimensions of freshwater in the NENA region, its fragility and its scarcity have received considerable attention as a priority issue politically, technically and scientifically. This puts water on top of the political agenda in all Arab water fora.
    • Need for Appropriate Integrated Water Policies In the NENA region, food security is essential for political, social and economic stability and is strongly linked to water security. Food production within the region must be balanced with food imports. All kinds of cooperation should be encouraged not only towards achieving “more crop per drop” but also achieving “more crop per less drop.” ? ? ? ?
    • Improving the Food Security Status of the Region ?? ?? • Agriculture will continue to be a major component of the regional economy, contributing to employment, social and food security enhancement. • The over-exploitation of the available surface and groundwater in response to the increasing demands is not only reducing its availability but also jeopardizing its quality. • To manage drought successfully, it is necessary to shift from the crisis management interactive approach, to the risk management proactive approach, where moves are taken well in advance of events.
    • Regional Initiatives/Achievements • Adoption of the Strategy for Sustainable Arab Agriculture Development until year 2025. • Implementation of the “Water and Sanitation” MDGs by 2015. • In 2011, AWMC endorsed an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) initiative.
    • Regional Initiatives/Achievements (cont.) •RICCAR Regional Initiative for the Assessment of the Impact of Climate Change on Water Resources and Socio-Economic Vulnerability in the Arab Region initiated by ESCWA. •Adoption of an “Arab Water Security Strategy” (2010 – 2030) endorsed by the League of Arab States (LAS) in 2012. An Action Plan for implementation of the first 5-year plan has presently been developed.
    • Regional Initiatives/Achievements (cont.) • FAO Regional Water Scarcity Initiative (RWSI) launched in 2012 to achieve a Regional Collaborative Strategy to be carried out on a partnership basis among member countries and with international and regional partners. • FAO Land and Water Days(LWDs) as component of the RWSI.
    • Targets concluded from International Conferences According to WWF6 (Marseille, Mar. 2012): To raise the water use efficiency in the Arab countries by 10 – 15% by year 2020 in order to meet increased water demand and ensure water and food security for sustainable development. According to Doha Int. Conference on Food Security in Drylands (Nov. 2012): To secure a political commitment for an increased percentage (up to 10%) of budget allocations for agriculture .
    • Regional Cooperation and Coordination • 2013 is the International Year of Cooperation • The Arab Water Security Strategy is an example of a Regional Integrated Strategy • The FAO Water Scarcity Initiative aims at setting the stage for a Regional Collaborative Strategy and Partnerships. • Today’s event (FAO Land & Water Days) is an integral component of this collaborative strategy. Together let’s make it a success.
    • Take-Home Key Messages & Recommendations 1. Water is at the Heart of Sustainable Development. 2. Water should NOT be treated as a “sector” alone, but as a cross-linked issue, and should be looked at within a Nexus Framework including W-F-E-CC. 3. Comprehensive national water assessments should be linked to national development strategies. 4. Implementation of water-related SDGs should include dimensions of economic growth, social development and environmental management. 5. Innovative and non-conventional solutions should be introduced in response to the post-2015 global water challenges. 6. Successful implementation of solutions depends on 3 fundamental pillars: political goodwill, financial resources & technical capabilities. 7. Regional collaborative strategies and partnerships are no longer an option, but a must to achieve the Future We Want.
    • What Next ??? For the way forward … • There should be a clear vision and a sustainable action plan to solve the water problems in the whole of the NENA region. • The ultimate challenge for all water professionals, decisionmakers and politicians is to put into practice what we all very well know. It is essential that we translate the ideas, conclusions, and recommendations into actions on the ground. • It is time for Implementation .. Time to SHIFT GEAR
    • FINALLY … The Arab Water Council is committed to keep playing the role of Regional Coordinator for all water activities and action plans on the ground, in support of integration, cooperation and networking as a tool to face the challenges of water scarcity on the regional scale.