Reducing pesticide risks to farming
communities: adaptive management
through farmer field schools in the
Senegal and Niger...
Objectives of this talk
i) Provide some background on issues
related to pesticide-use in programme
countries
ii) A brief d...
FAO Integrated Production and Pest
Management Programme in West Africa
(IPPM)
2001 – 2012
Funding:
Governments of :
The Ne...
7 Countries, 2 Major River Basins
Senegal River Basin
3.5 m people
Niger River Basin
20 m people
(outside Nigeria)
Benin, ...
Data from Human Development Report 2011, UNEP
Expenditure on public health (% of GDP)
HumanDevelopmentIndex(HDI)
Seven lea...
...but targeted by industry to
reach 20% in next 10 years
Africa is only 2% of global market for pesticides
Pesticides in West Africa put at Risk
Highly Fragile Aquatic Ecosystems
Ecosystem services
Drainage sump
40% of European m...
...and the populations whose survival hinges on
limited water resources
Water resources are directly consumed
1980 Senegal River
BHC against Senegalese
grasshopper Odaleus
senegalensis
Past history of pesticide use : still with us t...
PRESSURES:
STATES:
IMPACTS:
DRIVERS:
Reinforcing
Feedback Loops Loss of Overall
Biodiversity
Increased Outbreaks of
Plant ...
RESPONSES
Building capacity in Regional
Ecotoxicology labs
Monitoring Pesticide Use
Modeling impacts on
biodiversity and h...
Field Schools : building
critical thinking skills through
social learning
> 90 countries
Farmer Field Schools
Field Schools and Adaptive Management
Building capacity for Adaptive Management
Three tenets (inspired by Norton 2005):
1....
Season-Long Training of Facilitators (ToF)
Comparing
conventional and new
practices
Understanding
Mechanisms
Farmer Field Schools
Awareness– exploration/experimentation—adaptation
Farmer Field Schools – Addressing Heterogeneity
… adoption
1. Begins with community participatory appraisal to
establish farmer priorities
2. 20-25 Farmers meeting once per week for...
Burkina Faso
Crop
diversity:
Incomes
Nutrition
Building
ecological and
economic
resilience
© FAO/William Settle
Building G...
Netting protects
seedbeds from birds
and insects
Farmer Field Schools
Post FFS : “Champs d’application”
Not just one season
Crop % Women
Vegetables 54,512 48%
Rice 42,293 18%
Cotton 44,624 5%
Mango 988 3%
Cow peas 1,821 57%
Sesame 1,534 27%
Mille...
A “demand-driven” philosophy  full system approach
Rice
Vegetables
Cotton Minor
Crops
Cotton-Cereals-
Livestock
Semi-Arid...
NumberofFarmersTrained
IPPM West Africa
`
Number of Farmers Trained by Country
June 2012
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100...
Cotton production is responsible
for the highest consumption of
pesticides in West Africa
3.7m cotton farmers in Mali
Fiel...
Cotton – an “open door” for
highly toxic pesticides brought
into other systems
© FAO/William Settle
© FAO/William Settle
4,346 cotton households
56 villages
Mali Cotton :
2002 2004 2006 2008 2010
Year
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Percentofpesticidesp...
 4,324 households : 1,461 farmers
trained (34%)
Percent households trained
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
Percentpesticidespurchas...
0
100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
GrossincomepercommuneUSD
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Percent households trained
Mali IPM trainin...
Mali Cotton :
 47,000 litres synthetic insecticides not sprayed
= $470,000 savings
 Cost to train farmers : $146,000
 …...
• Clear benefits: economic and health-related
• Effective IPM technologies (neem-based with option
to use synthetic insect...
• 400 Ha rice polder 793 farmer plots:
• Yields from 2.1 T/ha to 5.0 T/ha in two seasons
• 66% reduction in fertilizer use...
pre post pre post
Groups by period
0
10
20
30
40
InsecticideexpendituresperfarmerUSD
FFS Control
N = 136
Senegal Vegetable...
Senegal Vegetable Production Practices
Pre and Post FFS
0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
A. Commercial Pesticide L/ha
Pre...
CONCLUSIONS
1. The time is long past due to get the most toxic pesticides
out of the hands and homes of farmers and to get...
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Pesticide risk management through farmer field schools in the Senegal and Niger River basins

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http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/214049/icode/

Field schools that train farmers in alternative methods of pest control have succeeded in nearly eliminating the use of toxic pesticides by a community of cotton growers in Mali, according to a new FAO study published today by the London-based Royal Society. This presentation shows how new tools and farmer training implemented by FAO and its partners could revolutionize pesticide management in West Africa.

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Pesticide risk management through farmer field schools in the Senegal and Niger River basins

  1. 1. Reducing pesticide risks to farming communities: adaptive management through farmer field schools in the Senegal and Niger River basins in West Africa William Settle* FAO /AGP Rome Mohamed Soumaré FAOR Mali Makhfousse Sarr FAOR Senegal Mohamed Hama Garba FAOR Burundi Anne-Sophie Poisot FAO/AGP Rome ACHIEVING FOOD AND ENVIRONMENTAL SECURITY- NEW APPROACHES TO CLOSE THE GAP THE ROYAL SOCIETY, DECEMBER 3-4, 2012 *UNFAO, Vialle delle Terme di Caracalla, Rome, 00153, Italy william.settle@fao.org
  2. 2. Objectives of this talk i) Provide some background on issues related to pesticide-use in programme countries ii) A brief description of Farmer Field Schools iii)A context for two other papers presented here today (Jepson and Sarr and Anderson and Seck)
  3. 3. FAO Integrated Production and Pest Management Programme in West Africa (IPPM) 2001 – 2012 Funding: Governments of : The Netherlands EU Norway Spain Canada Global Environment Facility (GEF/UNEP)
  4. 4. 7 Countries, 2 Major River Basins Senegal River Basin 3.5 m people Niger River Basin 20 m people (outside Nigeria) Benin, Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali, Mauritania Niger, Senegal
  5. 5. Data from Human Development Report 2011, UNEP Expenditure on public health (% of GDP) HumanDevelopmentIndex(HDI) Seven least developed countries
  6. 6. ...but targeted by industry to reach 20% in next 10 years Africa is only 2% of global market for pesticides
  7. 7. Pesticides in West Africa put at Risk Highly Fragile Aquatic Ecosystems Ecosystem services Drainage sump 40% of European migratory birds visit Inland deltas of West Africa
  8. 8. ...and the populations whose survival hinges on limited water resources
  9. 9. Water resources are directly consumed
  10. 10. 1980 Senegal River BHC against Senegalese grasshopper Odaleus senegalensis Past history of pesticide use : still with us today?
  11. 11. PRESSURES: STATES: IMPACTS: DRIVERS: Reinforcing Feedback Loops Loss of Overall Biodiversity Increased Outbreaks of Plant Pests and Diseases; Reduced Pollination Loss of Consumable Aquatic Fauna Damaged Aquatic Micro- Fauna and Flora Damaged Terrestrial Biodiversity Contaminated WATER Irrigation, Drainage, Wells, and Rivers Applicators in direct contact with toxic chemicals Contaminated Produce (fruits, vegetables, cereals) Reduced Human Health Reduced International Exports Reduced Environmental Social and Economic Well-Being Reduced Agricultural Productivity & Profits Growing use of toxic Pesticides Population Growth and Perceived threats to Global Food Security Commercial Influence of global Agro-Chemical Industry Lack of Awareness of Negative Externalities & Positive Alternatives Lack of National Pesticide Monitoring and Enforcement of Existing Regulations
  12. 12. RESPONSES Building capacity in Regional Ecotoxicology labs Monitoring Pesticide Use Modeling impacts on biodiversity and human health Monitoring impacts on yields and farm-level profits Building capacity in local communities (Field Schools) Monitoring Pesticide Concentrations in surface waters
  13. 13. Field Schools : building critical thinking skills through social learning > 90 countries Farmer Field Schools
  14. 14. Field Schools and Adaptive Management Building capacity for Adaptive Management Three tenets (inspired by Norton 2005): 1. Promoting farmer experimentation 2. Building locally crafted strategies 3. Working with many partners at multiple scales "to help provide language, and habit of mind and an adaptive experimental approach for action“ Norton 2005
  15. 15. Season-Long Training of Facilitators (ToF)
  16. 16. Comparing conventional and new practices Understanding Mechanisms Farmer Field Schools
  17. 17. Awareness– exploration/experimentation—adaptation Farmer Field Schools – Addressing Heterogeneity … adoption
  18. 18. 1. Begins with community participatory appraisal to establish farmer priorities 2. 20-25 Farmers meeting once per week for the full season 3. Curriculum based on crop calendar 4. Explores issues and ideas through observation experimentation, presentation, and discussion 5. Promotes understanding mechanisms (economic, ecological, social) 6. Foundation for building groups 7. Continues in subsequent seasons to explore new topics Farmer Field Schools (FFS)
  19. 19. Burkina Faso Crop diversity: Incomes Nutrition Building ecological and economic resilience © FAO/William Settle Building Groups (Social Capital) Farmer Field Schools
  20. 20. Netting protects seedbeds from birds and insects Farmer Field Schools Post FFS : “Champs d’application” Not just one season
  21. 21. Crop % Women Vegetables 54,512 48% Rice 42,293 18% Cotton 44,624 5% Mango 988 3% Cow peas 1,821 57% Sesame 1,534 27% Millet / Sorghum 930 5% Jatropha 300 0% Karité 1,200 95% Phase II Total 148,202 mean = 26% Growing diversity of crops (2002-2012)
  22. 22. A “demand-driven” philosophy  full system approach Rice Vegetables Cotton Minor Crops Cotton-Cereals- Livestock Semi-Arid Savannas Millet-Sorghum-Livestock Agro-forestry Systems •Sesame •Cowpea •Jatropha •Karite •Mango •Forage •Legumes •Cover Crops 2001 2006 2009 CroppingSystems 2010 IPM Soil Fertility Management Orchard Management Integrated Soil Fertility Management Marketing Agro- Forestry Water-Conserving Methods Climate Change Adaptation Methods Seed Multiplication Environmental Monitoring for Pesticides & Human Health Risk AssessmentNursery and Transplanting 2011 2012
  23. 23. NumberofFarmersTrained IPPM West Africa ` Number of Farmers Trained by Country June 2012 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Niger Mauritanie Guinée Senegal Mali Burkina Benin Phase I 148,202 Phase II Phase III
  24. 24. Cotton production is responsible for the highest consumption of pesticides in West Africa 3.7m cotton farmers in Mali Field Schools for cotton
  25. 25. Cotton – an “open door” for highly toxic pesticides brought into other systems © FAO/William Settle © FAO/William Settle
  26. 26. 4,346 cotton households 56 villages Mali Cotton : 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 Year 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percentofpesticidespurchased Benguene Bla Niala Samabogo Somasso Tiemen
  27. 27.  4,324 households : 1,461 farmers trained (34%) Percent households trained 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Percentpesticidespurchased 0 2010 30 40 50 60 Mali IPM training: diffusion?
  28. 28. 0 100,000 200,000 300,000 400,000 GrossincomepercommuneUSD 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percent households trained Mali IPM training: economic benefits?
  29. 29. Mali Cotton :  47,000 litres synthetic insecticides not sprayed = $470,000 savings  Cost to train farmers : $146,000  … what about the non-economic benefits?
  30. 30. • Clear benefits: economic and health-related • Effective IPM technologies (neem-based with option to use synthetic insecticides if needed) • Effective training methods (FFS)—pragmatic “discovery learning” • Enhanced communication among farmers and between farmers and technicians (social capital)— facilitator/pest scouts • High proportion trained (34% overall across the sector). Mali Cotton : why diffusion might take place
  31. 31. • 400 Ha rice polder 793 farmer plots: • Yields from 2.1 T/ha to 5.0 T/ha in two seasons • 66% reduction in fertilizer use • 80% reduction in seed use • Economic benefit approx. $400k • Annual cost of entire programme Benin: approx. $340k Benin Farmer 2008-9 Each country has potential for “big wins” From Settle and Garba 2010
  32. 32. pre post pre post Groups by period 0 10 20 30 40 InsecticideexpendituresperfarmerUSD FFS Control N = 136 Senegal Vegetable Production pesticide use reduced 93%
  33. 33. Senegal Vegetable Production Practices Pre and Post FFS 0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 A. Commercial Pesticide L/ha Pre-FFS Post-FFS 0 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 D. Neem Extract L/ha 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 C. Bio-Pesticide L/ha n = 68 0 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 3,500 4,000 B. Crop Net Value USD/ha ** Pre-FFS Post-FFS Pre-FFS Post-FFS Pre-FFS Post-FFS No difference With control group
  34. 34. CONCLUSIONS 1. The time is long past due to get the most toxic pesticides out of the hands and homes of farmers and to get use down to a level that is appropriate: education—legislation—monitoring 1. Heterogeneity of ecological, social and economic systems obliges investment in educating small farmers to be proactive participants in adaptive research 2. Partnerships within and across multiple scales: Embed promising social processes within, and empower the “mosaic” of social and administrative structures at decentralized (subdistrict-levels). Exchange lessons learned and people across neighbouring countries.
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