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  • 1. Rural Futures Initiative: Opportunities for Engaging the Youth in Productive Rural Enterprises FAO, 28th ARC, Tunis, Tunisia. 26th March 2014 Dr. Sloans Chimatiro Head of Fisheries, NEPAD Agency NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency
  • 2. Key Messages • Despite urbanisation, the majority of Africans are in rural areas, therefore, rural transformation is critical; • Many rural dwellers are involved in agriculture (including pastoralism and fishing), therefore, economic development should be agriculture-led; and • Africa’s youth are in majority, therefore, agriculture and rural development must encompass the employment needs of the youth!
  • 3. All Seems Well, But Not Benefiting Rural Transformation: Rural Poverty… Source: Adapted by CGIAR Consortium, Aquatic-Agriculture Systems (ASS) South Asia SSA Millionsofruralpeople
  • 4. All Seems Well, But Not Benefiting Rural Transformation: Rural Poverty In Fishing Communities… Source: Adapted by CGIAR Consortium, Aquatic-Agriculture Systems (AAS) Ca. 100m people dependent on AAS 66% living in poverty
  • 5. All Seems Well, But Not Benefiting Rural Transformation: Context of Rural Futures… The recent economic growth has not translated into development of the rural areas: • Economic growth is not complementing agriculture production on a scale to create sustainable employment • The key drivers of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) do not lead to job-creation, growth and poverty reduction • Because GDP has risen mainly as a result of capital intensive activities • Although agriculture’s share in GDP is the highest in many African countries, but it lacks the dynamism to create large numbers of jobs especially for the youth • The agriculture sector, especially fisheries, lacks the capacity to promote manufacturing • In many countries formal sector employment is on the decline, leading to huge informal sector, which has not been harnessed • Economic diversification has not happened (vulnerable economies) • How to address the unfavourable rural-urban linkages (harness development potential)
  • 6. Number of rural youth (aged 15–24) by region, trends and projections to 2050 in key regions of Africa (millions) Source: Based on Van der Geest, 2010 (elaboration from United Nations, World Population Prospects, the 2008 Revision)
  • 7. Africa Union’s Commitment to Youth Development • To reduce youth unemployment by 2% per year from 2009 to 2018 • To elaborate Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Framework • Promote the adaptation and adoption of CAADP • Develop the Pan-African Fisheries & Aquaculture Policy Framework & Reform Strategy (with strong focus on youth) • NEPAD Impact Investment Fund for SME in Fisheries & Aquaculture (NEST) • Skills development and job creation studies to inform policy • Promote the Rural Futures Initiative to address rural transformation!
  • 8. Rural Futures: Goal • Goal: Accelerated and diversified economic growth in rural areas includes an expansion of employment and rural livelihood opportunities, in order to eradicate rural poverty and improved environmental sustainability. • Purpose: To facilitate new thinking and broad agreement on rural economic development and the reduction of rural poverty and inequality.
  • 9. Rural Futures: How to deal with Poverty in Rural Areas Basic Route for Rural Transformation Development of agro & non-agro enterprises Value-addition (knowledge-intensive products) Sustained creation of jobs • Improve access to investment finance for rural people • Tax incentives including SME • Labour productivity (skills development) • Government service (social security, extension services) • Market (integrate, improve demand) Key Drivers For Rural Transformation Transformative Leadership (Political economy) Development strategies (territorial planning, environmental sustainability, infrastructure)
  • 10. Rural Futures: Entry Points 1. A focus on rural and territorial planning, policy and intervention (policy and institutional reforms) 2. Identify key infrastructure which will drive rural transformation (rural connectivity) 3. Strengthening the productive sectors in rural areas and job creation (productivity and profitability) 4. Target equitable access to resources and services (public service delivery); and 5. Sustainable natural resource management and climate change (ecosystems approach).
  • 11. Rural Futures: Principles 1. Redefine the understanding of ‘rural’ (recognise diversity) 2. Mainstream rural development into national strategies and commit to the long term (including social support schemes, e.g. Cash transfer) 3. Realign institutions and policies for effective rural development (multi-sectoral approach) 4. Apply a spatial focus to public policy and investment (new tools for public policy) 5. Build a broader understanding of and support to the productive sectors in rural areas (CAADP+ or multiple livelihood strategies) 6. Address land and natural resources reform and agrarian structure (e.g. FAO Guidelines on Tenure) 7. Recognise informality as central to rural transformation (harness informal sector) 8. Foster social actors and build local and national level consensus for strategy and action (including local and traditional leadership) 9. Support place-based territorial development as model for rural development (place- specific strategies) 10. Strengthen the evidence base to inform rural policy and investment and share learning (Think Tank)
  • 12. How to Capture Youth in Fisheries & Aquaculture Development Integrate fisheries and aquaculture in the knowledge economy By: Building Science, technology & innovation (STI) capacity to produce more knowledge-intensive, higher value added fisheries and aquaculture goods/products and services; Put in place policies that will enable building STI capability most effectively; and Boundary organizations (including NEPAD Agency and FAO) must seek to improve their capacity to respond effectively and support with programmes with a proven track record
  • 13. Options for Integrating the Youth: Improving Competitiveness of Aquaculture Industry Research technology •Policy research for better aquaculture development •Aquaculture science for productive systems Processing technology •Processing machines •Material technology Transformation from Primary to Secondary & Tertiary Products Fish Biochemistry & food science Transformation of primary to knowledge-intensive products Markets & Entrepreneurship •Quality control •Managerial aspects •Market information research US$1/kg US$2-3/kg
  • 14. Next Steps: Framework for Reforms • Undertake tertiary education reform (applied research; budgetary allocation; promote linkages of institutions) • Involve the youth in the process of policy formulation • Improve youth’s technical and managerial skills in fisheries and aquaculture industry • Improve tele-density and internet access in order to excite the youth • Improve and integrate National Fish Innovation Systems (e.g. Aquaculture Parks or Knowledge Hubs, where Research Centres, universities, Think Tanks, private enterprises work together) • Enhance domestic processing (value-adding) of fish products, and exploiting backward linkages by building engineering/scientific capacity in the innovation system • For all to happen, Africa needs leadership and involvement of the citizenry (participation).