Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa

581

Published on

Author: Talip Kilic, Research Economist, The World Bank …

Author: Talip Kilic, Research Economist, The World Bank

For the Living Standards Measurement Study


Published in: Education
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
581
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
3
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa TALIP KILIC Research Economist Living Standards Measurement Study Poverty & Inequality Group Development Research Group The World Bank tkilic@worldbank.org www.worldbank.org/lsms-isa Presented at the International Women’s Day 2014 Event “Closing the Gender Gap in Agriculture” 7 March 2014 FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy
  • 2. Narrative in a nutshell Closing the Gender Gap in Agricultural Productivity Smallholderbased Agricultural Growth Poverty Reduction & Improvement of Nutritional Outcomes
  • 3. What do (don’t) we know? • Estimates of the gender gap in agricultural productivity in Africa range from 4 to 40 percent, the majority around 20 to 30 percent However…. • Hurdle #1: Household level analyses overlook within household differentiation of individual roles • Hurdle #2: Plot level analyses are largely based on detailed but non-representative/case study data. • Hurdle #3: Inadequate coverage of large & diverse populations
  • 4. How do we improve the knowledge base ? • New research program, with funding from IFAD & World Bank • Using new (gender-disaggregated) data from the Living Standards Measurement Study – Integrated Surveys on Agriculture (LSMS-ISA), with funding from BMGF • Nationally- & regionally- representative multi-topic household panel surveys with an emphasis on agriculture • Geo-referenced household & plot locations for improved links to geospatial data sources, allowing better understanding of environmental constraints • Focus: Ethiopia, Malawi, Niger, Nigeria, Tanzania & Uganda
  • 5. How do we improve the knowledge base ? (Cont’d) • Applying new empirical methods to differentiate between the contributions of gender differences in – Levels of factors of production: Endowment effect – Returns to factors of production: Structure effect • Outlining relative contributions of each factor towards the gap, across & within countries • Key step in informing policies to alleviate gender differences underlying the gap
  • 6. Measuring the Gender Gap in Malawi • 26% of agricultural plots managed by females • On average, female-managed plots are 25% less productive • Gap is bigger for the more productive farmers Kilic, T., Palacios-Lopez, A., & Goldstein, M. (2013) “Caught in a productivity trap: a distributional perspective on gender differences in Malawian agriculture.” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 6381
  • 7. Explaining the 25% Gap • 80% of the gap is driven by unequal endowments – – – – Household adult male labor input High-value export crop cultivation Access to agricultural implements Inorganic fertilizer • Where does the 20% structure effect come from? – Lower returns to adult male labor & inorganic fertilizer on female-managed plots – Domestic duties (children in particular) lower agricultural productivity
  • 8. Way forward • Set of empirical country studies using similar methodology to be published in Agricultural Economics (under review) • Selected results distilled in a report “Leveling the Field: Improving Opportunities for Women Farmers in Africa, jointly produced by WB Africa Region Gender Practice & ONE Campaign, targeted at policymakers • The report pulls together the binding constraints to closing the gap within & across countries, teases out commonalities
  • 9. Ethiopia Factor Malawi Niger Northern Nigeria Southern Nigeria Tanzania Uganda Levels Returns Levels Returns Levels Returns Levels Returns Levels Returns Levels Returns Levels Returns Land Size Other Land Characteristics* Improved/Purchased Seeds Pesticide/Herbicide Use† Non-Labor Fertilizer Use (Organic or Inorganic)† Inputs Irrigation Farm Tools & Equipment Household Size HH Male Farm Labor† HH Female Farm Labor† Labor Hired Farm Labor† Time Spent on Farm Activities Child Dependency Ratio Information Agricultural Extension Export/Cash Crops Access to Credit or Agricultural Capital Markets Distance to Market or Road Non-Farm Income/Activity Land • Offers a cross-country outlook on binding constraints in the domains of:       Age & Human  Capital Wealth Land Labor Inputs Non-Labor Inputs Information Market Access Human Capital Age Wealth • Identifies policy priorities to address gender differences in levels of & returns to key inputs • Reviews the (scant) evidence on how to address the differences, provides a set of emerging & promising policy options Years of Schooling Wealth/Consumption Launched planned for March 18/19. Stay tuned!
  • 10. Gender Differentials in Productivity: Identifying Opportunities for Agricultural Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa TALIP KILIC Research Economist Living Standards Measurement Study Poverty & Inequality Group Development Research Group The World Bank tkilic@worldbank.org www.worldbank.org/lsms-isa Presented at the International Women’s Day 2014 Event “Closing the Gender Gap in Agriculture” 7 March 2014 FAO Headquarters, Rome, Italy

×