Improving Agriculture Water Productivity in the Region “Investment in Irrigation in MENA”

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Improving Agriculture Water Productivity in the Region “Investment in Irrigation in MENA”,Lessons from World Bank portfolio and water sector studies, Presented by Qun Li, Senior Operational Officer- World Bank, Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

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  • LESSONS LEARNED Oum Er Rbia: a primary objective of the project is to provide implementing agencies with technical assistance to support farmers in improving access to technology, financing, and agricultural markets. Of the three implementing agencies involved in the project, two have yet to begin this step because of long delays in procurement procedure. These delays could lead to a critical situation where the public networks for water distribution are completed while on-farm irrigation systems are not yet implemented and farmers are not yet ready for conversion to drip irrigation. Sana’a Basin: Farmers may have increased cropping intensity, leading in overall increases in ET -- Good monitoring and careful water accounting are needed to determine the extent of “real” water savings, including checking for potential increases in crop ET, assessment of reductions in non-beneficial ET, distinguishing between recoverable and non-recoverable return flows, and looking at changes at wider scales beyond individual farms. Without careful attention to net impacts on water consumption, well-intended interventions could have much less impact than expected, and may even risk increasing rather than decreasing water consumption.
  • LESSONS LEARNED IIIMP: there are many lessons learned that are presented in the, but an important one is that while modernizing/rehabilitating the irrigation and drainage systems, more emphasis is needed on actively involving the stakeholders at every stage of the planning, design and implementation process. This involves a change in mentality from top-down towards a more bottom-up approach and is more time consuming. However, the extra time invested in the participatory approach will be compensated by a smoother implementation process and less problems during and after hand-over and initial operation.
  • The regional portfolio review covered IBRD and IDA projects: Egypt (5), Iran (1), Iraq (1), Lebanon (1), Morocco (2), Tunisia (4), Yemen (7), and Djibouti (1): WB financed about 22 operations in irrigation and drainage (I&D) with Strong Engagement in I&D and Agriculture Development: According to PADs/ICRs: Investment amounted to US$1.00 billion; covering I&D area about 720,000 ha – developed or rehabilitated; establishing/strengthening 189 WUAS, 4,900 WUGs, 68 collector associations and 20,000 marwa committees; and increasing agricultural productivity between 8-71 %.
  • The regional portfolio review covered IBRD and IDA projects: Egypt (5), Iran (1), Iraq (1), Lebanon (1), Morocco (2), Tunisia (4), Yemen (7), and Djibouti (1): WB financed about 22 operations in irrigation and drainage (I&D) with Strong Engagement in I&D and Agriculture Development: According to PADs/ICRs: Investment amounted to US$1.00 billion; covering I&D area about 720,000 ha – developed or rehabilitated; establishing/strengthening 189 WUAS, 4,900 WUGs, 68 collector associations and 20,000 marwa committees; and increasing agricultural productivity between 8-71 %.
  • The regional portfolio review covered IBRD and IDA projects: Egypt (5), Iran (1), Iraq (1), Lebanon (1), Morocco (2), Tunisia (4), Yemen (7), and Djibouti (1): WB financed about 22 operations in irrigation and drainage (I&D) with Strong Engagement in I&D and Agriculture Development: According to PADs/ICRs: Investment amounted to US$1.00 billion; covering I&D area about 720,000 ha – developed or rehabilitated; establishing/strengthening 189 WUAS, 4,900 WUGs, 68 collector associations and 20,000 marwa committees; and increasing agricultural productivity between 8-71 %.
  • Unless the improvements in water use efficiency are linked to comprehensive water saving management, there is no assurance that consumptive use of irrigation water will actually be reduced and water productivity will be fully improved; It is critical to shift the investment focus from water supply construction to volumetric water demand and consumption management in this water-scarce region, with related investment in real water saving awareness raising, advanced water saving technologies, changes in institutional set-up and technical and operational procedures; There are few effective IWRM instruments in project implementation. There is a need to shift policy dialogue from project investment and the support of large parastatal organizations to the institutional and economic instruments that align incentives for agriculture water saving through service providers and users in rural areas;Decentralization and increased community involvement have shown to be important in all stages of the projects. The establishment of WUAs built a good foundation for agriculture water management at the farm level, but all WUAs need seriously improvement with more authority, financial and technical capacity, and effective cooperation with irrigation agencies to keep functioning, and be really responsible for O&M of on-farm I&D infrastructure and volumetric water consumption management; andClimate resilience was not considered in the concept and design of earlier I&D projects, the new I&D project should integrate the CC adaptation and mitigation measures into all investment activities to support a sustainable green growth in the region.
  • These are initial thoughts – require “ground-truthing”
  • These are initial thoughts – require “ground-truthing”
  • The report provides an exhaustive menu of options, with case study examples from the MENA region.
  • Organization of the report
  • Improving Agriculture Water Productivity in the Region “Investment in Irrigation in MENA”

    1. 1. Improving Agriculture Water Productivity in the Region “Investment in Irrigation in MENA” Presented by Qun Li Senior Operational Officer- World Bank Lessons from World Bank portfolio and water sector studies
    2. 2. Challenges for Agriculture Water Management in MENA • The most water-scarce region: - countries (10% of global land mass) receive only 2% of average annual rainfall; - below 1000 - 500 M3/person/Year; - contain 0.3% of the global annual renewable water sources • Climate change impacts: - by 2015, predicted to be below the level of 500 M3/person/Year for most countries; - by 2050, decline by 50% - below severe water scarcity level • Rapid growth of water demand: - Population growth, economic growth, and Food insecurity • I &D plays a critical role in the allocation of the country’s limited water resources Agriculture is the largest water user (88% in MENA): its importance for employment, income and food security: - Underground aquifers are a major water resource in many countries; some irrigation systems depend largely on groundwater (90% in Libya) Other challenges: • Inadequate public awareness on water conservation; • Urgent needs to improve water productivity, change the traditional approach for I&D investment and management; • Competition between sectors and lack of cooperation between water and agriculture sectors; • Weak institutions and water Governance 2
    3. 3. Increased frequency and intensity of extreme climate events 3
    4. 4. MENA I&D Projects or with Agricultural Water component (closed & on-going projects from 2001-2011) IRAN EGYPT •National Drainage I, II, & Additional Financing MOROCCO •Farm-level Irrigation Modernization •Oum Er Rbia •Integrated Irrigation Improvement and Management Basin Irrigated •Enhanced Water Resources Management Agriculture •Irrigation Improvement Modernization •Irrigation Based Community Development TUNISIA • Second Natural Resources Management •Northern Tunis Wastewater •Second Water Sector Investment •Fourth Northwest Mountainous and Forested Areas Development •Alborz Integrated Land and Water Management IRAQ •Emergency Community Infrastructure Rehabilitation Additional Financing LEBANON •Community Development YEMEN •Water Sector Support Project •Groundwater and Soil Conservation •Sana’a Basin Water management •Irrigation Improvement Project •Land and Water Conservation Project •Rainfed Agriculture and Livestock Project •Southern Governorates Agricultural Privatization DJIBOUTI •Rural Community Development and Water Mobilization
    5. 5. WB Regional Portfolio Review: Brief Results MENA I&D Projects from Year 2001-2011 The regional portfolio review covered IBRD and IDA projects: Egypt (5), Iran (1), Iraq (1), Lebanon (1), Morocco (2), Tunisia (4), Yemen (7), and Djibouti (1): the examples from MENA Portfolio: •Agricultural modernization in Morocco’s “Oum Er Rbia” Basin: – Switch to continuous flow and drip irrigation – On-farm technical assistance to increase productivity and market access for higher-value crops •Groundwater conservation in Yemen’s Sana’a Basin (SBWMP and GSCP): – Reduce conveyance losses by replacing irrigation ditches with pipes – Introduce new irrigation technologies – Train WUAs 5
    6. 6. Regional Portfolio Review: Brief Results MENA I&D Projects from Year 2001-2011 Another Examples from MENA: •Improving large-scale irrigation in Egypt (IIIMP): – Rehabilitate main canals and drainage systems – Introduce flow measurement and continuous flow – Develop Integrated Water Management Districts 6
    7. 7. Regional Portfolio Review: Brief Results MENA I&D Projects from Year 2001-2011 WB financed about 22 operations in irrigation and drainage (I&D) with strong engagement in I&D and agriculture development: According to project documents: • Investment amounted to US$1.00 bill ion; • covering I&D area about 720,000 ha – developed or rehabilitated; • establishing/strengthening 189 WUAS, 4,900 WUGs, 68 collector associations and 20,000 marwa committees; and • increasing agricultural productivity between 8-71 %.
    8. 8. Regional Portfolio Review: Brief Results MENA I&D Projects from Year 2001-2011 Early I&D projects emphasized increasing agriculture productivity through rehabilitation and development of I&D systems, and expansion of irrigated areas, which led to: • increasing surface irrigation water use, especially in water scarcity areas; • the exploitation of the fossil groundwater aquifers (increased wells and exploited deeper aquifers), and increased pumping cost; and • unsustainable water use, and caused social tensions and conflicts
    9. 9. Regional Portfolio Review: Brief Results MENA I&D Projects from Year 2001-2011 There is a major shift in recent I&D projects to support the sustainable water resources development through promoting IWRM, water conservation, linking agricultural water management to broader, integrated communitybased water resources management approaches. But it still without a comprehensive approach for increasing agriculture water productivity (kg/m3) and encouraging water saving by integrating engineering structural measures with agronomic and institutional management and policy reform in addition to lack of on-farm water demand measurement and management component;
    10. 10. Lessons from the Regional Portfolio Review • Unless the improvements in water use efficiency are linked to comprehensive water saving management, there is no assurance that consumptive use of irrigation water will actually be reduced and water productivity will be fully improved; • It is critical to shift the investment focus from water supply construction to volumetric water demand and consumption. • Increase investment in real water saving awareness raising, water saving technologies that reduce consumption, particularly nonbeneficial ET and non-recoverable losses, changes in institutional set-up and technical and operational procedures; • There are few effective IWRM instruments in project implementation. There is a need to shift policy dialogue from project investment and the support of large parastatal organizations to the institutional and economic instruments that align incentives for agriculture water saving through service providers and users at farm level; 10
    11. 11. Lessons from the Regional Portfolio Review • Decentralization and increased community involvement have shown to be important in all stages of the projects. The establishment of WUAs built a foundation for agriculture water management at the farm level, but all WUAs need serious improvement with more authority, financial and technical capacity, and effective cooperation with irrigation agencies to keep functioning, and be really responsible for O&M of on-farm I&D infrastructure and volumetric water consumption management; • Climate resilience was not considered in the concept and design of earlier I&D projects, the new I&D project should integrate the CC adaptation and mitigation measures into all investment activities to support a sustainable green growth in the region.
    12. 12. The key message of the WB report It is necessary to take an integrated approach that emphasizes demand-side water consumption measurement and management, especially at the farm level. This will involve: • • • • the awareness of comprehensive water saving and water demand measurement and management concepts; implementing new technologies for better monitoring and management of water consumption and productivity at farm level; developing and improving I&D infrastructure with the integrated water supply and demand management system (need to install a full water measurement system), that not only for more reliable, equitable, and flexible water service delivery, but also for better integrated water demand/ consumption measurement and management; customized institutions and procedures for the integration/cooperation with end users; and ensuring that water-saving objectives are aligned across multiple sector and scales, from the national to the basin, system, and farm levels. 12
    13. 13. The key message of the WB report Many countries in the region are already aware of potential solutions to water scarcity, but yet many issues persist in the region, because: • solutions have to update all the time (evaluate with the updated technologies and policies), too often been pursued on a piecemeal basis; • it is difficult to implement demand-side management in the absence of advanced water use monitoring and measurement technologies and I&D infrastructure able to ensure good water service delivery; • the new challenge of climate change has not always been considered; and 13
    14. 14. Adaptive engineering Water Saving measures 14
    15. 15. Five key messages from our study 1. Do much more to measure and manage agriculture water productivity (particularly water consumption and ET). Provide a broad perspective – and recognize that effective agriculture water demand management is currently not working well in the region yet. 2. Remove disincentives to efficient water use at the farm level – encourage action toward technologies and financial incentives for improving irrigation efficiency; reducing non-beneficial water consumption; better cropping options; targeted extension; etc. 3. Set water supply and demand/consumption management goal at the national, basin-scale, system and farm HH level to increase agricultural water productivity in both physical and economic terms 4. Develop tailored package of measures that respond to local conditions, capacity, and current practices 5. Mainstream consideration of climate change and resilience in I&D and agriculture development investment. 15
    16. 16. Opportunities for Enhancing Policies and Investments • • • CONVENTIONAL Measure water withdrawals/supply Improve irrigation delivery efficiency: reduce “losses” between diversion & plant Financial irrigation charges: cost recovery for government expenditure based on areas ($/ha) for most surface water irrigation without water measurement system • • • • Increasing participation: the • establishment of water user’s organizations to transfer irrigation O&M management, but not at full operation yet • Competition; water saving to • reduce farmers’ water use, reallocate without compensation • Top-down well licensing to control groundwater abstraction • ENHANCING Measure & manage water supply and consumption, evapotranspiration (ET) Improve water productivity (WPET): yield, biomass, or value per unit of water consumed Water quota allocation and reliable water service delivery as primary instruments for consumption management. Volumetric water change, Strengthen farmer financing for O&M. IMPLICATIONS •Open, transparent water accounting to inform decisions and water users • Target investments and subsidies to raise real water productivity • Progressively modernize operations and infrastructure with improved water measurement system. Irrigation charges to fund O&M, tailored to different situations. Develop WUA financial capacity and cost-sharing. Develop the integrated water supply • Participatory diagnostics, better and demand management system: communications, development of customize institutions and procedures WUA technical and financial capacity for the integration/cooperation with for implementation and operation, end users, and strengthen collective and joint water management action by farmers in improving irrigation Share benefits from shifting water • Facilitate equitable, win-win water between uses transactions, including equitable mechanisms for temporary transfers, e.g.. drought compensation Support local aquifer management: • Inform, facilitate, advise local water 16 consensus-building, regulation/rules governance; responsive enforcement
    17. 17. Develop Tailored Package of Measures 1. 2. 3. 4. Water Demand Options: The high-tech remote-sensing/ET measurement and water delivery monitoring systems provides the opportunity for a more strategic integration of the benefits of well-developed water supply investments with a new farm- and irrigation system-level water saving/demand management focus (irrigation mapping, crop mapping, ET mapping, water accounting, etc.). With careful implementation, these new technologies can be deployed to achieve both water savings and higher yields and economic productivity, with increased incentives; improved irrigation Efficiency and services; land Management; and cropping options. Institutional Options: Strengthen Government Agencies; Improve Accountability and Transparency; Improve Dispute Resolution Mechanisms; Build Capacity; and Decentralize Management. Allocation Options: Win-win Water Transactions (Swaps, Subsidies, Drought Compensation, Water Banking, Dry Year Contingent Contracts, Tanker Markets, and Well Buyouts). Water Supply Options: Water Reuse and Recycling; Renewable Energy Desalination; Reservoir Storage; and Transboundary Agreements. 17
    18. 18. Summary of Recommendations 18
    19. 19. Farmer’s Association and WUA Water Measurement and volumetric Water Charges implemented at the farm household level
    20. 20. Thank You
    21. 21. The Study was supported under the World Bank-FAO Cooperative Program

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