Hunger : More than a Bread and Butter Issue
Food Insecurity in the Caribbean:
Governance, Policy Issues and Priorities
1. Governance and Food and Nutrition Security(FNS)
2. Caribbean – Food and Nutrition Insecurity challenges
3. Achieving FN...
Food and Nutrition Insecurity as a Governance Issue
“ Good Governance is
perhaps the single most
important factor in
eradicating poverty and
promoting development”
Kofi Annan...
We are going to create conditions in
which all people in our country can
eat decently three times a
day, every day, withou...
No universally accepted definition of “good/democratic
governance” but broad agreement that the key
components are:
A proc...
In 1995 the Inter-Parliamentary Union assembled
experts from various regions and disciplines to
develop an international s...
Governance describes the
institutions, rules, norms through which
policies are developed and implemented and
through which...
A Right -- A Covenant – A Commitment
• 1948 – Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 25: 1. Everyone has
the right...
•2006 – Brazil: The Food Security and Nutrition Act – created SISAN
& CONSEA, emphasizing synergies between the Ministries...
• 2005 – Latin America and the Caribbean Zero Hunger
Programme; Salvador de Bahia Declaration (2008) –
commitment by 33 co...
Food and Nutrition Insecurity in the Caribbean
Food Security :
a technical concept
based on the needs of
the beneficiaries
Food Sovereignty :
A political concept
that im...
“Food security, at the
individual, household, nation
al, regional and global
levels, exists when all
people, at all times,...
CAUSES OF FOOD AND NUTRITION INSECURITY
Climate change
/Resilience Policy
Greater impact and
more frequent
occurrence of n...
Food insecurity in the Caribbean
Food insecurity is about much more than agriculture and food
Some of the Big Issues:
Eco...
Food insecurity in the Caribbean
Food insecurity is about much more than agriculture and food
Some of the Big questions:
...
Annex 1: Value of banana and plantain exports from Caribbean Countries
(US$) 2000-2012
(Figures below represent millions)
...
-
500,000,000
1,000,000,000
1,500,000,000
2,000,000,000
2,500,000,000
3,000,000,000
2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 200...
PREVALENCE OF UNDERNOURISHMENT IN THE CARIBBEAN
(percentage)
1990-19922000-20022010-2012
Caribbean 28.5 21.8 17.8
Antigua ...
Highest Female (15yr+) Overwt/Obesity in the world
(WHO 2011)
Rank Country %
1 Nauru 82
2 Tonga 81
3 Micronesia 79
4 Cook ...
Prevalence of Overwt / Obesity in the
Caribbean in > 30 years old
23
16
25
7 8
20
16 15
14 12 11 10 10
1
57
55 54
46
43
34...
Average value of food production in the Caribbean
($ per capita)
100 200 300 400 500 600 700
Antigua and Barbuda
Bahamas (...
Consequence of hunger and malnutrition
• Reduced capacity to learn
Reduced physical activity
• Poor resistance to diseases...
Achieving Food and Nutrition Security
4 Pillars - Availability,
Access, Stability and
Utilization
2 Tracks – Twin Track
Approach
5 Principles
A
V
A
I
L
A
B
I
L
I
T
Y
A
C
C
E
S
S
S
T
A
B
I
L
I
T
Y
U
T
I
L
I
Z
A
T
I
O
N
I II III IV
1980s 1990s 2000s 20141970s
Domest...
Track 1: Rural development and
productivity enhancement
Availability Access Stability Utilization
Improving productivity
a...
Track 2: Direct and immediate access to food
Availability Access Stability Utilization
Food aid
Market information
Transpo...
Five Rome Principles
for Sustainable Global Food Security
(Adopted by the World Summit on Food Security in November 2009)
...
The United Nations Secretary-General encourages all
partners to scale up their efforts to turn the vision of an
end to hun...
Policy and Governance Issues for
Increasing FNS in the Caribbean
Five Pillars
1. Food and
Nutrition
Security
2. Production
(trade) value
chains
3. Sustainable
development of
natural
resou...
1.Economic expansion and diversification of the
agricultural sector – increase domestic agricultural
production
2. Improve...
•Food Policy and Health Policy
•Import Policy and Local Production Policy
•Land Use Policy and Inclusion Policy
Good governance for food security
Clear, participatory
and responsive
planning, decision-
making and
implementation across...
-a need for new public policy platforms based on shared
visioning and inclusive governance
-more proactive state and citiz...
More
decentralized
More
participatory
More
responsive
and results
driven
Final Message
“I am a Parliamentarian myself, I
have always been one. I think
that a Minister is entitled to
disregard expert advice. Wh...
Thanks for your attention
Let’s work together and improve
governance at all levels
Deep Ford - Hunger: more than a bread and butter issue
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Deep Ford - Hunger: more than a bread and butter issue

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Presentación realizada en el "Diálogo regional en hambre, inseguridad alimentaria y malnutrición en el Caribe: Desafíos en derecho a la alimentación y gobernanza", evento que se llevó a cabo en Antigua y Barbuda el 1 y 2 de agosto de 2013.

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  • Thank the Speaker of the House of Representatives – Ms. Gisele Isaac-Arrindell for this opportunity and this title.38th Conference Caribbean, Americas and Atlantic Region -- “Challenges to Caribbean Democracy”
  • Add Guyana, Belize and Suriname and do similar table for Average value of food production(VO2)Depth of food deficit(v14)Food imports over total imports(v24)Cereal import dependency ratio (v26
  • Availability of foodLa existencia de cantidades suficientes de alimentos de calidad adecuada, suministrados a través de la producción del país o de importaciones (comprendida la ayuda alimentaria).Access tofood /Acceso a los alimentosAcceso de las personas a los recursos adecuados (recursos a los que se tiene derecho) para adquirir alimentos apropiados y una alimentación nutritiva. Estos derechos se definen como el conjunto de todos los grupos de productos sobre los cuales una persona puede tener dominio en virtud de acuerdos jurídicos, políticos, económicos y sociales de la comunidad en que vive (comprendidos los derechos tradicionales, como el acceso a los recursos colectivos). Usage of food /UtilizaciónUtilización biológica de los alimentos a través de una alimentación adecuada, agua potable, sanidad y atención médica, para lograr un estado de bienestar nutricional en el que se satisfagan todas las necesidades fisiológicas.Este concepto pone de relieve la importancia de los insumos no alimentarios en la seguridad alimentaria.Stabiity of foodsupply /EstabilidadPara tener seguridad alimentaria, una población, un hogar o una persona deben tener acceso a alimentos adecuados en todo momento. No deben correr el riesgo de quedarse sin acceso a los alimentos a consecuencia de crisis repentinas (por ej., una crisis económica o climática) ni de acontecimientos cíclicos (como la inseguridad alimentaria estacional). De esta manera, el concepto de estabilidad se refiere tanto a la dimensión de la disponibilidad como a la del acceso de la seguridad alimentaria.
  • 100% access to adequate food all year round Enabling all people to access the food they need at all times through nutrition-sensitive agriculture and food systems, marketing, decent and productive employment, a social protection floor, targeted safety nets and food assistance; boosting food supply from local producers; through open, fair and well-functioning markets and trade policies at local, regional and international level, preventing excessive food price volatility . Zero stunted children less than 2 years Ensuring universal access to nutritious food in the 1000 day window of opportunity between the start of pregnancy and a child’s second birthday, supported by nutrition-sensitive health care, water, sanitation, education and specific nutrition interventions, coupled with initiatives that enable empowerment of women, as encouraged within the Movement for Scaling Up Nutrition. All food systems are sustainable Ensuring that all farmers, agribusinesses, cooperatives, governments, unions and civil society establish standards for sustainability; verifying their observance and being accountable for them; encouraging and rewarding universal adoption of sustainable and climate-resilient agriculture practices; pursuing cross-sectoral policy coherence (encompassing energy, land use, water and climate); implementing responsible governance of land, fisheries and forests. 100% increase in smallholder productivity and income Reducing rural poverty and improving wellbeing through encouraging decent work, and increasing smallholders’ income; empowering women, small farmers, fishers, pastoralists, young people, farmer organizations, indigenous people and their communities; improving land tenure, their access to assets and to natural resources, making sure that all investments in agriculture and value chains are responsible and accountable; developing multidimensional indicators for people’s resilience and wellbeing. Zero loss or waste of food Minimizing food losses during storage and transport, and waste of food by retailers and consumers; empowering consumer choice through appropriate labeling; commitments by producers, retailers and consumers within all nations; achieving progress through financial incentives, collective pledges, locally-relevant technologies and changed behavior .
  • Deep Ford - Hunger: more than a bread and butter issue

    1. 1. Hunger : More than a Bread and Butter Issue
    2. 2. Food Insecurity in the Caribbean: Governance, Policy Issues and Priorities
    3. 3. 1. Governance and Food and Nutrition Security(FNS) 2. Caribbean – Food and Nutrition Insecurity challenges 3. Achieving FNS – Programmatic Approaches 4. Policy and Governance issues for Increasing FNS
    4. 4. Food and Nutrition Insecurity as a Governance Issue
    5. 5. “ Good Governance is perhaps the single most important factor in eradicating poverty and promoting development” Kofi Annan, UN Secretary General, HDR, 2002
    6. 6. We are going to create conditions in which all people in our country can eat decently three times a day, every day, without needing gifts from anyone. Brazil cannot continue living with such inequality. We must defeat hunger, poverty and social exclusion. Our war is not to kill anyone – it is to save lives. President Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva, Inaugural address, January 1, 2003.
    7. 7. No universally accepted definition of “good/democratic governance” but broad agreement that the key components are: A process of decision-making and implementation; it holds a meaning broader than “government”; it articulates how interests are accommodated and power is exercised in society; it includes formal and informal rules The quality dimensions of governance include: accountability, participation, transparency and the respect of the rule of law.
    8. 8. In 1995 the Inter-Parliamentary Union assembled experts from various regions and disciplines to develop an international standard on democracy. Building on this work, the Universal Declaration on Democracy was adopted in 1997. Democracy is based on two core principles: participation and accountability. Everyone has the right to participate in the management of public affairs. Likewise, everyone has the right to access information on government activities, to petition government and to seek redress through impartial administrative and judicial mechanisms.
    9. 9. Governance describes the institutions, rules, norms through which policies are developed and implemented and through which accountability is enforced. (UNESCO, 2009)
    10. 10. A Right -- A Covenant – A Commitment • 1948 – Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Article 25: 1. Everyone has the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and well-being of himself and of his family, including food, clothing, housing and medical care and necessary social services, and the right to security in the event of unemployment, sickness, disability, widowhood, old age or other lack of livelihood in circumstances beyond his control. • 1966: International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, Article 11: 1. – The States Parties to the present Covenant recognize the right of everyone to an adequate standard of living for himself and his family, including adequate food, clothing and housing, and to the continuous improvement of living conditions. The States Parties will take appropriate steps to ensure the realization of this right, recognizing to this effect the essential importance of international co-operation based on free consent. • 2004: The FAO COUNCIL adopted the Right to Food Guidelines to support the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security based on the International Covenant.
    11. 11. •2006 – Brazil: The Food Security and Nutrition Act – created SISAN & CONSEA, emphasizing synergies between the Ministries of Health, Education, Agriculture and Labour. • 2007 – Colombia : National Food Security Policy - based on the ReSA Food Security Network Programme, promoted social and community participation and organization, institutionalizing food security and nutrition (civil society) • 2009 - El Salvador: National Council on Food Security - founded in 2010, along with the formulation of the National Food Security and Nutrition Policy (a programme of comprehensive nutritional care at the community level, for expectant mothers, infants and children under the age of two). • 2009 – Nicaragua: Law of Food Security, Nutrition and Food Sovereignty passed, and an inclusive fair trade market created. National Commitments
    12. 12. • 2005 – Latin America and the Caribbean Zero Hunger Programme; Salvador de Bahia Declaration (2008) – commitment by 33 countries in the region to the FAO Anti-Hunger Programme • 2008 – Parliamentary Meeting on the Right to Food (Guatemala) • 2009 – Parliamentary Zero Hunger Front (Panamá) • 2010 – First Parliamentary Zero Hunger Forum (Brazil) • 2010 – Food and Nutrition Security Policy (CARICOM countries) • 2011 – Second Parliamentary Zero Hunger Forum (Bogota) • 2011 - Parliamentary Zero Hunger Front (Dominican Republic Chapter, 43 deputies and 6 senators). Strong participation in the fsn process. Regional Commitments
    13. 13. Food and Nutrition Insecurity in the Caribbean
    14. 14. Food Security : a technical concept based on the needs of the beneficiaries Food Sovereignty : A political concept that implies that each nation define its own policy The Right to Food : A legal concept based on human rights Nutrition
    15. 15. “Food security, at the individual, household, nation al, regional and global levels, exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” Grains, fruits, oils, meat, dairy products and vegetablesWorld Food Summit, Rome (1996)
    16. 16. CAUSES OF FOOD AND NUTRITION INSECURITY Climate change /Resilience Policy Greater impact and more frequent occurrence of natural disasters Loss of assets and reduced productivity Food Import Policy Economic Development Policy Reduced economic growth Displacement of Local Products Unemployment and lower incomes (from jobs and remittances) Changes in the patterns of food consumption Food insecurity and undernutrition Martínez R, 2009. ECLAC/WFP. Study on Food Security in Latin America and the Caribbean.
    17. 17. Food insecurity in the Caribbean Food insecurity is about much more than agriculture and food Some of the Big Issues: Economic growth: Space left by decline of sugar and bananas  Food import bill: US$ 4 billion plus  Climate change and food supply  Nutrition and Food Demand Choices  Youth and rural development
    18. 18. Food insecurity in the Caribbean Food insecurity is about much more than agriculture and food Some of the Big questions: Loss of Export Income Issue  Loss of domestic production base/import bill issue  Vulnerability/Instability issue – 2% GDP impact  Underrnutrition and Obesity issue  Rural area/agricultural sector demograpic issue
    19. 19. Annex 1: Value of banana and plantain exports from Caribbean Countries (US$) 2000-2012 (Figures below represent millions) YEAR Belize Dominica Jamaica St. Lucia St. Vincent & The Grenadines Total 2000 18.90 12.65 22.89 21.37 18.01 94 2001 21.40 8.47 18.27 33.25 13.11 95 2002 16.78 8.34 17.55 21.77 14.92 79 2003 26.28 5.90 18.85 15.88 3.41 70 2004 26.18 7.41 12.70 20.85 11.88 79 2005 21.35 7.14 4.69 15.40 10.24 59 2006 25.29 7.60 13.41 17.54 9.07 73 2007 20.74 5.23 9.22 14.91 9.25 59 2008 33.36 5.52 0.038 21.17 4.22 64 2009 33.35 4.76 0.024 23.07 3.97 65 2010 38.28 2.71 0.001 11.97 3.02 56 2011 31.68 0.37 0.062 4.66 0.35 37 2012 47.44 0.43 0.11 4.40 2.74 55
    20. 20. - 500,000,000 1,000,000,000 1,500,000,000 2,000,000,000 2,500,000,000 3,000,000,000 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Trend of Total Food Imports by Year – Selected Countries CARICOM CARICOM MDCs LDCs
    21. 21. PREVALENCE OF UNDERNOURISHMENT IN THE CARIBBEAN (percentage) 1990-19922000-20022010-2012 Caribbean 28.5 21.8 17.8 Antigua andBarbuda 18.5 43.6 20.5 Bahamas (the) 11.3 6.3 7.2 Barbados < 5 < 5 < 5 Belize 9.2 7.2 6.8 Cuba 11.5 < 5 < 5 Dominica < 5 < 5 < 5 DominicanRepublic (the) 30.4 21.9 15.4 Grenada 17.3 29.0 17.9 Guyana 19.7 8.0 5.1 Haiti 63.5 54.8 44.5 Jamaica 9.0 6.7 8.7 Netherlands Antilles 9.8 < 5 < 5 SaintKitts andNevis 15.8 18.9 14.0 SaintLucia 11.9 11.8 14.6 SaintVincentandthe Grenadines 19.2 10.6 < 5 TrinidadandTobago 13.6 13.5 9.3 (Percentage) 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Antiguaand Barbuda Bahamas (the) Barbados Belize Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic (the) Grenada Guyana Haiti Jamaica SaintKitts and Nevis SaintLucia SaintVincentand the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago Suriname Caribbean 1990-1992 2000-2002 2010-2012
    22. 22. Highest Female (15yr+) Overwt/Obesity in the world (WHO 2011) Rank Country % 1 Nauru 82 2 Tonga 81 3 Micronesia 79 4 Cook Is. 73 5 Samoa 72 6 Niue 70 7 Kuwait 67 Rank Country % 8 Barbados 63 9 Palau 62 10 Trinidad 61 11 Dominica 60 12 Egypt 59 13 USA 55 14 Jamaica 53
    23. 23. Prevalence of Overwt / Obesity in the Caribbean in > 30 years old 23 16 25 7 8 20 16 15 14 12 11 10 10 1 57 55 54 46 43 34 30 29 27 25 24 23 22 19 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Barbados TrinidadandTobago Dominica Jamaica SaintLucia Bahamas SaintKittsandNevis AntiguaandBarbuda Grenada SaintVincentandthe Grenadines Belize Suriname Guyana Haiti PrevalenceofObesity Males Females Source: WHO Global Infobase 2011
    24. 24. Average value of food production in the Caribbean ($ per capita) 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 Antigua and Barbuda Bahamas (the) Barbados Belize Cuba Dominica Dominican Republic (the) Grenada Guyana Haiti Jamaica Saint Kitts and Nevis SaintLucia SaintVincentand the Grenadines Trinidad and Tobago Suriname 1990-1992 2000-2002 2008-2010
    25. 25. Consequence of hunger and malnutrition • Reduced capacity to learn Reduced physical activity • Poor resistance to diseases • Low educational achievements • School desertion • Low productivity and family incomes • Negative impact on community and national development
    26. 26. Achieving Food and Nutrition Security
    27. 27. 4 Pillars - Availability, Access, Stability and Utilization 2 Tracks – Twin Track Approach 5 Principles
    28. 28. A V A I L A B I L I T Y A C C E S S S T A B I L I T Y U T I L I Z A T I O N I II III IV 1980s 1990s 2000s 20141970s Domestic production (GR-HYV) Capacity to import Reserves Food aid Income per capita and income distribution Access to assets Markets and infrastructure Climate change Policy changes (WTO/SAP) Security and political stability Food safety Access to health care and sanitation services Proper nutritional practices
    29. 29. Track 1: Rural development and productivity enhancement Availability Access Stability Utilization Improving productivity and production capacity, esp. of small-scale farmers Investing in rural markets and infrastructure Enhancing urban food supplies Improving the functioning of input and output markets Promoting income- earning opportunities Enhancing access to assets Facilitating the creation of rural non-farm enterprises Improving the functioning of rural financial systems and labour markets Improving transition and sequencing of emergency rehabilitation-development efforts Facilitating diversification Reducing production variability (irrigation, water harvesting, pest control, etc.) Monitoring production and consumption short falls Improving access to credit and saving services Food handling and storage infrastructure Food safety regulations and institutions Safe drinking water and sanitation Improved Food Choices
    30. 30. Track 2: Direct and immediate access to food Availability Access Stability Utilization Food aid Market information Transport and communication School meals Food for work programmes Cash transfers Community and extended family structures Emergency food relief Safety nets/Social Protection systems Nutrition interventions and education programmes
    31. 31. Five Rome Principles for Sustainable Global Food Security (Adopted by the World Summit on Food Security in November 2009) Principle 1 Invest in country-owned plans, channelling resources to well- designed and results-based programmes and partnerships. Principle 2 Foster strategic coordination at national, regional and global level to improve governance, promote better allocation of resources, avoid duplication of efforts and identify response- gaps. Principle 3 Strive for a comprehensive twin-track approach to food security. Principle 4 Ensure a strong role for the multilateral systems by sustained improvements in efficiency, responsiveness, coordination and effectiveness of multilateral institutions. Principle 5 Ensure sustained and substantial commitment by all partners to investment in food security, with necessary resources in a timely and reliable fashion, across multi-year plans and programmes.
    32. 32. The United Nations Secretary-General encourages all partners to scale up their efforts to turn the vision of an end to hunger into reality. The United Nations ZeroHunger Challenge Grow Share Protect
    33. 33. Policy and Governance Issues for Increasing FNS in the Caribbean
    34. 34. Five Pillars 1. Food and Nutrition Security 2. Production (trade) value chains 3. Sustainable development of natural resources 4. Rural modernization and youth programmes 5. Agricultural knowledge and information system THE FOUR OBJECTIVES OF THE CARICOM FOOD SECURITY AND NUTRITION POLICY 1. Food availability – production, commercialization, safety and quality 2. Food access – vulnerable, affordable 3. Food utilization/ nutritional adequacy – nutrition status and NCDs 4. Stability of food supply – natural and socioeconomic crises
    35. 35. 1.Economic expansion and diversification of the agricultural sector – increase domestic agricultural production 2. Improvements in the nutrition and health status of the population - FBDGs 3. Expansion in the social protection system and improvements in the management and efficiency of its operations -- SMP 4. Expansion of pro-poor employment and income generating opportunities – Demand/Youth Capacity 5. Good governance and management of hunger and poverty programmes – greater transparency and accountability in the delivery of public services
    36. 36. •Food Policy and Health Policy •Import Policy and Local Production Policy •Land Use Policy and Inclusion Policy
    37. 37. Good governance for food security Clear, participatory and responsive planning, decision- making and implementation across the four food security pillars Efficient, effective, tran sparent and accountable institutions Respect for the rule of law Equality and fairness in managing and allocating resources and in service delivery Coherent and coordinated policies, institutions and actions.
    38. 38. -a need for new public policy platforms based on shared visioning and inclusive governance -more proactive state and citizen participation and partnerships -new development approaches, new collaborations based on and capitalizing existing best practices to accelerate re-shaping future Caribbean - Parliamentarians cooperating and collaborating nationally, regionally and globally to achieve national and local goals.
    39. 39. More decentralized More participatory More responsive and results driven
    40. 40. Final Message
    41. 41. “I am a Parliamentarian myself, I have always been one. I think that a Minister is entitled to disregard expert advice. What he is not entitled to do is to pretend that he is acting upon it, when, in fact he is acting contrary to it.” Sir Winston Churchill, former British Prime Minister, House of Commons, May 7th 1947
    42. 42. Thanks for your attention Let’s work together and improve governance at all levels
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