Second Generation Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Feedstocks: Technology and Sustainability IssuesBiocombustibles de Segunda Generación de MatériasPrimas Lignocelulósicas: Tecnologia y Sustentabilidad Alfred Szwarc32ª Conferencia Regional de la FAO para America Latina y el Caribe Buenos Aires - 27/03/2012
ABOUT UNICA• UNICA is the leading sugarcane industry association, representing approximately 140 mills in Brazil (most in the São Paulo State).• Member companies respond for over 50% of ethanol and over 60% of sugar production in Brazil and are leaders in the generation of bioelectricity.• International presence in Washington, DC, and Brussels to engage in constructive dialogue with stakeholders.
Why Biofuels Status of Second Generation Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Feedstocks Technology & Sustainability Issues
Source: Vital Signs 2007-08, Worldwatch Institute
Oil Supply Vulnerability Oil is a very precious and finite commodity subject to supply disruptions and price volatility IEA forecasts global energy needs will grow over 50% today’s demand by 2030 and oil will still be a major source of energy (price, availability ???) Transportation will be the main driver of oil consumption alternatives ?
Global Warming TRANSPORT: ~ 25% of Global CO2 EmissionSOURCE: IPCC 2001
Greenhouse Gases: Emission Control Scenarios Gigatonnes de CO2e + 6°C + 3°C + 2°CSource: IEA World Energy Outlook 2008 CCS: Carbon capture & storage
Current View of Second Generation Biofuels • Ethanol • Butanol • Diesel equivalent • Gasoline equivalent • Jet Fuel equivalent Decentralized production. Can be readily integrated with existing fuel infrastructure. Note: Biodiesel from vegetable oils and animal fat not included here.
Biofuels Demand Evolution 1972 - 2008Source: Special Report on Renewable Energy, IPCC, May 2011
Brazilian Energy Matrix Energy Supply Structure Other renewable sources Uranium Coal 3,8% 1,4% Natural Gas 4,8% 8,8% Wood and other Petroleum and biomass bi-products 10,1% 37,9% Sugarcane 18,1% Hydroelectricity 15,2%Source: BEN (2010). Elaboration: UNICA
The Case of Ethanol Sugarcane Juice +Conventional 1 hectare 7,000 liters of ethanol Molasses 12,500 liters of Sugarcane Juice ethanol... or moreConventional 1 hectare + Molasses + (7,000 L from juice ++ Cellulose Bagasse + Straw 5,500 L from bagasse and straw)
Technology Status Product Laboratory Pilot Plant Demonstration Market Plant Ethanol 1st generation Ethanol 2nd generation BioHC (Diesel, Jet Fuel etc) Butanol 2nd generation Commercial scale plants are expected to start operation within next three years but it will take at least a decade until production reach significant volumes. Best technologies: ???
A TYPICAL SUGARCANE INDUSTRIAL PLANT IN BRAZIL: SUGAR, BIOELETRICITY AND BIOENERGY (ETHANOL AND MORE TO COME…) 2nd gen. ethanolEthanol storage tanks Distillery Sugar plant 2nd gen. Bagasse bioHC & bioButanol Sugar cane field Straw (tops & leaves)
The Concept of Biorefineries • Integration of biomass conversion technologies • Broad range of byproducts (food, energy, biofuels, chemicals, materials, animal feed etc.) • Efficient use of feedstocks and resources • Minimum generation of residues and pollutants • Best environmental, social and economic results
Life Cycle GHG EmissionsFarming & Harvesting Estimated values refer to 1,000 liters of Emission: 2,961 kg ethanol and equivalent volume of gasoline (corrected for energy content). Sugarcane Processing Emission: 3,604 kg Sugarcane Growth Uptake: 7,650 kg Road Transport Emission: 50 kg Vehicle Operation Bioelectricity generation Gasoline Life-cycle Emission: 1,520 kg Uptake: 225 kg Emission: 2,280 kg Total: 8,135 kg CO2 Total: 7,875 kg CO2 Net emission: 260 kg CO2 (89% reduction to gasoline emission) reduced emission with lignocellulosic ethanol Source: Macedo, I., 2008
Sugar Cane Diesel “Drop In Fuel” Sugarcane Sugarcane Process Diesel CO2 Reduction ~ 90% 1 hectare = 4200 liters The US EPA has already approved Cloud point: - 50°C bends with up to 35% sugarcane diesel. Cetano nunber: 58,6 Sulfur: almost nil In Brazil: tests with 10% blend : Lubricity: 330 m (HFRR) -9% PM and no NOx increase ; Energy: similar to Diesel Power, torque, fuel economy similar Source: Amyris and MBB to ordinary diesel.
Avoiding Emission of Greenhouse Gases Avoided CO2 emissions in Brazil from use of ethanol in Flex Fuel Vehicles since 2003 to date (march/2012) are estimated to be in the order of 160 million ton. Equivalent to the effect of approximately 1,1 billion trees over a period of 20 years. 2nd gen. ethanol can further improve this benefit !
Land Use Sugarcane area for ethanol production occupies 1.4% of Brazilian arable lands Millions of hectares % arable Brazil 851.4 % Brazil land Total arable land 329.9 87% of domestic 1. Total crop land 59.8 7.0% 18.1% sugarcane harvest Soybean 23.3 2.7% 7.1% Corn 12.9 1.5% 3.9% Sugarcane 9.2 1.1% 2.8% Sugarcane for ethanol 4.6 0.6% 1.4% 2. Pastures 158.7 18.6% 48.1% 3. Protected areas and native vegetation 495.6 58.2% - 4. Available area 137.2 16.2% -Note: Arable land (Censo IBGE 2006) 1) Total permanent and temporary crops (Censo IBGE 2006); Data for suybean, corn and sugarcane (IBGE 2010). 2)Pastures (Censo IBGE 2006 3) Protected areas and native vegetation (Gerd Spavorek 2009, not published) APP = Permanent Preservation Area; UC =Conservation Units and TI = Indigenous lands 4) Available area = arable land – Crop – Pastures. Source: ICONE and UNICA. Elaboration: UNICA.
Life Cycle GHG by Feedstock Emissions avoided as the result of ethanol replacing gasoline Ethanol from grains Ethanol from sugar Ethanol from sugar (US / EU) beet (EU) cane (Brazil) 0% -20% -40% -60% -80%-100%Note: Reductions in well-to-wheel CO2-equivalent GHG emissions per km, from bioethanol comparared to gasoline,calculated on a life-cycle basis. Source: IEA – International Energy Agency (May, 2004), based on a review of recentarticles. Prepared by Icone and Unica.
WORLD BIOFUELS PROGRAMS Oil consumption Current Mandates In discussion
A View of the Future ? Biofuel Filling StationSugarcane Gasoline Ethanol & Butanol Diesel Blends& Biodiesel Reformer H2 On-board reformer FFV DedicatedDiesel Fuel Cell Hybrids engines / FFV Gasohol
BIOPLASTICS: A GROWING MARKET Sugarcane is now being used to replace fossil fuel feedstocks. Various companies have begun to produce and market bioplastics from sugarcane ethanol and other bio-sources.ource: Braskem, Johnson & Johnson, The Coca-Cola Company, Tetra-Pak, and “The Graduate” (1967)
UNICA SUPPORTS CERTIFICATION SCHEMESWhat it is Goal Multistakeholder forum Promote sustainable production of sugarcane based on producers, tradings, industries internationally accepted principles and NGOs and measurable criteria and encourage adoption of best management and production practices in line with the three sustainable development pillars: social development, environmental protection and economic progress. Principles 1. Law compliance 2. Human rights labor standards 3. Higher efficiencies to enhance sustainability 4. Management of biodiversity and ecosystems 5. Improvement of business key areas
Final Comments Food & biofuels production are not incompatible technology innovation, political willingness and sound policies can foster production of both whenever possible. Energy demand and global warming require sound and sustainable alternatives certification schemes and incentives can both identify and promote the best.