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Seed production & disaster risk management


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Seed production and disaster risk management in 3 northern provinces of …

Seed production and disaster risk management in 3 northern provinces of
Phu tho – Yen bai – Lao cai

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  • 1. SEED PRODUCTION AND DISASTERRISK MANAGEMENT IN 3 NORTHERN PROVINCES OF PHU THO – YEN BAI – LAO CAI Tran Minh Tri - National DRR Consultant Maria Cristina Bentivoglio - FAO Programme Officer on DRR
  • 2. ContentI. Current Rice/Seed Production in the 3 Northern mountainous provincesII. FAO Disaster Risks Reduction & Climate Change Adaptation Actions in the Northern Mountainous Region
  • 3. I – Current Seed Production in the 3 Northern Mountain Provinces1. Data from surveys in the 3 provinces2. Germination, purity and average yield of varieties seeds supplied in the FAO project TCP/VIE 32023. Annual expenditure for seed subsidy. Policies for seed secure and extension4. Seed Production Groups – Current economic performance5. Conclusion6. Recommendation – Political, institutional and individual
  • 4. Data the surveys Phu Tho Yen Bai Lao Cai Hybrids Varieties Hybrids Varieties Hybrids VarietiesCost/ha (VND Mn) 12.5 12.08 10.45 10.45 8.15 6.71Average yield (ton/ha) 5.5 5.0 5.0 4.7 5.5 – 6.0 5.2 – 3.5Revenue (VND 23.65 25.0 20.0 25.85 24.75 – 30.0 33.8 – 49.0Mn/ha)Gross margin/ha 11.15 12.92 9.55 15.4 16.6 – 21.85 27.09 – 42.3(VND Mn)• Comments: At the same cultivating input for both hybrid and variety- Almost no yield difference in average yield/ha- Varieties have remarkably higher gross margin- Economic efficiency of indigenous varieties in Lao Cai as hint for marketing.
  • 5. Germination, Purity and Average Yield of Varieties Seeds’ Supplied under the FAO TCPVIE3202 Compared to Yield Province Germination (%) Field purity (%) other seeds (ton/ha) PHÚ THỌ 93 93 Better 4.9 YÊN BÁI 92 97 Better 5 LÀO CAI 92 96 Better 5.2 Average 92 95 Better 5.0Source: NOMAFSIComment from NOMAFSI: Cultivating with varieties could save up to 30% of input forfertilizersQuestion on how to secure high quality varieties seeds (policy, technical assistance for farmers)
  • 6. Annual Expenditures for Seed Subsidy Policy for Seed Source and Extension Service Province Rice areas (ha) % of hybrid Subsidy per Total expenditure ha (VND mn) (VND mn) Phu Tho 72,000 43,200 (60%) 0.3 12,960 Yen Bai 39,622 23,773 (60%) 0.3 7,132 Lao Cai 27,000 21,600 (80%) 0.3 6,480Comments:- Huge annual budget spent for subsidy the hybrid seed- Exposure to the risk of dependence to external supply (import)- Extension activities suppressed: low salary paid to commune extensionist does not stimulate his activities
  • 7. SPG – Current Economic PerformanceCost per hectare (for the yield of 5.82 tons/hectare) in VND- Production cost/hectare: 18,590,000 (I)- Interest charge (1.3%/month) for 6 months: 1,450,020 (II)Revenue/ha:1. From immediate sales (At seeds selling price of VND 6.5 mn/ton)- For seed: 5.82 tons x 65% x 6.5 mn/ton = VND 24,589,500 (III)- For commercial grain: 5.82 tons x 35% x 5.5 mn/ton = VND 11,203,500 (IV)- Revenue/ha (R1 = III + IV): VND 35.79 millions- Gross margin/ha (A) = R1 – I = 17,203,0002. From selling at price of VND 12 mn/ton in 6 months- For seed: 5.82 tons x 65% x 12mn/ton = 45,396,000 (V)- For commercial grains: 5.82 tons x 35% x 5.5 mn/ton = 11,203,500 (VI)- Revenue/ha: (R2 = V + VI): 56,599,500- Gross margin/ha (B) = R2 – I – II = 36,559,480 millionsLoss due to the lack of legal status and trading mechanism: (B) – (A) = approx. 19 millions
  • 8. SPG – Problems/comment• Problems:• Lack of appropriate equipment for seed production: harvesting, plucking, drying, storage => quality issue• Lack of trading/marketing channel => economic disadvantage• Lack of legal status impedes the financial access => economic disadvantage• Comment:• Overcoming these problems should need the policy adjustment from the provincial government
  • 9. Conclusions I – Varieties as Solution for DRRAdvantages of varieties:• Lesser cultivating input (30%)• Higher suitability to impoverished land• Better eating quality• Higher marketability => higher margin• Possibility for farmer to spare seed => Independence from external supply• Improve the farmers’ preparedness and their after disaster resilient capacity
  • 10. Conclusions II – Disadvantages of current seed policies• Excessively invest in hybrid seed procurement• Suppressing affect onto the extension system and advantages of the traditional farming practices• Generate the dependence from unstable (qualitatively and quantitatively) outside seed procurement• Influence detrimentally the preparedness of the farmers to the disaster risk impacts and their resilient capacity
  • 11. Recommendations - Political• Rationalize the seed policy to ensure: food security and seed security• Encourage using the indigenous and varieties• Cropping system• Policy for fostering the Seed Production Groups• Legal status• Trading mechanism for maximizing farmers’ revenue
  • 12. Recommendations - Institutional• Strengthening the relations of SSCs – Extension Center (s) – SPGs on a market basis (alliance form).• Market-principle based relation between the provincial authorities and Research Institute (NOMAFSI).• Strengthening the extension system: technical and financial capacities.• Strengthening the SPGs: technical infrastructure, management and marketing skill, financial instruments for sustainable/profitable production
  • 13. Recommendations - Farmers• Building community awareness of “spare seed” as on-spot measure of preparedness for disaster risk management.• Training on new/advanced cultivating techniques using varieties• Training on new cropping system, appropriate for the locality• Supply/grant the seeds every two years (WTO Rules)
  • 14. II - FAO Disaster Risks Reduction & Climate Change Adaptation Actions in the Northern Mountainous Region
  • 15. Government Priority areas on DRR• strengthen preparedness, early warning and good database management• strengthen resilience of vulnerable communities to future natural hazards and climate change threatening food security• And improve capacity of international and national agencies and organizations and support services for preparedness and risk reduction through better coordination, communication and training
  • 16. Under ONE UN plan II FAO assistance to the Gov of Vietnam Gov priorities Coordination Technical assistance under ONE UN provided by FAO
  • 17. FAO overall objective on DRR Improve livelihoods and food security providing technical assistance for preparedness and effective response to food and agriculture threats and emergency in order to reduce vulnerability to future events Help communities to recover and improve their disrupted agriculture-based livelihoods and rebuilding them better, strengthening their resilience through agricultural development
  • 18. FAO strategy and responsibility on agriculture and food security Disaster Preparedness  Early Warning, Information System Management and Data quality  Training and advocacy Disaster Response  Damage assessment  Resources mobilization and rapid response at national and local level Post Disaster Recovery  Short term: needs assessment and data collection  Medium term: implementation capacity building activities  Long term (mitigation): technical assistance on agriculture production Partnerships and coordination mechanisms at central level  MARD, CCFSC, NDMP, DMWG
  • 19. Current situation on DRR actions in the Northern Mountainous Region Disaster Preparedness- Lack of: (1) Disaster risk management expertise (2) Info systems, mappings, early warning activities (3) Research and assessment- Need of: (1) trainings for equipment operating skill and forecasting (2) Good data and good indicators and (3) Good participatory training Technical support in agriculture for DRR actions- Late-sowing and spare the seedlings for additional transplanting upon late floods (for Summer season)- Early-sowing with the short-term varieties (for the Spring production season)- Reservation of corn and vegetables seeds as substitute crops if the time remaining is not sufficient for Summer rice production- Need to start considering new alternative livelihoods and crop diversification activities- Reserve food for sustaining at least 5-days during the storm season- Reserve “spare seeds”
  • 20. Best case of FAO intervention FAO interventions in the one of most affected area of Vietnam: The Northern Mountain Regions (NMR) Project Title:“Strengthening Capacities to Enhance Coordinated and Integrated Disaster RiskReduction Actions and Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture in the Northern Mountain Regions of Viet Nam” Duration: 2 years Overall Budget: $450.000
  • 21. Project OverviewNMR will represent a “pilot area” for the development of new DRR activities thorough the country’s most affected provinces (Yen Bai, Lao Cai, Phu Tho)FAO will support MARD and CCFSC from central to commune level to strengthen capacities for DRR through:• Preparedness based-agriculture• Early warning and Info-System development (e.g. Viet-Info)• Risk prone areas mapping for each province with contribution of local people• Training for local staff on Early Warning and Decision making• Improve coordination and communication from provincial to national level• Provide technical assistance for food production and livelihoods strengthening
  • 22. Overall strengthen the institutional systems and processes for disaster risk reduction and preparedness in order to reducevulnerability to climate extremes and strengthen resilience to climate change impacts...
  • 23. Expected Outcome 1 Outcome 1: Strengthened institutional, technical and policy frameworks and coordination for DRR and CCA in agriculture at all levelsOutput 1.1: Assess the institutional needs and analyze the technical gaps and key issues in agriculture disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation at provincial levelOutput 1.2: Improve technical capacity of local institutions, farmers’ groups through field training on community mobilization, community centered disaster risk management in agriculture and developing local risk reduction measures, seed production (e.g. irrigation canals), storage (drying court, warehouse, house for seed storage, etc.) and marketingOutput 1.3: Formulate guidelines and recommendations for integrating climate change in food and agriculture perspectives in the northern mountain region
  • 24. Expected Outcome 2 Outcome 2: Strengthened institutional support services to enhance coordinated and integrated DRR actions and CCA at the provincial level (3 pilot provinces)Output 2.1: Improved seed production, storage and maintenance system at all levels in place to enhance preparedness and effectively respond to climate related extremes in the mountain regionOutput 2.2: Enhanced capacity for developing localised early warning systems and weather/climate information application for risk management and adaptation at the provincial level
  • 25. Expected Outcome 3Outcome 3: Improved database management, spatial information products to facilitate local level DRR actions and strengthen resilience of vulnerable communities to climate change impactsOutput 3.1 – Developed effective database management system in order to monitor impacts of natural disasters in agricultural and food security and streamlining the communication between district and central institutions.Output 3.2 – Developed spatial decision support products based on the hazards, local vulnerability and risks at the provincial level
  • 26. Expected Outcome 4 Outcome 4 – Location specific community based disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation and awareness actions prioritized and implemented at the community levelOutput 4.1: Location specific technologies for DRR and climate change adaptation within the agriculture sector identified and screened and the CBDRM process facilitated to prioritize community actionsOutput 4.2: Location specific technologies for DRR and climate change adaptation within the agriculture sector implemented through a participatory learning by doing process at the community levels
  • 27. Conclusion and Lessons learned from NMR experiences Strengthen needs assessment mechanism not only during response but during preparedness phase in order to link DRR to agriculture development process Build capacity for the transfer of technologies and technical skills to development of capacities for coordination, policy analysis and exchange of information and learning to integrate DRM and perspective poverty reduction in their projects Support research of disaster impacts on poverty and how poverty affects vulnerability especially related to the emerging climate change challenges And reduce dependence of farmers on external seed suppliers, improving capacity of local institutions and improving systems for planning of seed production and use
  • 28. Thank You!