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Plan T8: Testing Water Tenure "The experience in Spain"
 

Plan T8: Testing Water Tenure "The experience in Spain"

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Plan T8: Testing Water Tenure "The experience in Spain", By Dr Elena Lopez‐Gun, Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

Plan T8: Testing Water Tenure "The experience in Spain", By Dr Elena Lopez‐Gun, Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

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    Plan T8: Testing Water Tenure "The experience in Spain" Plan T8: Testing Water Tenure "The experience in Spain" Presentation Transcript

    • Plan T8 • Presentations: – The VGGT Voluntary Guidelines – Water Tenure: defining the concept – Water Tenure: testing the concept • Questions: – Q and A: VGGT Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible tenure for Land, Forests and Fisheries – Exercise: Health check on water tenure – Discussion- Is Water Tenure a useful concept?
    • Testing Water Tenure: The experience in Spain Dr Elena Lopez-Gunn
    • PRESENTATION PLAN 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. WHY WHAT WHERE WHAT … and SO WHAT?
    • WHY water tenure? • Era of increased scarcity (population growth, demand from other sectors, climate change) (e.g. Presentation of Prof. Abu Zeid) • Next frontier (cheapest?): Tools for improved management (e.g. World Bank recent report) • Demands increased but supply is fixed… (even after desalination, recycling and technical efficiency…)….Scarcity 2.0 LOOKING FOR INNOVATIVE TOOLS Water Tenure as a tool for management (bottom up) and for planning (top down)
    • WHAT is water tenure? • Water Tenure offers a diagnostic frame to document “real” (de facto) water uses • “All inclusive” (gives non-judgamental space for all uses) • Formal water rights, de minimis, customary and local uses, informal, environmental and future generations • Benchmarking “good” water tenure on a series of key criteria (security, sustainability and equity) • Allows to move up and down scales : Macro level- strategic planning and vision all the way down to the micro level- individual farmer /irrigation community
    • WHAT makes it distinct? • = ‘the relationship, whether formally or customarily defined between people, as individuals or groups, with respect to water resources’. reality on the ground- bottom up approach mapping the existing relationships No a priori normative judgements.
    • HOW did we “test” water tenure • Proof of concept = real application • Three case studies: – South Africa – India – Spain water tenure water accounting
    • India so far…. Potential/anticipated benefits of a water tenure approach in India • • • • • A (new) means of internalising or taking more explicit account of informal laws, informal regulatory instruments and procedures; A practical regulatory instrument to protect water rights on the ground, which could only improve equity of water allocation but also lead to increased willingness to invest in land Better alignment of land and water tenure, that could open up new opportunities (or perspectives) for tackling priority challenges of the water, WASH, agriculture, rural development sectors A practical methodology to track progress (or at least changes) in water tenure and its impact on water stress A way of identifying actual and potential conflicts – and an organizing principle for local (up to district level) government action or plan for future water stress situations (e.g., through a District Water Committee, including elected representatives, bureaucrats & engineers; or a local branch of higher-level regulatory institutions already in place), etc.
    • Spain so far…
    • Spain so far… 2X2 ANALYSIS WATER ACCOUNTING ANALYSIS • “Official “ water accounting + • Water balances e.g. remote sensing WATER TENURE ANALYSIS • “Official” water rights registers + • Water use on the ground e.g. via WUA inventories on use Mixed Methodology: Quantitative: official data, remote sensing, Qualitative: desk review, water registers, Interviews and workshops
    • WHERE DUERO: IRRIGATION MODERNISATION PROJECT GUADIANA: INTENSIVE GROUNDWATER USE
    • Duero Tenure of uses
    • Guadiana tenure of uses
    • Duero Basin • Focus: Look at an Irrigation Modernisation project which affected 95% of consumptive use from a water tenure perspective • Main Lessons- water tenure as an inroad for : Table *. 3 Use Water rights (m ) Percentage Energy 204,123 0,51% Environmental 50 0,00% Industry 54,053 0,14% Irrigation 39,342,099 98,42% Livestock 204,810 0,51% Public supply 296,580 0,42% – improved /efficient management (2.5 Mm3/yr “left” in the river) – WUA reorganisation and infrastructure – Shed light very quickly on discrepancies between use and water rights BUT non-judgamental – .. Thus allow for a constructive dialogue among water users (e.g. nature reserve and farmers) and with the water authority (nonconfrontational, contructive)
    • Upper Guadiana basin • Focus: a closed basin with strong competition for intensively used groundwater • Main Lessons- water tenure as an inroad for 1956 2006 Table *. Imbalance in water supply/demand Demands 3 (Mm ) Public supply Livestock 7.52 0.09 Environment 4.11 3 Irrigation Overall demand 10.0 Industry 129.8 151.52 Supply [available renewable resources - according to RBMP] (Mm ) 91.20 Imbalance in water supply/demand (Mm 3) 60.32 – Quickly diagnose where are the “knots” in the system – Bottom up: need for flexibility and control – Identify points of more difficult agreement – Top down: misalignment between uses and water rights
    • WATER RIGHTS VS WATER USE
    • WATER TENURE AND ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY: UNBUNDLING LAND FROM WATER (Part 1) WATER PRODUCTIVITY (MORE EUROS WITH LESS M3) •vineyards (1.0-3.0 €/m3), •cereals (0.1-0.2 €/m3) •thermo-solar power (10.0-20.0 €/m3). •1.5-15.0 €/m3 for vegetables,
    • WATER TENURE AND ALLOCATIVE EFFICIENCY: UNBUNDLING LAND FROM WATER (Part II) “More jobs and euro per illegal drop..” A- B- C- Figure. Water footprint (A) in millions cubic meter, gross revenue (B) in millions of € and employment (C) in number of jobs by category of crop for the legal and non-authorized groundwater use in the WMA (Dumont et al IN PRESS).
    • WATER TENURE AND WATER GOVERNANCE ve ti ec ff e • “Water tenure also has an important role to play in terms of the promotion of effective water governance particular in terms of conferring the security on water users necessary for genuine participation in decision making processes as well as in terms of promoting accountability. At the same time, though, effective governance is essential for secure and effective water tenure” (Hogson, p.4, 2013) EFFECTIVE WATER TENURE MECHANISMS EFFECTIVE WATER GOVERNANCE
    • Benchmarking: Security of tenure WATER RIGHTS INFRASTRUCTURE RESOURCE BASE Have an administrative That the equipment has Rainfall concession got water Depending on the terrain Legislation Enough water supply Keep the resource among all Save as far as possible Use water correctly of us within the water concession Adequate Water With wet years you have distribution consumptions is less Regularise water Use adequate irrigation important considerably methods Correct use of resources Have all water concessions Good irrigation in order installations and Make our exploitations equipment legal Transparent administration Sustainabililty (stewardship) That each farmers uses the water right allocated Legality of Water concessions ES R TS UL
    • Benchmarking: Equity of tenure PRIORITY BETWEEN USES SOCIAL NEEDS CONTROL ACCESS TO WATER RIGHTS EFFICIENCY AND GOOD STEWARDSHIP Proportional allocation according to first/priority needs Preference for public water supply Reasonable water allocations to keep the socioeconomic balance Priorities should not be subjected to different powers/interest Water use must be correlated with the utility of the resource Water as a social good Social Water has to meet priority needs Water and land have to be tied together Economic, keep areas populated Relationship well and farmer are linked, even if it is a community How is the water issued: you either have rights or you cannot access water any other way Clear and legal concessions Adapt the farm for responsible use Make rational use at all times Keep the water reserve to produce “products” Cultural, protect fauna and flora, tourism Adjustment of m3 per plot Control on the water reserves Water meters for all water abstractions Control via water meters ES R TS UL
    • Benchmarking: Sustainability for tenure AUTONOMY AND CARE FOR OTHERS EFFICIENT AND CAREFUL USE (GOOD HUSBRANDY) RESOURCE BASE Look out so that others do not feel affected by our use (damaged parties) Reasonable use Legitimization and regularisation Farmers must be an agent to better his/her environment in the long term Social awareness Do everything possible so that no one is forbidden from its (his/her) use Make all farmers aware on good management Efficient water use Water meters to control use Precise and effective regulation irrigate with moderation according to the crop needs Not consume more water than the water rights be have been assigned Control of plot consumption Take into account your water concession Consumption according to resources Sow crops according to the allocated quotas The aquifer is very big, and it will not run out if it is used well and it rains now and again Incentivise innovative use to keep uses without impacting on water allocations and rentability/profitability Use according to different uses e.g. recycling of water Save water when it rains TS UL ES R
    • So what?- Conclusion What does water tenure have to do with a key hole, a spotlight, a ladder or a video?
    • THE KEYHOLE An inroad into some of the thorniest, most difficult problems in water management and planning
    • A SPOT LIGHT A spotlight into these thorniest issues together with possible identification of potential options or solutions or root causes (diagnostic tool)
    • A LADDER A ladder because it can go all the way from the bottom at farmer level and all the way to the top, to water planners and strategists
    • From a still photo to a moving video An incorporation on the nature of water as a dynamic resource; where needs are changing and both fleibility and control are key
    • Thank You! Gracias! ‫شكرا‬ Contact: elopezgunn@gmail.com
    • WATER TENURE WORKSHOPS PART 2:…NENA REGION! From the ground up..defining “water tenure”
    • WATER TENURE: UPSCALING • Could a water tenure approach address some of the KEY CHALLENGES in the NENA region? • Examples: – water priority allocation challenges e.g. under water scarcity? (e.g. growing conflicts between water users? – policy-dilemmas such as allocating water to rural communities for poverty-alleviation versus high-value uses such as industry? – measuring, valuing and controlling water? – How to deal with climate variability and exposure to risk? – Would secure tenure help reduce vulnerability? – How does water tenure link to sustainable water use? – Can tenure help lead to a more efficient and equitable use of scarce resources?)
    • 2 Handouts + 1 Exercise MAPPING WATER TENURE +
    • MAPPING of water tenure A. B. C. D. E. F. FORMAL RIGHTS DE MINIMIS OR UN-REGULATED USES CUSTOMARY/LOCAL LAW RIGHTS IRRIGATION RIGHTS COMMUNITY DRINKING WATER SUPPLY NON-CONSUMPTIVE WATER USE FOR FISHING AND OTHER LIVELIHOOD ACTIVITIES G. THE ENVIRONMENT/RIGHTS OF FUTURE GENERATIONS H. INFORMAL USES
    • WATER TENURE HEALTH CHECK: Please assess each type of tenure arrangement in terms of security, equity and sustainability Formal water rights Factors to be taken into account. Use Examples if needed Security SCORE Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 Equity Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 Sustainability Score 0 1 2 3 4 5 (0 unsecure and 5 highly secure) (0 unequitable and 5 highly equitable) (0 unsustainable and 5 highly sustainable)