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T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
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T4: Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System

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Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System ,By Dr. Omar Elbadawy, CEDARE , Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan …

Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System ,By Dr. Omar Elbadawy, CEDARE , Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

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  • 1. Land Resources Management Near East & North Africa Modeling of Nubian Sand Stone Aquifer System
  • 2. 3 0° 2 0° 10 ° 0° 1 0° 30 ° 20° 4 0° T u n is ia 3 0° 40 ° M o ro cco M op i c o f Ca d i t e r r a n e a n S e a r 3 0° n ce e 2 0° Tr S a u d i A ra b ia A lg e ri a Li b y a E gy p t d Re Se M a u r it a n ia a 20 ° 1 0° M a li S ud a n N i ge r Chad 1 0° E t h i o p ia 0° N i g e r ia C a m e ro o n 0° 1 0° 0° 1 0° 2 0° 30° 40 °
  • 3. The Nubian Sandstone Aquifer System       Total Area: 2.35 million km2 Area in Egypt: 850,000 km2 Area in Libya: 650,000 km2 Area in Sudan: 750,000 km2 Area in Chad: 100,000 km2 Estimated Volume: 150,000 km3
  • 4. Overview of the Water Issues Limited Renewable Water Resources High Population Growth Lack of Integrated Water Resources Planning & Management W hy ? Increasing Cost of Supply Expansion
  • 5. -ConsequencesIncreasing Gap between Demand & Supply Competing Sectoral Demands for the Same Water Resources Ground Water Pumping & Depletion of Non-Renewable Aquifers Social & Environmental Impacts
  • 6. Other Effects of Groundwater Overpumping- Sea water intrusion  Groundwater overpumping can cause land to sink, and contaminate freshwater aquifers near coastal areas with saltwater. Figure 14-11
  • 7. NSAS Programme?  Updating the Knowledge on the Nubian Sandstone Aquifer within a regional perspective  Knowledge sharing and experience exchange among the countries sharing the aquifer  Building bridges for regional cooperation for the sustainable utilization of the aquifer
  • 8. Role of GIS      Inventory Develop Unified Regional maps Understanding the System Integration Analysis Input for Other Applications
  • 9. 18 ° 20 ° 22 ° 24 ° 26 ° 28 ° 30 ° 32 ° 34 ° D e rn a 32° Tu b ru q % M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e 3 2° a # M a tr o u h Po r t S a id Ale x a n d r ia # # % Ajd a b iya 3 0° 30° # % C a ir o # Su e z # Aw jila h Ja lu Al Ja g h b u b Siw a # d # N i le 28° 2 8° Al B a h a r ey a a # Se Ri v e r # Re # As yu t # # 2 6° 26° Al F a r a f r a # T a ze rb o Mut # # Bz a y m a h # # 24° Ku f r a As w a n # # E N A S E R # 2 4° R e b ya n a Al K h a r g a Ba r is # M a ta n Bis h a r a A K 2 2° 22° L Bir M is a h a # # W a d i H a lf a # M a ta n As S a r r a U zi # Se lim a O a s is Bin i E r d e i # La q iy a A r b a in Go u ro # T e kr o # # O u n ia n g a K e b ir # O u n ia n g a S e r ir # D o n g o la N u k h e ila # # Ka r im a 18° Ed D e b b a # # Fa d a # 1 8° # ElA t r u n F a ya La r g e a u # # W adi Howar 1 6° 16° 2 0° 20° # Ko r o T o r o # Om d u rm a n Kh a r t o u m % % 1 4° 14° Topography # Be n g h a zi 20 ° 22 ° 24 ° 26 ° 28 ° 30 ° 32 ° 34 °
  • 10. 22° 0 26° 28° 150 U % M 1 0 20 0 10 2 32° 34° e d U % i t e r r a M5a t ru h 0 1 e a n S e a 7 A lex an dr ia U % U % 15 0 5 1 20 0 1 5 7 C a ir o 0 % U 5 25 25 A l J ag hb oub U % 30 ° 50 20 0 n 5 75 A jdab iy a 3 0° 30° U % B e n in a 25 24° D e rn a 25 U % U % 2 8° B a h a r i ya O a s i s U % 28 ° ea d S Re S i w a O a s is J alu N i le 3 2° 50 32 ° 0 35 0 30 Fa ra fr a O a s i s U % 2 6° 26 ° Q en a U % Ta z ir b u U % U % A s w an D a k h l a O a s i s K h a rg a O a s i s U % 24 ° 2 4° 25 U % K u f ra A K U % L 2 2° 22 ° 25 50 20 ° 2 0° 25 75 O u n in g a -K e b i r 10 Fa y a - L a rg e a u 0 18 ° 1 8° U % U % 15 0 0 0 1 6° 16 ° 30 25 0 0 35 400 0 450 500 55 0 0 60 0 65 0 075 0 7 2 M alh a U % 14 ° 1 4° Average Annual Rainfall Mm/year 20° 15 0 18° K u tu m U % 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 32° 34°
  • 11. 18 ° 20 ° 22 ° 24 ° 26 ° 28 ° 30 ° 32 ° 34 ° Tu b r u q # M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e 32° a # M a t ro u h # # P or t S aid # A lex an dr ia # A jdab iy a 30° 30° # A wjilah J alu # S iwa # S ue z # 28° # A l B a h a r e ya 28° Eg yp t a Se R iv e r d L ib y a N il e # C a ir o Re # # A l J ag hb ub A s y ut # # A l F a r a f ra 26° 26° # Ta z e r b o M ut # B z ay m ah # K u f ra A s w an # # E N A S ER 24° # A l K h ar ga B ar is 24° Re by an a # # # M a t a n B i s h a ra 22° 22° LA K B ir M is ah a # # W a d i H a lf a # M at an A s S ar r a # S elim a O a s is B ini E r de i # L a q i ya A r b a i n # Te k r o # Cha d O u n ia n g a K e b i r # O u n ia n g a S e r ir # Su d a n K ar im a # E l A tr u n Fa y a L a r g e a u # E d D e bba # # Fa d a # # W adi H o wa r 16° 16° # Do ngo la N u k h e il a # 18° 18° G o u ro # 20° 20° Uz i # K o r o To r o # O m d ur m an K h a rt o u m # # 14° 14° Geological map 32° D e rn a # B en gha z i 20 ° 22 ° 24 ° 26 ° 28 ° 30 ° 32 ° 34 °
  • 12. 18° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 32° 34° A' M B1 - 2 # e # # Da w a b is - 1 # # # # ZZ1 - 6 # O 1 -8 2 3 0° # # # # # # LL L 1 - 6 G 1 -8 2 G 1 -9 7 # # # # F F 1 - 6 5 BB 1 -6 5 EE 1--6 5 # U1 6 5 # # # # AbEluG in d is h 1 o R oa Ab u S e n n a n # # # # C' # # W a d i- e l r a y # # Di yo r # Na s h fa - 1 Ba h a r iya 1 # # ba s 1 5 # J1 - 8 1 a F o ra m 1 # # # A1 - 8 1 # # ba s 1 4 # # P1 - 6 5 EE 1 -7D1 --6 5 D 11 65 # C1 - 7 1 # E1 - 8 1 # -65 H1 # # # # Am m o n it e- 1 F 1 -6 5 # # 26 ° 2 6° W a d i E l N at Ka tt a n ya 1 O 1 -6 5 T 2 -6 5 T 1 -6 5 # a NB 4 2 - 1 J1 - a#6-5 5 Y1 # 6 - EX -3 # Ex - 2 E1 - 6 5 # CC 1 - 6 5 e # # # Ab u G h ar a d # i # # B1 - 7 1 # El D e so u q i # DD 1 - 7 1 S # # # # n Bu r g E l A r a B' Ba h r e in - 1 G 1 -1 2 6 T 1 -7 1 a 28 ° 2 8° N1 - 8 2 # B1 - 6 5 e ea d S Re Z e ita n 1 Siw a 1 # n Sh a r ib - 1 G h o# u d 1 ro W D 7 - 1 Ra b a t -1 G h a za la t -1 El- B a su r # Ko h la # - 1 2 Ko h la G ib b A fi G h o ra b - 1 Be tt y 1 a- 1 # # G ib b A fi a- 2 Kif a r -1 # N. # #Ain H us s e in W e st A1 - 3 3 A1 - 8 2 # # # Q a tt a ra r im # B1 - 3 1 E1 - 3 1 B1 - 1 2 a Ka n a yi s 1 Da b a a - 1 # Ab u S u b e ih a N# h a za l a tG # # # r 30 ° G 1 -3 1 B1 - 1 1 4 r Um b a rk a 1 Um m El- Q u s Sh u #h a n- 1 o s Fa g h u r 1 # E1 - 4 7 # W - Fa g h u r 1 C1 - 4 6 # e M a r sa M a t ru # # t Mamu ra 1 # C i A- 1 9 I1 - 4 1 A1 - 8 8 d H1 - 2 # Ri v e r # A1 - 3 5 N ile 3 2° B1 - 1 8 32 ° # CR 1 - 6 5 # A1 - 7 1 Da k h . Ba s in # ba s 1 3 M #s ar a - 3 a # D1 - 7 1 # # M a la a b E l K # G a rm a sh i n e Up p e r N i le P # # HS 3 HS 1 24 ° 2 4° # 4 HS # # A1 - N C- 4 3 DW K uDW r1 rk u # # # B1 - N C- 4 3 # ba s 1 0 # ba s 1 DW 4 # # 22 ° 2 2° Lo c vii # ba s 9 # ba s 8 # ba s 2 # ba s 7 ba s 1 2 # # W S e lim a 20 ° 2 0° # ba s 1 1 # ct - 1 # Um H il al # El Ba b 1 8° # # 18 ° B El At r u n ba s 6 # En n e d i # W a d iw a rw a r Ho H o # ba s 4 16 ° 1 6° # A ba s 5 # 14 ° 1 4° Location map of cross-sections 20° 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 32° 34°
  • 13. Top of the basement (datum sea level)
  • 14. Transmissivity map Of NAS
  • 15. 22 ° 24 ° 26 ° M 28 ° e d 30° t e r r a n 32 ° e a n 34 ° S 0 e a 30° 50 i 30 ° 32° 50 -5 0 -7 2 . 2 0 -5 7 . 0 0 # # # 5 r N ile R iv e 28° 2 # # 13 5 . 2 5 # 13 4 . 0 0 0 0 25 1 . 2 1 # 13 4 . 1 0 # 0 # # 14 5 . 4 0 # 0 29 6 . 6 4 # 27 # . 1 0 7 # 12 1 . 0 0 14 1 . 8 0 # 15 3 . 1 0 35 27 7 . 0 0 # 26 9 . 1 0 # # 15 0 . 0 0 # 0 26° 14 6 . 5 0 # 30 0 25 7 . 0 0 10 26° 14 9 . 2 0 0 # 15 # 25 0 0 20 14 8 . 9 2 23 5 . 9 7 28° 1 00 13 8 . 6 0 00 a Se 2 18 9 . 6 3 # # d 1 14 3 . 9 0 12 8 . 8 0 0 10 # Re 10 0 10 7 . 0 0 53 . 0 0 82 . 8 0 67 . 7 6# # 73 . 0 9 96 . 0 6# # 14 5 . 9 0 # # # . 7 6 42 # # 13 8 . 6 0 96 52 . 4 0# . 5 0 14 8 . 2 0 # # 28 6 . 6 0 # 30 7 . 0 2 # 84 #7 0 . # 13 2 . 9 9 80 . 5 0 # 400 # # 400 # # 43 5 . 0 0 # 22° # 3 0 Li b y a 55 0 0 27 6 . 0 0 0 # 20° 0 0 0 49 7 . 0 0 # 39 2 . 0 0 # # 27 5 . 0 0 # # 33 2 . 8 0 41 8 . 7 0 # # 33 7 . 0 0 # 23 8 . 4 0 ## 25 3 . 7 7 # 14 5 . 0 0 23 1 . 0 0 # 29 2 . 2 0 # 48 4 . 0 0 46 1 . 3 6 # # 39 5 . 1 0 # # 3 41 0 . 0 0 41 1 . 8 0 47 6 .563 . 1 0 # 7 # # 5 49 5 . 0 0 50 0 # # 0 22 0 . 0 # 0 20 7 . 0 0# 22 2 . 0 0 # 24 3 . 0 0 # S ud a n 5 39 0 . 0 0 # 18 7 . 0 0 Chad 50 9 . 0 0 18° 18° 50 37 6 . 8 3 0 0 # 49 0 . 0 0 #52 1 . 0 0 50 4 . 0 0 # 51 0 . 0 0 # 0 80 9 0 00 1 00 0 11 0 75 1 . 1 0 # 11 7 1 . 0 0 # # 16° 23 2 . 0 0# 23 3 . 0 0 # 0 60 65 0 0 70 0 7 5 0 50 # 44 0 . 2 7# 250 29 4 . 0 0 # 32 4 . 0 0 42 0 . 0 0 50 # 40 0 0 45 # 3 3 24 7 . 0 0 0 0 41 5 . 4 0 # # 35 20° 61 5 . 0 0 # #52 9 . 0 0 40 40 # 16 2 . 5 5 15 2 . 8 5 # 0 60 0 52 9 . 0 0 41 9 . 6 0 5 22° # 13 0 . 2 9 # 0 # 2 25 7 . 0 0 45 # 20 24 7 . 9 7 0 87 13 7 . 4 0 12 5L. A K # 0 # 450 # 15 24 2 . 0 0 # 16° # 11 2 . 5 0 #14 2 . 2 6 # 46 0 . 0 0 5 12 3 . 2 0 15 4 . 0 0 E gy p t S ER . 42 4 . 5 7 41 2# 1 6 # 50 0 . 0 0 12 6 . 1 0 # 24 2 . 0 0 # NA # 37 6 . 0 0 E 38 # . 7 5 7 41 0 . 8 8 # # 40 0 . 4 4 37 6 . 6 0 24° 24° 14 0 . 1 0 # 82 3 . 5 0 # 75 6 . 0 071 8 . 8 0 # # 67 5 . 4 0 14° # 14° Initial Water Level of NAS 20 ° 32° 18 ° 62 3 . 5 062 7 . 0 0 # # 68 8 . 4 0 # 20 ° 22 ° 24 ° 26 ° 28 ° 30 ° 32 ° 34 °
  • 16. 18° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 32° 34° D e rn a 3 2° # Be n g h a z i Tu b ru q % M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e 32 ° a # M a tr o u h Po r t S a id Ale x a n d r ia # # % Ajd a b iy a 30 ° 3 0° # % C a ir o # Su e z # # Aw jila h J a lu Al J a g h b u b Siw a # # # Al B a h a r ey a N ile 2 8° R iv e r Siw a 28 ° ea d S Re # El B a h a r ia As y u t El F a r a f r a # # 26 ° 2 6° Al F a r a f r a El D a k h la # T a ze rb o Mut T a ze rb o # # Bz a y m a h # # 2 4° # El K h a r g a Ku f r a 24 ° R e b ya n a Al K h a r g a Ba r is As w a n # # S ER E To L A K 22 ° 2 2° Ea s t O w e in a t N A sh Al M a ta n Bis h a r a Da rb S. E . K u fr a # ka Ar ba in S. W . K u fr a Bir M is a h a # # # U zi # # Se lim a O a s is 20 ° 2 0° W a d i H a lf a M a ta n As S a r r a Bin i E r d e i # La q iy a A r b a in Go u ro # # T e kro # O u n ia n g a K e b ir # O u n ia n g a S e r ir # # N u k h e ila D o n g o la # Ka r im a F a y a La r g e a u # # Fa d a # W adi Howar 16 ° 1 6° Ed D e b b a # # 18 ° 1 8° # ElA t r u n Ko r o T o r o # Om d u rm a n % Kh a r t o u m % 14 ° 1 4° Extraction zones of NAS 20° 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 32° 34°
  • 17. Figure (5.19) - Water Level Hydrographs of Observation Wells in Kharga Oasis Water Elevation in m from sea level 120.00 100.00 80.00 60.00 40.00 20.00 0.00 -20.00 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 00 Year Umm El-Qusur El Malaa El-Kharga 8 Garmashin 23 West Sanddune Baris 20
  • 18. 30 ° 30 ° 3 0 ' 31 ° Um m El Q u $ 43 . 5 1 $ EL M a h a ri 34 . 8 3 $ 2 5° 3 0 ' 25°30' 50 0 EL M a la a 6$ EL K h a r g a 62 . 3 0 1 0 22 3 7 25 . 2 8 $ EL K h a r g a 61 . 0 9 20 20 . 7 $ $ $ 40 Ph o s p h at Ph o s p h at 3. 6 8 3. 9 2 30 M ala ab E L $ $ 10 Ea s t Bu la 18 . 9 3 Bu la q - 1 30 . 8 2 Bu la q - 1 Bu la q - 1 G a rm a sh i n 5 $ $ $ 33 . 0 2 w sa n d d e 35 . 6 6 30 . 8 2 $ G a rm a sh i n 25° $ $ 26 . 8 3 G a rm a sh i n 25° $ 26 . 7 5 G a rm a sh i n 28 . 6 8 3 0 $ 18 . 1 3 Ba r is - 2 2 4° 3 0 ' 24°30' 20 10 $ No r t h A b u 9. 4 0 5 Water Level Iso-decline in Kharga 24° So u th Ab u 30 ° 30 ° 3 0 ' 24° $ 0. 6 7
  • 19. 2 3° 2 3°15 ' 2 3°30 ' 2 3°45 ' $ P3 5 2 4°15 ' $ P3 6 0 2 4°1 5' # $ P1 7 # # # P1 P2 # # # P2 0 # # # # # # # # # $# # # # # $ P1 1 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # P1 8 # $ $ # $ P1 4 # # # # # # # # # P2 2 P8 # 20 #$ # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # $ # # # # P2 1 # $# # # # $ # P1 2 1 5 # # P1 9 # # # # # # # # # $ P1 5 # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # $ P1 3 # # # # # # # # # # # $ P6 # # # # $ P1 6 # # # # 10 # # # # # # # # $ P2 1 2 2 # # # # $ P2 3 1 1 # # # # # $ # # # # P2 2 3 2 # $ # $ 2 4° $ P3 7 $ P3 4 $ 2 4° 5 P2 8 $ P9 $ $ P3 3 P3 0 0 23 °45 ' 2 3 °4 5' $ P1 0 2 3° $ P3 1 Water Level Iso-decline in Kufra 23 °1 5' 23 °3 0' 23 °4 5'
  • 20. 21 °30 ' 2 2° 2 2°30 ' 2 8° 2 1° PZ -1 0 D P $ 28 ° PZ -9 D P $ $ 2 PZ -1 1 D P 4 1 3 60 d $ $ PZ -1 8 D P Pz -8 $ $ PZ -4 D P $ 6 $ 5 PZ -1 4 D P PZ -1 5 D P 59 d $ PZ -5 D P $ PZ -1 3 D P $ PZ -3 D P $ 6 PZ -1 2 D P 5 $ PZ -6 D P PZ -1 6 D P 4 2 7°30' $ $ 3 2 7°3 0' $ 3 $ ##### ############ ######## #### ########## 56 d $ PZ -1 7 D PPZ -7 D P 7 62 d 1 4 ##### ############ ############ ### ####### 58 d 57 d $ $ $ 2 2 ################################55 d $######### # Ex$ 3 64 d $ 1 PZ -3 3 - D P $ 2 PZ -4 4 D P Pz 5 2 $ PZ -4 3 D P $ 5 2 7° $ 4 0 3 1 $ 2 0 54 d Pz 3 8 $ Pz 3 7 $ $ 27 ° $ A- 1 30 /0 1 PZ -4 5 D P B- 1 29 $ PZ -4 2 D P $ PZ -3 4 D P $ PZ -4 6 D P $ PZ -5 0 D P $ $ PZ -4 1 D P $ PZ -2 - D P PZ -3 9 D P $ PZ -1 D P $ 5 PZ -4 7 D P $ 6 PZ -3 6 D P $ PZ -4 9 D P $ PZ -4 0 D P $ 7 A- 1 00 /0 2 ( $ T(H 1 - 6 5 ) $ PZ -4 8 D P $ 2 1° 2 1 °3 0' Water Level Iso-decline in Saris 22 ° 22 °30 '
  • 21. Water level drop from 8000 BP to 1960 Nubian
  • 22. Nubian - Simulated drawdown 1960-1998 D e rn a B e n g h a zi T u b ru q 5 0 .0 0 M a tro u h P o rt S a id A le xa n d ria 800000 A jd a b iya 4 0 .0 0 C a iro Suez Al Jaghbub 600000 A w jila h Ja lu 3 0 .0 0 S iw a B a h a re y a 2 0 .0 0 400000 Asyut F a ra fra 1 0 .0 0 T a z e rb o 200000 Bzaym ah R e b ya n a 0 .5 0 K h a rg a M ut B a ris Al Jaw f A sw a n 0 B ir T a rfa w i M a ta n B ish a ra B ir S a fs a f O w ie n a t W 3 0 -2 0 0 0 0 0 B ir M is a h a W a d i H a lfa M a ta n A s S a rra S e lim a O a sis U zi -4 0 0 0 0 0 B in i E rd e i L a q iya A rb a in G o u ro T e kro
  • 23. Simulation 00 - Nubian - Drawdown 2000-2060 meters Derna Benghazi 24.0 Tubruq 22.0 800000 Matrouh Port Said Alexandr ia 20.0 Ajdabiya 18.0 Cairo 16.0 Suez 14.0 Al Jaghbub 600000 Awjilah Jalu 12.0 Siwa i a S w 10.0 8.0 Bahareya E l a r B h i a 6.0 400000 4.0 Asyut F arafra E l a f F r r a 2.0 0.5 -0.2 Tazerbo 200000 D l k l E a h a Kharga Mut a e o T z b r -2.0 E l h g K a a r Bzaymah -4.0 Bar is Rebyana Al Jawf Aswan u r K f a u r K f a 0 -6.0 -8.0 u r K f a S . K f W u r a -10.0 T u k h s a Bir Tarfawi S . . f E K r u a Matan Bishara Bir Safsaf -12.0 T u k h s a T u k h s a -14.0 T u k h s a Owienat W30 Bir Misaha -200000 Wadi Halfa Matan As Sarra Extraction zone existing or planned Selima Oasis -400000 Laqiya Arbain Tekro Ounianga Kebir Ounianga Ser ir Dongola Nukheila Karima -600000 ElAtrun Fada Ed Debba Wadi Howar -800000 Oum Chalouba Omdurman Khartoum
  • 24. 22° 24° 26° M e 28° d i t e 30° r r a n 32° e a n S 34° e 32 ° a 3 0° 30 ° EL - K if a r # Siw a # 2 8° # # # # # 2 6° # # # # S- 1 0 PZ 1 8 P- 1 6 PZ 1 6 # P- 3 4 # # # # # ## # ## # ## # # # # # P- 3 7 M a la a b E l- K h e il # # W . S and Dune # # So u t h M u t Kh a r g a - A r m a n t R oa d # N o r th A b u- B a y an N . E l- G ilf E l- K e bir 24 ° TE -0 7 P- 2 6 2 4° Q u r E l- M a le k # PZ - 6 1 8 TE -0 5 # 26 ° PZ - 2 1 8 # # # 28 ° S- 0 2 S- 0 3 Sh e ik h M a r z o uk T .W . I # S- 0 1 TE -0 2 # ## ### a El- H e iz # TE -0 3 TE -0 4 # Se Ni l e R i ve r d Re S. A l Ja g h b u b # P- 3 3 P- 1 0 P- 3 1 # D a r b E l- A r b a iin 2 2° 22 ° # T o sh k a Ea s t O w e in a t N o . 7 # SK D - 2 4 # # W e s t S lim a 2 0° 20 ° Go u ro # O u v r a G e is ole # # U m H ila l 1 8° 18 ° # Q a a b E l- Ba b Ga o u r # # Al A tr u n 1 6° 16 ° 14 ° 1 4° Monitoring Network of NAS 20° 3 2° 18° 20° 22° 24° 26° 28° 30° 32° 34°
  • 25. Thank You

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