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Coordination between social protection and agriculture: the key issues

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Presented during the From Protection to Production project Consultative Workshop, 17-18 September 2013, Accra, Ghana

The From Protection to Production (PtoP) project is a multi-country impact evaluation of cash transfers in sub-Saharan Africa. The project is a collaborative effort between the FAO, the UNICEF Eastern and Southern Africa Regional Office and the governments of Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Project activities are mainly funded by the Regular Fund, the DFID Research and Evidence Division and the EU.

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  • 1. Coordination between social protection and agriculture Key Issues Nyasha Tirivayi Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) Agricultural Development Economics Division (ESA) Rome, Italy Consultative Workshop 17 September 2013, Accra, Ghana
  • 2. Outline of the presentation • Why coordinate social protection and agriculture? • What does coordination mean? • Who are the key actors and institutions? • Design and implementation of coordinated social protection and agricultural policies • Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) • Conclusion
  • 3. Why coordinate social protection and agriculture? • Theory and empirical evidence show potential synergies • Coordination helps to build synergies o Less fragmentation o Policy coherence o Better targeting, graduation strategies o Efficiency • Few governments currently coordinating. Little attention in policy discourse
  • 4. What does coordination mean? • Collaboration by social protection and agricultural sectors • No universal approach • Varies by o Intensity- low levels to systemic approach o Level- policy, program, administrative o Structures o Vertical coordination from national, sub-national to local o Horizontal coordination across line ministries
  • 5. Who are the key actors? • Government o Ministries of Agriculture, Social Development o Regional and local government o Other line ministries • Non-governmental o Donors o Civil society • Local communities and individuals
  • 6. What are the institutional mechanisms? • Institutional mechanisms o Policy and legal framework that defines goals and objectives for coordination. E.g. Brazil’s National Law on Food and Nutrition Security o Definition of mandates e.g. managing coordination and oversight. o Decentralization and inclusive participation e.g. Ethiopia’s Food Security Programme highly decentralized. • Financing mechanism o Public, private and external funding
  • 7. What are the institutional mechanisms ? • Success factors o Strong political will o Clearly defined national policy and legal framework o Clearly defined mandates o Inclusive participation- decentralization o Strong institutional capacity o Financial mechanisms that create incentives for coordination
  • 8. What are the institutional mechanisms? • Challenges o Vulnerable to centralization that may discourage innovation and responsiveness o Difficult if too many actors involved, e.g. horizontally or vertically o Competition among mandated actors e.g. fiscal space o Contestation of power by multiple actors o Strong institutional capacities required
  • 9. Design and Implementation • Choice of design and implementation modalities can lead to conflicts or synergies
  • 10. Design and Implementation Issues • consistency of objectives in order to maximize synergies • type of instrument has implications on economic behavior of beneficiaries. o Positive effects on household spending, welfare and local economy o Unintended adverse effects e.g. o conditionalities may divert women’s labour from production o food vouchers may constrain household investment o Public works may supersede women’s other responsibilities,
  • 11. Design and Implementation Issues • Timing of programs and interventions o Coordination harmonizes the timing to exploit synergies o Simultaneous implementation o to beneficiaries, o agricultural programs to non-beneficiaries in same community o Sequencing o Provide agricultural support in the medium or long term after poor beneficiaries of social protection have accumulated capital
  • 12. Design and Implementation Issues • Seasonality o seasonal variation in agricultural labour demand and food prices o public works may divert from household farm labour requirements during the planting season o high food prices can reduce the purchasing power of a fixed cash transfer o coordination would ensure correct timing regarding agricultural seasons
  • 13. Design and Implementation • Targeting o Unified targeting and management information systems o Efficient o Improved monitoring of coverage o Bigger system vulnerable to errors or failure o Targeting criteria may contradict o fewer or small agricultural impacts among labour constrained beneficiaries of social protection schemes.
  • 14. Monitoring and Evaluation • Encourages responsive adjustments that improve coordination • Success factors • • • • • Clearly defined in coordination policy Consistency and comprehensiveness Financial and human resources Unified M&E system Measuring synergies from coordination or integration
  • 15. Conclusion • There are opportunities and challenges to coordination • Dynamic process that takes time • No universal approach • Initial context and political will determine direction and extent of coordination • Countries must tailor coordination that is suited to own context and capacities
  • 16. Thank You! From Protection to Production Project