Agriculture and Climate Change: Science and Policy Contexts

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Authors: Francesco N. Tubiello, MAGHG Team

-The Science Context: Climate Change Dimensions
-International Climate Policy
-Critical Issues for Agriculture in the coming decade
-The Monitoring and Assessment of GHG Project
-Objectives of the workshop

Second FAO Workshop on Statistics for Greenhouse Gas Emissions 3-4 June 2013, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago.

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Agriculture and Climate Change: Science and Policy Contexts

  1. 1. Agriculture and Climate Change: Science and Policy Contexts Francesco N. Tubiello MAGHG Team Second FAO Workshop on Statistics for Greenhouse Gas Emissions 3-4 June2013, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
  2. 2. Overview 1. The Science Context: Climate Change Dimensions 2. International Climate Policy 3. Critical Issues for Agriculture in the coming decade 4. The Monitoring and Assessment of GHG Project 5. Objectives of the workshop
  3. 3. Climate Change: The critical role of Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Uses Fundamental human activities (crop and livestock production, forestry, associated land use changes) are both a cause of, and a potential victim of, current and future climate change: 1. They are responsible for large, global scale environmental change 2. Management practices and land use change lead to large amounts of GHG 3. The resulting climate change endangers food security and ecosystems
  4. 4. Pastures add another 3.0 billion ha; or 20% Total land use is ~ 4.0 billion ha, or 30% of total land. (Forest cover ~ 4 Gha) Large global footprint: Crops cover ~ 1.5 billion ha, 10% of global ice- free land
  5. 5. • It has been, is and will continue to be a key driver of global change and climate change CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CH4 CH4 N2O CH4 GHG Emissions are a direct result of land use
  6. 6. AFOLU emissions and anthropogenic forcing Source: IPCC, 2007 – IV Assessment Report 12% Agriculture 18% LULUCF 26% Energy 20% Industry 3% 13% Transport Agriculture LULUCF Energy Industry Waste Transport 30%
  7. 7. The atmospheric implications… Source: NASA GISS, 2012
  8. 8. …and their planetary consequences Source: IPCC, 2007 – IV Assessment Report Sources: NASA-GISS, 2012
  9. 9. Which Future for next generations? Source: IPCC, 2007 – IV Assessment Report
  10. 10. International Action UN Framework Convention on Climate Change UNFCCC, signed in 1992 . Main Objective is specified in Article 2: ‘’…stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner’’
  11. 11. Common but differentiated responsibility • Recognition that ANNEX I parties, developed countries, bear the main responsibility for current GHG concentrations and are primarily called upon to reduce their emissions (mitigation actions) •Non-Annex I countries should nonetheless contribute to global mitigation efforts –considering their increasingly larger role •Annex I parties should help non-Annex I parties in identifying and implementing mitigation actions and adaptation plans in their path towards sustainable development Sources: IEA and NASA-GISS 2012
  12. 12. Mechanisms of the UNFCCC • Reporting GHG emissions by countries with different rules for Annex I and non-Annex I parties. • Non-annex I reporting : National Communications, Biennial Update Report (BUR) from 2014. • Support to National Adaptation and Mitigation Planning: o Capacity building and Technology Transfer o Flexible Mechanisms and Emission Trading (CDM, JI) • Climate Funding (Adaptation Fund, Green Climate Fund, REDD+)
  13. 13. Agriculture and Climate Change Responses There are significant opportunities to develop climate response actions in agriculture that can address adaptation and mitigation at the same time: Good land and water conservation techniques can lead to increase resilience of production, healthier agro-ecosystems, enhance food security and favor rural development goals while reducing GHG emissions and increasing soil carbon Funding and regulations for mitigation in agriculture can thus be tied to sound national rural development policies
  14. 14. National Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs) UNFCCC vehicle to secure significant international support for National Mitigation in non-Annex I parties Significant scope for focusing on agriculture, forestry and associated land use change activities, to link mitigation to rural development goals in a coherent grand plan for national development Considering the large role that agriculture plays in many non- Annex I countries
  15. 15. Sound GHG Reporting at the center of action National GHG Reporting (National Communications, NAMAs, etc.) International Community UNFCCC Parties COP/MOP Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC GHG Reporting Guidelines and Guidance $, Technology, Capacity, etc.
  16. 16. MAGHG: Monitoring and Assessment of GHG Emissions and Mitigation Potentials in Agriculture PROJECT GOALS: • Generate knowledge to help developing countries identify, assess and report their GHG emissions in agriculture, forestry and fisheries • Help countries identify mitigation options consistent with their rural development goals, food security, agro-ecosystems resilience, including NAMAs • Close collaboration with IPCC and UNFCCC in support of reporting and negotiations
  17. 17. MAGHG Project Activities: • FAOSTAT Emissions database, to identify global and regional trends and support FAO member countries • Capacity development for GHG data reporting and NAMA development • Contribution to IPCC: AR5, Revised GPG 2013 KP, IPCC Software
  18. 18. Thank you! Contacto: MAGHG@fao.org Sitio web MAGHG: www.fao.org/climatechange/micca/ghg Sitio web FAOSTAT: http://faostat.fao.org Financiado por:

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