Near East and North Africa: Land and Water Days

Challenges and Opportunities of the Nile
Transboundary Waters

Prof. Dr. ...
T he Nile
Basin

1.Burundi, 2.Congo, 3.Egypt, 4.Ethiopia,
5.Eritrea, 6.Kenya, 7.Rwanda, 8.Sudan,
9.South Sudan, 10.Tanzani...
Main Challenges facing the NB Countries
1.Population growth (2.5 – 3.0%) and poverty.
2.Displaced people and refugees.
3.C...
Nile Basin Countries in Gradual Process Towards Cooperation
Democratic
Republic of
Congo

Burundi

Egypt

Eritrea

Uganda
...
Levels of Cooperation within the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI)
Global (ICCON and International
Discourse)

Ethiopia

Sudan

...
Implementation of NB
Cooperation Framework Agreement (CFA)
Implementation faces some major legal problems and complication...
Areas of Differences over the CFA
Four major issues were raised during the negotiations :
1.use of terms (River Basin Vs. ...
Article 14 (b)
Egypt and Sudan demanded that Article 14 (b) should be
replaced by the following wording: (b) not to advers...
Nile River System Versus Nile River
Basin
CFA distinguishes between “NRB” and “NRS”.
1- NRB as “the geographical area dete...
THE GRAND ETHIOPIAN RENAISSANCE DAM

The Locations of the Ethiopian
Proposed Dams on the Blue Nile
Prior 2010

UNESCO-CWR,...
Opportunities in NB
Opportunities in the NB are too many for example:Integrated water resources development would grantee ...
Successful Stories of Cooperation in the Nile (NBI)
1. NBI is a story of success
2. A forum for NB countries to dialogue
3...
Recommendations
In Transboundary Water two mean issues are essential:1. Strengthening Policy, Legal and Institutional fram...
A way
Forward
Build on the successful cooperative initiative (NBI) to
maximize the gain and to bridge the gap
and Move tog...
Thank you
for your

ATTENTION
UNESCO-CWR, Sudan

Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed

15
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Challenges and Opportunities of the Nile Transboundary Waters

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Challenges and Opportunities of the Nile Transboundary Waters By Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalam Ahmed, Director General, UNESCO Chair in Water Resources, Sudan , Land and Water Days in Near East & North Africa, 15-18 December 2013, Amman, Jordan

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Challenges and Opportunities of the Nile Transboundary Waters

  1. 1. Near East and North Africa: Land and Water Days Challenges and Opportunities of the Nile Transboundary Waters Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalam Ahmed, Director General, UNESCO Chair in Water Resources, Sudan aaahmed55@yahoo.co.uk, aaahmed55.aa@gmail.com 15 - 18 Dec. 2013, Amman , Jordan UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed 1
  2. 2. T he Nile Basin 1.Burundi, 2.Congo, 3.Egypt, 4.Ethiopia, 5.Eritrea, 6.Kenya, 7.Rwanda, 8.Sudan, 9.South Sudan, 10.Tanzania, and 11. Uganda.  Nile is the longest river in the world (6671 km).  The total annual flow of the Nile River is 84 km3 (measured at Aswan High Dam). Max. flow 120 km3/yr 1916, Min. 42 km3 /yr 1984.  This represents only about 2% of the Amazon River, 6% of the Congo, 12% of the Yangtze, 17% of the Niger, and 26% of the Zambezi. UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed 2
  3. 3. Main Challenges facing the NB Countries 1.Population growth (2.5 – 3.0%) and poverty. 2.Displaced people and refugees. 3.Climate change and food security. 4.Erosion and sedimentation. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.Natural disasters: Flood devastation. Drought and desertification Watershed degradation Institutional structures and capacity building. 5. Political commitment and conflicts within the region of the NB. 6. Lack of financial resources and technology. 7. Enabling environment for cooperation. 8. Trust and confidence building .
  4. 4. Nile Basin Countries in Gradual Process Towards Cooperation Democratic Republic of Congo Burundi Egypt Eritrea Uganda Ethiopia Full member Observer UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Kenya Rwanda Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed Tanzania 4
  5. 5. Levels of Cooperation within the Nile Basin Initiative (NBI) Global (ICCON and International Discourse) Ethiopia Sudan Burundi Rwanda Tanzania Nile Equatorial Lakes Sub-Basin (NELSAP) Eastern Nile Sub-Basin (ENSAP) Egypt Eritrea Kenya DRC Uganda Nile Basin (SVP. Cooperative Framework) UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed 5
  6. 6. Implementation of NB Cooperation Framework Agreement (CFA) Implementation faces some major legal problems and complications:1- One of the main objectives of CFA is to establish the NB Commission, to promote and facilitate the implementation of the principles, rights and obligations set forth in the CFA. Moreover, it serves as an institutional framework for cooperation. 2- Legal Issues: CFA states that upon entry into force of the CFA commission shall succeed to all rights, obligations and assets of the NBI. The immediate question that arises is: What will happen to the rights and obligations under the NBI of the states that are not parties of CFA? it raises legal issues and exacerbate the existing disputes over the CFA. 3- Egypt and Sudan argue that this is a draw back from NBI consensus. UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed 6
  7. 7. Areas of Differences over the CFA Four major issues were raised during the negotiations : 1.use of terms (River Basin Vs. River System); 2.prior Notification of Planned Measures; 3.the status of the existing agreements; 4.the CFA amendment. Water Security CFA defines water security as “the right of all NB States to reliable access to and use of the Nile River system for health, agriculture, livelihoods, production and the environment”. ***NB States therefore agree, in a spirit of cooperation (Article 14):(a) to work together to ensure that all states achieve and sustain water security; (b) not to significantly affect the water security of any other NB State. UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed 7
  8. 8. Article 14 (b) Egypt and Sudan demanded that Article 14 (b) should be replaced by the following wording: (b) not to adversely affect the water security and current uses and rights of any other NB State, 14b original (not to significantly affect the water security of any other NB State) It should also include notification of the planned projects UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed 8
  9. 9. Nile River System Versus Nile River Basin CFA distinguishes between “NRB” and “NRS”. 1- NRB as “the geographical area determined by the watershed limits of the NRS of waters” 2- NRS as “the Nile River and the surface waters and groundwaters which are related to the Nile River”, Egypt has been claiming that the definition of NRS applies to both environmental protection and water allocation. This means that the Nile waters is not only the 84 km3, (blue water), but more than 1,600 km3 (green water). UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed 9
  10. 10. THE GRAND ETHIOPIAN RENAISSANCE DAM The Locations of the Ethiopian Proposed Dams on the Blue Nile Prior 2010 UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed 10
  11. 11. Opportunities in NB Opportunities in the NB are too many for example:Integrated water resources development would grantee an optimal and sustainable water use. Poverty reduction through cooperation. Shared programs and projects that lead to shared water benefits, e.g. Food security, hydropower sharing, trade --etc. Socio-economic development by managing the natural resources in the whole NB as one unit. Peace and political stability. UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed 11
  12. 12. Successful Stories of Cooperation in the Nile (NBI) 1. NBI is a story of success 2. A forum for NB countries to dialogue 3. Established Regional institutions 4. Built capacity of water resources sector 5. Addressed development through its SAP 6. Enhanced the knowledge base & information sharing
  13. 13. Recommendations In Transboundary Water two mean issues are essential:1. Strengthening Policy, Legal and Institutional frameworks. 2. Joint management of the shared water system to balance competing uses and enabling sharing benefits from the water resources utilization UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed 13
  14. 14. A way Forward Build on the successful cooperative initiative (NBI) to maximize the gain and to bridge the gap and Move together
  15. 15. Thank you for your ATTENTION UNESCO-CWR, Sudan Prof. Dr. Abdalla Abdelsalm Ahmed 15
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