Overview of new FAO knowledge on adaptation and mitigation option


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Food Security and Climate Change Ways forward for strengthening resilience and building synergies between adaptation and mitigation

Overview of new FAO knowledge on adaptation and mitigation option

Alexandre Meybeck, FAO

Bonn, 4th June 2013

© FAO: http://www.fao.org

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Overview of new FAO knowledge on adaptation and mitigation option

  1. 1. Overview of new FAO knowledge onadaptation and mitigation optionsAlexandre Meybeck, FAOFood Security and Climate ChangeWays forward for strengthening resilience and buildingsynergies between adaptation and mitigationBonn, 4th June 2013
  2. 2. A systemic approach:• Ecosystem• Economic• Social• Food system• Household• Farm• Landscape
  3. 3. ResilienceUncertaintyGitz & Meybeck 2012
  4. 4. In CFS 2012, 2 policy round tables on climatechange and on social protection, 2 HLPE reports
  5. 5. CFS Policy Recommendations• Urgency• Integrate CC concerns in FS policies andprogrammes• Increase resilience of vulnerable groups andsystems• Emphasis on Adaptation• Mitigation, as a co-objective of Food Securityand Adaptation• Link with UNFCCC
  6. 6. Main “tools”• Investments (including private)• Extension services• Integrated land use policies• Risk management (forecasting, early warning,DRM…)• Assesments• Information collection• Research• International cooperation
  7. 7. Actors• Recommendations addressed to allstakeholders in CFS• Participation of all stakeholders• Involvement of the most vulnerable (women,small holders)• Specific mentions of FAO:– FAO Adapt– CGRFA– Collaboration with UNFCCC
  8. 8. Report of CFS available at:www.fao.org/cfs
  9. 9. Commission on Genetic Resourcesfor Food and Agriculture• In 2011 (13th Session)– Considered studies on the impact of climatechange on genetic resources and on thepotentials of GRFA to cope with climatechange• In 2013 (14th Session)– Adopted a Programme of Work on climatechange and genetic resources for food andagriculture (2013 – 2016)
  10. 10. Challenge in figures• Animal breeds– 8 300 animal breeds known– 8% are extinct and 22% are at risk of extinction.• Trees– Over 80 000 tree species– Less than 1% have been studied for potential use• Fish– Provide 20% animal protein to about 3 billion people– Over 175 000 species of fish, mollusks, crustaceans and aquatic plants– 10 species about 30% marine capture fisheries– 10 species about 50% aquaculture production• Plants– Over 80% of the human diet– 30 000 edible terrestrial plants– 7 000 are cultivated or collected– 5 cereal crops provide 60% energy intake• Micro-organisms and invertebrates– Key for ecosystem services– Contributions still poorly known and acknowledgedGeneticdiversityprovides keyoptions forclimatechangeadaptation
  11. 11. Activities – outputs – outcomesSurvey on GRFAand climatechange resiliencein agriculturesystemsConsultationsExperts MeetingsStudiesParticipation toclimate changeprocessGRFA hotspotsand climatechangeGuidelines forintegration ofGRFA intoNAPs, NAPAsTechnicalknowledgeAwarenessmaterial Increaseintegration andsynergies-MainstreamGRFA in climatechangeSide eventsPresentations
  12. 12. FAOSTAT Emissions Database+IPCC Guidelines=& geo-referenced information
  13. 13. New publications: Support for planning NAMAs withinagriculture• Key: Climate change mitigation withinagriculture can be aligned withagricultural development goals.• Content: NAMA Building blocks• Step-by-step approach for designingNAMAs in agriculture• Country case studies illustrating the rangeof options• Combining other sources of finance toclimate finance• MRV biggest challenge for requiringclimate finance More informationMarjaLiisa.TapioBistrom@fao.org
  14. 14. Linking people, sharing knowledgeWhy an online community for practitioners?• Makes relevant information accessible• Cost-effective: spreads ideas, addresses challenges• Clarity on climate-smart agriculture• Papers through collaborative writing• Free membership!Who’s involved?660 members➝ 60 countries➝NGOs➝Businesses➝Research➝ Ministries➝UNJoin the community:maria.nuutinen@fao.orgBITLY LINK TO JOINFORMwww.fao.org/climatechange/micca/75150Action: Learning events through webinarsand online discussions…Conservation agricultureAgroforestry and climate change mitigationGHG emissions from livestock supply chainsGHG measurements in field projects
  15. 15. FAO’s livestock LCA• Specific objective of LCA: produce disagregated estimates ofglobal GHG emissions and emissions intensity to : identify lowemission pathways for the livestock sector• Coupled with economic analysis• Linked to multi-stakeholder initiatives• Strong link between Ei and resource use efficiency– Bridging the efficiency gap provides substantial mitigationpotential (1/3rd )– Additional mitigation from C sequestration (ca. 0.4 to 0.6 Gt)15
  16. 16. Global emissions from livestock supply chains, bycategory of emissions (includes emissions to edible products as well as toother goods and services, such as draft power and wool)24.0%13.0%3.2%6.0%0.4%39.1%4.3%5.2%1.5% 0.3% 2.9%Feed N2OFeed CO2 - LUC excludedFeed CO2 LUCPasture expansion CO2 LUCFeed CH4 riceEnteric CH4Manure CH4Manure N2ODirect energy CO2Embeded energy CO2Post farm gate CO216
  17. 17. Emission intensities (Ei) : CO2e per kg protein50% ofprod80% ofProd.Average17-50.00100.00150.00200.00250.00300.00350.00400.00450.00500.00Beef Cattle milk Small ruminantmeatSmall ruminantmilkPork Chicken meat Chicken eggs
  18. 18. What are the main strategies for thereduction of emission intensities?– animal level: feed digestibility and balancing,health, genetics– herd level: maintenance to production ratio– production unit level: grazing management, sourcelow Ei feed, energy– supply chain level: energy use efficiency, wasteminimization and recycling18
  19. 19. Knowledge and tools to Facilitate Integration ofClimate Change into the Fisheries and AquacultureTechnical guidance on climate change relevant to vulnerable fisheriesand aquaculture systems – supporting the sector’s involvement inbroader CC discussions• Global knowledge on impacts, vulnerabilities, adaptation andmitigation options in FI&AQ (2009)• Regional, national and local understandings of CC implications forFI&AQ (2010-2012)– Caribbean SIDS, Pacific SIDS, Lake Chad Basin, Benguela Current,Vietnam Mekong River Basin, Asia regional, Latin America, NearEast/North Africa, African Great Lakes, West and Central Africa,East and Southern Africa
  20. 20. Assistance in NAPA and NationalCommunications implementation• FI&AQ in NAPA – importance, vulnerabilities andpriorities (2011)– understanding countries’ prioritiesand identifying potential gaps• Vulnerability assessments methodologies and theirrelevance to FI&AQ (2013) – Analysis of IPCC VAframework and experiences and recommendationsfor FI&AQ• Developing tools for adaptation – Participatorywater quality monitoring systems, DRM
  21. 21. Global Partnership on Climate,Fisheries and Aquaculture (PaCFA)
  22. 22. Peatlands• Guidebook underpreparationTowards responsiblepeatlandsmanagement practices
  23. 23. Guidebook under preparationTowards responsible peatlands managementpracticesTechnical manual on practices, focused on climate change mitigation andimproved livelihoodsManual will incorporate: Environmental and socio-economic benefits that peatland can provide; Description of management practices; Illustrative case studies of responsible management practices; and Suggestions how to engage diverse stakeholders participation in theplanning and management processes.Intended audience: Land managers at operational level in key peatlandscountries.Planned publication date: End of November 2013
  24. 24. Tools to Facilitate Integration of ClimateChange into the Forest SectorGuidelines for integrating climate change into the forest sector• Climate change for policymakers: approach for integrating climate change intonational forest programmes (2011)– guidelines that cover policy, legal, institutionaland financial aspects of climate change adaptation and mitigation of relevance toforest policymakers• Climate change guidelines for forest managers (2013) – practical actions andconsiderations for forest managers that would facilitate climate change adaptationand mitigation at forest management unit levelTechnical information on climate change relevant to ecosystems at risk• Guidelines for Sustainable Management of Dryland Forests (2013) – containsclimate change-related elements• Climate change and mountains (2011)
  25. 25. FAO/ UN-REDD Programmeapproach to Monitoring & MRV• Ways to consider the REDD+ monitoring and information provisionneeds in the broader context of national development andenvironmental strategies, at the implementation level• Elements needed in National Forest Monitoring Systems (NFMSs) tosupport the implementation of UNFCCC provisions -- in line withIPCC guidance• Helps clarify the many UNFCCC decisions relating to REDD+(principles, rules and modalities, methodological guidance)• Implications of the implementation of REDD+ activities in distinctnational contexts, and the various steps involved• NFMS can serve simultaneous functions:– ‘monitoring’ -- primarily a domestic tool to assess a broad range offorest information, including in the context of REDD+ activities– ‘MRV’ -- estimation and international reporting of national-scale forestemissions and removals, including: 1) satellite land monitoring system;2) national forest inventory; and 3) national GHG inventory
  26. 26. Towards NAPs : a review of NAPAsin 18 African countries• 195 priority projects• 95 % concern agriculture (97% of the budget)• Transversal (27%)• Water (23%)• Crops (11%) Livestock (8,5%)• Forest (9%)• Coasts (6%) Fisheries (3%)• Food (5%) Energy (6%)
  27. 27. EPIC Project: CLIMATE SMART AGRICULTURE: CAPTURING SYNERGIESMITIGATION, ADAPTATION, FOOD SECURITYDuration: 1 January 2012 - 31 December 2014.Resources: 5.3 million Euros (EC, SIDA, FAO)Partners: Malawi, Vietnam and Zambia, MICCA,CCAFS, Univ. of Aberdeen, FANRPAN, othersFocus: Holistic and context-specific approaches to food security,adaptation, mitigation to understand synergies/trade-offs and barriersto adoption of CSA practices. Develop with government and otherstakeholders tools for identification-implementation of context-appropriate options for:(i) climate-smart agricultural practices and(ii) supportive policy, institutional, strategic and investmentframeworks to promote sustainable agricultural development andfood security under climate change; to overcome adoptionbarriers and manage climate change risks.
  28. 28. Sequencing of project activitiesAssessingthe situationIdentify barriersand enablingfactors ManagingClimate RiskDefiningcoherentpoliciesGuidingInvestmentsCSA aims to build evidence-based agricultural development strategies, policies andinvestment frameworks to improve food security, facilitate adaptation to climate change, andseek opportunities to mitigate GHG emissions, compatibly with countries’ national foodsecurity and development goals.
  29. 29. Expected Outputs ofFAO’s first climate-smart agriculture projectAn evidence base: Combines (i) socio-economic, land use, climatedata; (ii) institutional, policy, program mapping; (iii) current baselineand compared with potential CSA pathway; (iv) costs and benefits ofaction.Coherent policies and strategic direction for CSA: Draw on existingnational/sub-national policy, planning, investment instruments.Promote integration, alignment and coordination across policyinstruments, institutions, stakeholders. Provide strategic vision andhow to get there.Investment proposals for Implementation: identify prioritiesfor action, resource requirements; develop/use metrics showingadditional CC costs and benefits; facilitate access to possible sources offinancing, including climate finance.
  30. 30. Way forward• Knowledge• Tools• Capacity building• Inclusive• Country led policies