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Climate resilient and environmentally sound agriculture - Module 6

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Part II - Addressing challenges

Part II - Addressing challenges
Module 6:
C-RESAP/climate-smart agriculture: supporting tools and policies

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Climate resilient and environmentally sound agriculture - Module 6 Climate resilient and environmentally sound agriculture - Module 6 Presentation Transcript

  • CLIMATE-RESILIENT ANDENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND AGRICULTURE OR “CLIMATE-SMART” AGRICULTURE Information package for government authorities
  • Introduction to the information packageThe future of humankind and the planet relies on human activities becoming moreefficient, the food chain being no exception. This online information package waswritten with the idea of providing an overview of the challenges that the agriculturesector—and to a certain extent the food production chain—faces to feed the worldwhile becoming more efficient. It also explores ways to address these challenges.Through simplified concepts and relevant resources and examples, we explore theimpacts of global change on agriculture, the impacts of agriculture on ecosystemsand possible technical and policy considerations that can help building food securityunder current and future challenges.The technical and policy considerations explored are meant to contribute towardsclimate-resilient and environmentally sound or ―climate-smart‖ agriculture—agriculture that increases productivity; enhances resilience to global change; stopsecosystem services deterioration; and produces economic and social benefits.The information presented here comes from findings, experience and ideas from allover the world, as we believe there are already elements to catalyse change. Wealso believe this change has to come largely from local communities, for whichreason, wherever possible, we provide examples at local levels.See how to use the information package.
  • PACKAGE CONTENTPART IAGRICULTURE, FOOD SECURITY AND ECOSYSTEMS: CURRENTAND FUTURE CHALLENGESPART IIADDRESSING CHALLENGES
  • MODULE 6 C-RESAP/CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE:SUPPORTING TOOLS AND POLICIES
  • Module objectives and structureObjectivesThis module looks at areas that authorities need to consider from a policy perspective in orderto promote climate-resilient and environmentally sound agriculture or smart agriculture, both atnational and subnational levels. The module builds on achievements of different areas ofagricultural policies and consider that smart agriculture can only be developed when looked atfrom a multidisciplinary perspective.StructureThe module opens with an introduction on the need to use cost-effective solutions for manychallenges. Then it divides in four units, starting with the roles of different sectors and theimportance of their involvement in planning and implementing climate-smart agriculture. Thenext two units focus on direct support to farmers: first their need to access key resources andthen policy considerations for enhancing field capacity. The last unit covers macro-level policyconsiderations on investment, incentives and legal frameworks. The module ends up withreflections on action planning. Clicking on illustrations will take you to linked to resources.CaveatAs with technology, policies have to be looked at in the specific contexts, examples presentedhere are to show progress in different areas towards a framework for climate-smart agriculture. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Supporting climate-smart agriculture• Challenges and risks for agriculture are occurring faster and with larger impacts than ever• Food security and smart agriculture will need more support than just technological changeFarmers have adapted over centuries, but new environmental changes and accompanied risksare too fast and larger than before.In order to better adapt to multiple challenges, technological change is not enough; climate-smart agriculture and food security will depend on the support thatfarmers, herders, pastoralists, fisher folks and communities get to produce, preserve anddistribute good quality and safe food. Strong support should also result in economic savingsand in formulas to tackle many problems with fewer resources, in general more cost-effectiveanswers. This support includes:• An enabling policy and regulatory environment;• Full participation and coordination of different sectors and actors in decisions and actions;• Empowerment of different actors to enhance their role towards a more effective and resource-saving food chain, while dealing with risks;• Faster and more effective transfer of information and research to and from the field. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • The roles of different actors andbenefits of their participation indecision making processes and actions Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Using a participatory approach • Different actors and sectors need to participate in planning for improved agriculture, in particular at local level In order to be successful in planning for climate-smart agriculture, different sectors and actors need to be involved, in particular at local level, where actions are needed. Those who ultimately carry out actions need to be convinced they are sound and in accordance with the reality of the situation. For this reason, involving them effectively throughout the decision and action taking is of primary importance. A wide range of methodologies for involving different actors in decision making have been experimented over the years. In Planning for general, they require inclusion of all affected groups, equality, transparency, sharing of responsibilities, empowerment andExamples of participatory cooperation.approaches in FAO‘s web toolCommunity based adaptation to Participation of different actors can strengthen the capacity of localclimate change. authorities to implement sound strategies and plans. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Using a participatory approach Examples Resource Centers for Building on experience from Participatory Learning and different institutions Action (RCPLA) Network. Several institutions on different continents have documented their work on participatory approaches (PA). These PA can be tailored for climate-smart agriculture. To mention a few: • A Handbook for Trainers on Participatory Local Development • Participatory Processes Towards Co-Management of Natural Resources in Pastoral Areas of A publication on reflections on the Middle East participatory approaches from • RCPLA network- Resources the International Institute on Centres for ParticipatorySustainable Development (iisd). Learning and Action Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Role of government authorities • The role of authorities to provide direction to solve multiple challenges is fundamental for adapting agriculture to climate change and respond to society needs Authorities are fundamental in supporting the development of farmers and rural communities. Their role as providers of direction and administrators of resources is essential to tackle multiple challenges for different sectors. Government authorities who fully understand the problems, needs and possible ways forward in their communities will be the champions of change. Within an era of communication and information dissemination, authorities will also have the fundamental role of makingWorld Resources Report communities to get and understand information and its implication for2010-2011, a new their development.publication for decisionmakers. Local authorities, more than ever, will be important catalysers of aSource: World Resources climate-smart agriculture. In addition, strengthened coordination amongInstitute. agencies with different mandates will facilitate information sharing, planning and taking actions in a cost-effective way. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Farmers • Involving farmers in planning and taking actions is fundamental for increasing the resilience of agriculture and increase efficiency • This entails empowering them through different actions at different levels Farmers will play a fundamental role in pursuing climate-resilient and environmentally sound agriculture, given the diversity of challenges that agriculture could experience under specific circumstances. Involving farmers in planning and practising climate-smart agriculture should be a priority. This entails: • Providing training so they can recognise risks and address them; • Involving them in preparing and implementing action plans; • Involving them in setting up and implementing risk reduction strategies and emergency response programmes;Farmers building a levee to • Supporting their dialogue with researchers, field technicians andcontrol the tidal flows in the the private sector to exchange technologies and empower themmarshlands and improve the to disseminate their own innovations;survival of their crops in Rwanda. • Helping them to identify needs for a climate-smart agriculture.Photo: FAO/ G. Napolitano. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Farmers Examples Information and technology to empower farmers to make decisions Farmers normally take decisions to deal with climate and market variability. They choose farming systems, crop varieties and methods according to their local circumstances. Given sufficient information about climate change threats, environmental, economic and political Efforts to inform farmers of challenges, well‐informed farmers climate change and adaptation options in will be capable of making Benin. appropriate choices for a smarter Source: Joto Afrika, Issue 1. agriculture. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Women • Women constitute 20–50% of the agricultural labour force in developing countries. If they had equal access to resources as men, the number of hungry people in the world could be reduced by 12–17% Women comprise about 43% of the agricultural labour force in developing countries (from 20% in Latin America to 50% in eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa). Still in general they have less access than men to productive resources and opportunities. If women had the same access to resources as men, they could increase yields on their farms by 20–30%; contributing to raise total agricultural output in developing countries by 2.5–4% and reducing the number of hungry people in the world by 12–17%. To close the gap, areas for intervention include: • Eliminating barriers of women access to agricultural resources, education, extension, financial services, and labour markets;The state of food andagriculture 2010–2011: • Investing in labour-saving and high productivity technologies;Women in agriculture, FAO. • Facilitating their participation in flexible, efficient and fair rural labour markets. See more… Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Women Examples Female farmers at the forefront of agriculture in China In China, as in many other countries, men often migrate to cities to look for jobs while women remain in rural areas. Over the last decades women have become an important part of the work force in many agricultural areas. The project Enhanced Strategies for Climate- Resilient and Environmentally Sound Agricultural Production (C-RESAP) in the Yellow River Basin highlighted that female farmer population is increasing in Henan, Ningxia, Shaanxi and Shandong. Education and training programmes are now also being addressed towards women in ruralFemale farmers in their fields in Shandong, China. areas, in order to improve their capacity.Photo: C-RESAP project. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Research and extension services • The involvement of researchers in climate-smart agriculture will be important for faster field oriented innovation The complexity of challenges that agriculture is facing requires researchers to come up with technologies in a faster and more focused way. Bringing researchers and extension services closer to farmers, field and policy makers will be an important way to foster field oriented innovation. The participation of researchers and extension services in decision making and effective feedback mechanisms will be fundamental to facilitate the faster technological change that is needed. Extension services in particular, can facilitate the discussion of advantages and disadvantages of technologies from the perspectiveAnimal diseases of farmers, as well as recognise the needs of farmers in the specificresearch in Tanzania. agro-ecosystems where they work.Photo: FAO/G. Bizzarri. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Research involvement and coordination Examples Efforts of the European Union to coordinate research The EU Standing Committee on Agricultural Research (SCAR) started a foresight process in 2006, as ministers felt that better coordination of research was essential to enable Europe to successfully face the profound changes that lie ahead for the agricultural sector. The foresight process aims to identify scenarios for European agriculture (20– Second SCAR 30 year perspective), to be used in the foresight exercise identification of medium/long term (EU SCAR), a form of research priorities to support the dialogue between development of a European researchers and knowledge-based bio-economy. policy makers. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Non-governmental organizations • Local NGOs can offer strong localized networks that link multiple communities and other organizations • If well trained, their efforts are invaluable to support farmers activities Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played a major role in promoting sustainable development at international level. They have also actively helped to improve rural living conditions. NGOs can facilitate community adaptive capacity by promoting interactions across scales and providing opportunities for collective learning. At the same time, local NGOs may not be able to access resources or translate information without assistance, and may need to work closely with larger organizations or stakeholders to connect community and national development needs and priorities. Local NGOs can offer strong localized networks that link multipleBrochure of the GEF-NGO communities and other organizations, placing them as vehicles fornetwork—efforts from the Global collection and distribution of information and resources that areEnvironment Facility to involve transmitted across scales. If well trained, local NGOs may also beNGOs in environmental work.See also the GEF-NGO website. able to assist farmers in the application of new technologies. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Non-governmental organizations Examples Civil Society Movement on Climate Change in Nepal Local Initiatives for Biodiversity, Research and Development (LI‐BIRD) is a national NGO of Nepal established in 1995. It is committed to capitalize on local initiatives for sustainable management of renewable natural resources and to improve the livelihoods of resource poor and marginalized people. LI‐BIRD is implementing climate change projects to strengthen the institutional capacity of NGOs to be more credible and effective in policy advocacy and building active climate networks at the national level towards raising awareness, buildingTop: Agricultural innovations for livelihood security capacity, piloting and implementing climate-programme. resilient projects and programmes to the mostBottom: Capacity building activities organized by LI- vulnerable communities of Nepal. See more…BIRD. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Farmers’ organizations • Farmers‘ associations can benefit communities by giving them access to knowledge, technology and inputs Farmers‘ and rural producers‘ organizations (FOs) refer to independent, non-governmental, membership-based rural organizations. Their memberships consist of part- or full-time self- employed smallholders and family farmers, pastoralists, artisanal fishers, agricultural workers, women, small entrepreneurs or indigenous peoples. They range from formal groups covered by national legislation, such as cooperatives and national farmers‘ unions, to informal self-help groups and associations. FOs can help farmers gain skills, access inputs, form enterprises, process and market their products more effectively.Farmers‗ association discussingthe importance of tree Their participation in local planning for climate-smart agricultureconservation in can benefit communities as they can get better access toGuamote, Ecuador. technologies, knowledge and inputs needed with lower costs toPhoto: FAO/R. Faidutti. communities. They can also support continuous training. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Farmers’ organizations Examples A successful mango producers association in Peru Promango, a Peruvian mango farmer organization, represents a number of producers in Peru, which account for approximately 30% of the country‘s mango exports. They have engaged in capacity building and training for the adoption of Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). The association is aiming to continue increasing their production and helping their members to eliminatePromango promotes Good Agricultural Practices and strengthens intermediaries.production and marketing of their members‘ produce. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Private sector • Private sector action is an important complement to secure commitments and concerted action by governments The ability to determine investment flows gives the private sector great influence over the pace of innovation, technological change and adaptation Private sector action is an important complement to secure commitments and concerted action by governments. Many areas of adaptation and the implementation of smarter agriculture can be carried out together with the private sector. The private sector, in particular, can contribute to the assessment ofThe exposure of business toclimate change risk and risks, disaster risk management, technology development andopportunity: a rationale for transfer and financing of a smarter agriculture.action. It will be down to policy makers to establish clear rules and aSource: Business leadership onclimate change adaptation- conducive environment to maximise the contribution of the privateEncouraging engagement and sector to a smarter agriculture and to capitalise in productiveaction, PwC. partnerships at local level. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Private sector Examples “Adaptation for Smallholders to Climate Change” (AdapCC) supports coffee and tea farmers in developing strategies to cope with the risks and impacts of climate change The initiative was implemented as a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) by the British Fairtrade company Cafédirect and the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH (German Technical Cooperation). Financing of the project was shared by Cafédirect (52%) and the PPP programme (48%) of the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). The pilot project (2007–2010) will be extended and continued by Cafédirect and several regional and international public and private institutions.Report of the public-private partnershipAdap-CC. See more… Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Knowledge brokers • Reputed knowledge brokers experience can be valuable for training of communities to recognise the challenges and potential solutions Access to reliable information and data, and the ability to share lessons and experience are necessary to foster the needed change. Apart from conventional knowledge holders like extension services, academia, government and international organizations, a good number of associations, web portals and online networking platforms have been set up to take on a ‗knowledge brokerage‘ role over the last decade. Reputed knowledge brokers experience can be valuable for training of communities to recognise the challenges and potential solutions. At global level, they can assist to identify climate-smart systems at have been tested all over the world. At subnational level knowledge brokers can also gather and disseminate knowledge specific for local conditions.Adaptation learning mechanism. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Knowledge brokers Examples From global to local, knowledge brokers can speed up information dissemination Some examples of knowledge brokers include: Adaptation and mitigation knowledge network- for accessing and sharing agricultural adaptation and mitigation knowledge from the CGIAR and its partners. Climate and Development Knowledge Network- Supports decision-makers in designing and delivering climate compatible development. Africa Adapt - to facilitate the flow of climate change adaptation knowledge between researchers, policy makers, NGOs and communities. See also images.TECA: Sharing practical information and helping Asia-Pacific Network on Climate Change-small producers in the field. It has also exchange knowledge-based on-line clearing house for Asia-groups to discuss specific issues. Pacific region on climate change issues. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Providing sound access to key resources Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Land • Improving the land and water rights of farmers (including female farmers) is fundamental for technological change, as they can embark in investments only when there are benefits for them for a sufficiently long period Climate-smart agriculture requires investments in natural resources management. Farmers will invest in them only if they are entitled to benefit from these for a sufficiently long period. Often, however, their rights are poorly defined or not formalized. Improving the land and water rights of farmers will be a catalyst for technological change. Land tenure programmes in many developing countries have focused on formalizing and privatizing rights to land, with little regard for customary and collective systems of tenure. Still, these systems, where they provide a degree of security, can also provide effective incentives for investments.Governing land for There is no single ―best practice‖ model for recognizing customary landwomen and men. tenure but there may be possibilities for selecting alternative policyPractical guidance on responses based on the capacity of the customary tenure system.responsible governance oftenure. Adapted from Save and Grow. See also Fitzpatrick, 2005. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Land Examples Communal tenure for indigenous communities in Asian countries The communal tenure ―permanent title‖ model, implies that the state fully and permanently hands the land over to local indigenous communities for private collective ownership. In this situation, the resource system is often multi- facetted, comprising agricultural lands as well as forest, water and pasture land. Examples of permanent title in Asia include the Philippines and Cambodia, where legislation provides for collective rights of indigenous communities. In many instances such as Cambodia, Philippines or, for instance, Papua New Guinea, theCommunal tenure and the indigenous groups or communities that are eligible by law forGovernance of common private and permanent communal tenure need to become aproperty resources in Asia- legal entity to be recognized as a communal right-holder by theLessons from experiences in state.selected countries, FAO. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Plant genetic resources • Governments should make sure that there are mechanisms to safeguard access to plant genetic resources at local, national and global levels which will enable climate-smart agriculture During the Green Revolution, the international system that generated new crop varieties was based on open access to plant genetic resources (PGR). Today, national and international policies increasingly support the privatization of PGR and plant breeding through the use of intellectual property rights (IPRs). Plant variety protection systems typically grant a temporary exclusive right to the breeders of a new variety to prevent others from reproducing and selling seed of that variety. IPRs have stimulated rapid growth in private sector funding of agricultural research and development, but to ensure that they profit from developments, governments should make sure that there areA farmer in Zambia in ademonstration plot for a mechanisms to safeguard access to PGR at local, national and globalnew maize variety. levels which will enable the application of climate-smart agriculture and sustainable crop production intensification. More…Photo: FAO/P. Lowrey. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Animal genetic resources • Climate-smart agriculture will also need that farmers and herders have access to breeds that can be more efficient and perform well under climatic challenges Animal genetic resources for food and agriculture provide crucial options for the sustainable development of livestock production. The erosion of animal genetic resources globally, and particularly in many developing countries, has accelerated in recent years as a consequence of the rapid changes affecting livestock production systems (intensification and industrialization) as they respond to surging global demand for animal products. Disease outbreaks, otherKarakul sheep are well disasters and emergencies and the degradation of grazing land areadapted to the sparse desertpastures and climate of the also threats to preserve these resources.Uzbek desert. Climate-smart agriculture will also need that farmers and herders haveSource: Management, use and access to breeds that can be more efficient and perform well underconservation of Karakul sheepin traditional livestock farming climatic challenges. As with plant genetic resources, governmentssystems in Uzbekistan. should ensure that there are appropriate mechanisms for thePhoto: Julie DeVlieg, Rice, WA. distribution and use of animal genetic resources. See more… Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Seeds and seed sector regulation • The seed sector should be properly regulated to fulfil farmers‘ needs under future challenges Farmers require access to quality seeds of varieties that meet their production, consumption and marketing needs. Access implies affordability, availability of a range of appropriate varieties, and information on how to use them. The seed sector should be properly regulated to fulfil farmers needs under future challenges. An effective system should use and link the formal sector—characterised by an structured system which is genetically uniform, uses scientific plant-breeding techniques, meets quality standards—and the informal sector—Harvesting, controlling quality which provides traditional farmer-bred varieties and saved seeds.and cleaning seed in different An effective seed system should also have provisions forseed operations inAfghanistan, Mozambique and propagation and distribution of seeds of stress-resistant varieties, atNepal. normal times and during emergencies, and ways of disseminatingPhotos: knowledge on how to use these improved varieties. See more…FAO/Napolitano/Thekiso/Bizzarri. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Genetic resources ReflectionsNo country is self-sufficient in plant genetic resources; all depend on genetic diversity from othercountries and regions. The fair sharing of benefits from plant genetic resources have beenpractically implemented at the international level through the International Treaty on Plant GeneticResources for Food and Agriculture and its Standard Material Transfer Agreement.In addition, the Interlaken Declaration on Animal Genetic Resources and the Global Plan of Actionfor Animal Genetic Resources, makes provisions for facilitating access to animal geneticresources, and ensuring the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from their use.The Global Partnership Initiative for Plant Breeding Capacity Building (GIPB) aims to enhance thecapacity of developing countries to improve crops for food security and sustainable developmentthrough better plant breeding and delivery systems.Do you know how your country participates in these Treaties and initiatives?Do you know which institutes can support you with improved crop/animal breeds?Which are the mechanisms to provide farmers with improved varieties and breeds?Are they efficient in the light of climate variability and change concerns?How do seed systems operate in your area? How could they be improved? Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Seed systems Examples Promoting smallholder seed enterprises: quality seed production of rice, maize, sorghum and millet in northern Cameroon Two projects were carried out in Cameroon to improve seed production of rice, maize, sorghum and millet by smallholder seed enterprises (SSEs). Farmer groups were strengthened, or new ones formed, and then trained. The groups were then linked to the Extension Service, the Agriculture Research for Development Institution, the National Seed Service and to financial institutions. According to evaluations, two and three years after the project ended, 60% of the groups had continued with their activities. Total certified rice seed for one of the projects had increased from 267 t to 800 t and for the other cereals project, total certified seed had increased from 497 t toSeed systems in emergencies, another 719.2 t.important aspect to consider instrengthening seed systems. See more… Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Linking with market opportunities • New market opportunities in the light of expected global change challenges should also be created, especially for smallholders Market access opportunities have always determined the success of agriculture and the change from subsistence to commercial agriculture. New opportunities on the light of expected global change challenges should also be created, especially for smallholders. At local level the design and implementation of strategies to provide farmers, particularly women, with better access to new market opportunities and the capacity to take advantage of these openings should be a priority. These strategies should especially give access to farmers to markets for high-value agricultural products, eco- friendly agricultural products, those from low carbon footprint operations and other rewarding climate change mitigation efforts.A CIAT publication on Agricultural planning at local level should analyse possible marketsmarket opportunities in and opportunities both an national, regional and international level.the MEAS project website. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Technology, knowledge and extension • Climate-smart agriculture is knowledge intensive, so efforts are needed to establish effective mechanisms for information exchange for farmers to benefit from scientific developments Successful adoption of climate-smart agriculture will depend on the capacity of farmers to make wise technology choices, taking into account both short- and long-term impacts. Rural advisory and agricultural extension services were once the main channel for the flow of new knowledge between research and the field. However, public extension systems in many developing countries have long been in decline, and the private sector has failed to meet the needs of low-income producers.Extension workers Extension services, for so long neglected should be revitalised andfacilitating sharing of modernised in order to cope with farmers demand for knowledge.knowledge andexperiences among farmers More than ever efforts are needed to establish effective mechanismsin a Farmer Field School in for information exchange so farmers can benefit from scientificEgypt. developments, they can communicate their needs for a more appliedPhoto: FAO/G. Napolitano. research and share their own innovations. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Technology, knowledge and extension Examples A consortium effort to modernize extension and advisory services The Modernizing Extension and Advisory Services project components include: TEACH - Disseminating modern approaches to extension through user-friendly materials for dissemination and training programs that promote new strategies and approaches to rural extension and advisory service delivery. LEARN - Documenting lessons learned and Good Practice through success stories, case studies, evaluations, pilot projects, and action research. APPLY - Designing modern extension and advisory services program through assistance to selected host country organizations—public and private—for the analysis, design, evaluation and reform of rural extension and advisoryWebsite of the project modernizing services.extension and advisory services project. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Input and output pricing • Input and output price policies should aim to support farmers in making profits from climate-smart practices Farmers will only accept practices that give them a profit and better life opportunities. Input prices are important for climate-smart practices. While access to good quality and fairly priced inputs is necessary, governments should make sure that access policies do not result in environmentally harmful or ―perverse‖ subsidies. In the long run, these cause more damage to the environment and economies (world-wide unintended perverse subsidies cost from US$500 billion to US$1.5 trillion a year).An example of a framework to Stabilizing agricultural output prices is also important forinvestigate the effect of farmers, especially after the commodity price fluctuation in recentagricultural subsidies impacts. years. For farmers depending on agricultural income, price volatilitySource: Rethinking Agricultural means large income fluctuations and greater risk, which reducesInput Subsidies in Poor RuralEconomies. their capacity to invest in climate-smart systems. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Input and output pricing Examples Abolishment of agricultural subsidies in New Zealand The economic crises which hit New Zealand in the 1980s led to a reform in government intervention in all economic activities. Since 1984 the government has abolished input subsidies; phased out farm credit concessions; increased charges for government services; reduced distortions in taxation provisions; and charged more realistic interest rates on marketing board trading.New Zealand dairy scene, east of Rotorua.Output and net incomes for the New Zealand The New Zealand experience suggests that most of thedairy industry are higher now than before supposed objectives of agricultural subsidies andsubsidies ended—and the cost of milk market protections—to maintain a traditionalproduction is among the lowest in the world. countryside; ensure food security; combat foodSource: Farming without subsidies? Some scarcity; support family farms; and slow the corporatelessons from New Zealand. take-over of agriculture—are better achieved by theirPhoto: Courtesy of the Rodale Institute. absence. Source: Farming without subsidies? Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Enhancing field capacity Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Multidisciplinary training for farmers • Farmers will need more solid multidisciplinary training in order to be able to choose and carry out climate-smart practices • Attracting back young generations to farmers should be part of a wider agriculture education strategy Adaptation to climate change and mitigation efforts in agriculture, together with keeping up with production challenges, will require more skilful farmers, herders and fisher folk . Formal and informal training resources will need to be widely available to them. Training can be in the form of visits to communities from local agriculture, fisheries and natural resources institutes, regular training from extension services or NGOs or participation of producers in specific schemes outside their areas. Training should include strategic thinking for identifying andYoung farmer harvesting export managing risk and climate variability impacts, technical knowledgequality strawberry in his for climate-smart agricultural practices, ecosystem managementfields, Gaza. Education andtraining should attract younger and monitoring, business management decisions, all with afarmers to agriculture. ―problem solving‖ focus. Training programmes should also aim toPhoto: FAO/B. Lahia. attract younger generations to agriculture. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Multidisciplinary training for farmers Examples Education strategies for farmers in Australia The Australian Government DAFF and the National Farmers Federation work together to improve training opportunities for farmers, including : • Promoting farm apprenticeships inclusion in Technical Colleges and Trade Training Centres and Skills incentive schemes • Improving and providing training in the Institute for Trade Skills ExcellenceThe Australian Governments FarmReady programme • Promoting enrolments in agricultural sciencesaims to boost training opportunities for primary in the universitiesproducers and Indigenous land managers, and enable • Making FarmReady and Rural Skills Australiaindustry, farming groups and natural resource programmes compatible with farmers needsmanagement groups develop strategies to adapt andrespond to the impacts of climate change. See more… Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Useful weather information • Better ways of transferring weather information should be used if farmers are to benefit of early warning systems Farmers can reduce crop losses if they have information in advance through weather forecasts (2–10 days) and outlooks (weeks–seasons). Most farmers use traditional knowledge rather than formal climate forecasts, often due to a lack of understandable information. Even if weather forecasting will never be an exact science, information on risks can be better transferred by converting scientific data into more field-useful information, for example farmers should know: • Expected start and end of the rainy season; • Forecasts or outlooks of storms, floods and droughts; • Expected impacts of forecasted events and actions to take. The effectiveness of forecasts depends on farmers receivingExample of a weather outlookwebsite in the USA. accurate and timely information that they can use. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Useful weather information Examples Climate Forecasting for Agricultural Resources A 1997–2000 project by the Tufts University and the University of Georgia studied how farmers in Burkina Faso could use climate monitoring and forecasts. They found that farmers: • Want and value scientific information, including climate forecasts; • Perceived local forecasts had lost reliability due to increased climate variability; • Need seasonal outlooks several weeks before the expected onset of the rainy season; • Need information on impacts and trade-offs;Listening to forecasts.Source: Opportunities and constraints • Want forecasts to be delivered by credible sources andto using seasonal precipitation identified local language radio programs as a good way toforecasting to improve agricultural deliver forecasts;production systems and livelihoodsecurity in the Sahel-Sudan region: A • Do not fully appreciate the probabilistic nature of thecase study of Burkina Faso. forecast and need better ways to interpret information. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Identifying risks • For farmers, herders and fisher folk knowing which kind of risks are associated to specific areas is important in order to create responses that address these risks The change in climatic features, including the frequency and intensity of climate events will pose different risks. For farmers, herders and fisher folk, knowing which kind of risks are associated to specific areas is important in order to create responses that address these risks. Although climate change projections are still coarse and uncertain, a number of trends and threats for agriculture may be discernible at local level. Risks related to the status of natural resources, trends in occurrence of weather events, expected agricultural production constraints, challenges to post harvest operations and risks shared with other sectors should be looked at.Women in a farmer field school.Source: Livelihood Adaptation to Identifying risks together with communities should be part of effortsClimate Change Project. for planning at community level and create risk disasterPhoto: FAO/G. Napolitano. management strategies. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Identifying risks Examples Identifying risks in fishing communities Policy support for adaptation of fisheries includes supporting measures to reduce exposure of fishing people to climate-related risks through: • Assessing climate-change risks, including future fish stock variation and cross-sectoral factors which could affect fisheries; • Engaging communities with disaster management and risk reduction planning, especially concerning planning coastal or flood defences; • Supporting risk reduction initiatives within fishing communities, using ‗soft engineering‘ solutions whereThis fishing community in Aido Beach, Benin, possible, e.g. the conservation of natural stormhas adopted the use of an experimental net barriers, floodplains, erodible shorelines to managefeaturing larger mesh that does not catch costs and damage impacts;juvenile fish. • Implementing early warning systems.Photo: FAO/D. Minkoh. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Preparing disaster risk management plans • Disaster risk management plans include provisions to reduce the impacts of hazards and rehabilitate areas hit by disaster in a more effective way The purpose of disaster risk management (DRM) is to reduce the potential impacts of hazards; to prepare for events which bring those hazards; and to initiate an immediate response should the impacts be so large that disaster strikes. The DRM framework encompasses : • The preparation phase, which should provide timely and reliable hazard forecasts and identify actions to avoid or limit adverse effects of hazards. • The response phase, to protect lives and assets through a series of established coordinated actions.Example of elements of DRM • The post-disaster phase, focused on recovery and rehabilitation.framework.Source: Disaster risk DRM planning implies strong coordination and gives moremanagement systems analysis- A opportunities to increase community resilience and rehabilitateguide book. disaster stricken areas without wasting time or resources. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Preparing disaster risk management plans Examples Drought Planning in the Near East. Planning to reduce drought impacts Drought planning involves identifying objectives and strategies to effectively and equitably prepare for, respond to, and recover from the effects of drought, as well as the development of a plan to implement the strategies. To reduce the likelihood of drought impacts being repeated in the future, increased emphasis is being placed on developing drought plans that outline proactive strategies that can be implemented before, during, and after drought to increase societal and environmental resiliency and enhance drought response and recovery capabilities. Several countries in the Near East and Africa have already begun the process ofPreparing for drought developing national drought plans. Their valuable in eastern Kenya. experience can be used in other countries. Photo: FAO/T. Hug. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Strategies for biosecurity • Plant and animal disease containment, as well as measures to reduce food and water safety threats and produce safe food should be part of agricultural community risk reduction management plans The success of climate-smart practices will depend highly on a well set framework for biosecurity by identifying and containing animal and plant diseases as well as reducing hazards posed by food and food operations to humans. Often frameworks are available at national level but poorly implemented at local scales. As part of agricultural community risk reduction management plans, plant and animal disease containment, as well as measures to reduce food and water safety threats and produce safe food, should be included. Education programmes, e.g. through the inclusion in farmer field schools that disseminate information about surveillance and practicesTransferring animalhealth knowledge in to contain disease and contamination outbreaks (and ways to handleTogo. them) are necessary to support farmers‘ work, in particular to contain potential threats brought by climate change.Photo: FAO/K. Pratt. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Strategies for biosecurity Examples Early warning systems in place can contribute EMPRES to climate-smart strategies website. Protection against animal and plant diseases and pests and against food safety threats and preventing their spread, is one of the keys to fighting hunger, malnutrition and poverty. The Emergency Prevention Systems (EMPRES) address prevention and early warning across the entire food chain through EMPRES Animal Health; EMPRES Plant Protection and EMPRES Food Safety. Another example is the Global Early Warning System (GLEWS) for Major Animal Diseases, including Zoonosis (an infectious disease that can be transmitted from animals to humans). GLEWS The networks and structures created by these website. systems can be used to incorporate climate concerns and link to local planning processes. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • More applied research delivered to the field • More support to research should be given so they can respond better and faster to farmer needs, connect to extension services and where relevant, collect and spread farmer innovation Many agricultural research systems are not sufficiently development- oriented, and have often failed to integrate the needs and priorities of farmers, especially smallholders, in their work. In addition, research systems are often under-resourced. To support more applied research and a faster transfer to the field, it is important to: • Increase funding, in particular that for local institutes, to strengthen agricultural research and promote technology transfer programmes to smallholders; • Improve feedback mechanisms, to connect farmers innovationInspecting a new wheat with scientific research as well as strengthen extension services;variety, responding to • Support programmes that foster integration of disciplines to adoptfarmers‘ needs. more systematic approaches to agriculture and natural resourcePhoto: FAO/J. Spaull. management. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • More applied research delivered to the field Examples Researchers as training and technology brokers in the Yellow River Basin The project Climate-resilient and Environmentally Sound Agriculture (C-RESAP) has demonstrated technologies devised by local research institutes and trained approximately 1,500 farmers in 4 provinces in China. Researchers from universities and national and provincial agricultural research academies took the lead in working with farmers to demonstrate practices and deliver multidisciplinary training. This experience set new precedents and saw Chinese scientists embarking on field extension work. It was a good opportunity for scientists to learn new skills like deliveringA field technician advises farmers on and preparing information for different audiences. They alsosoil quality in Ningxia, China. had the opportunity to receive feedback from farmers on thePhoto: C-RESAP project. C-RESAP practices demonstrated. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Access to financing • Innovative access to financing is needed for farmers to be able to implement climate-smart practices—financing should help farmers and not hinder their development possibilities Credit financing for smallholders is traditionally considered a high risk business and involves high transaction and supervision costs. Innovative financing schemes have approaches and practices to address these problems. Value chain financing responds to problems tied with access to credit by interlinking two separate transactions as a substitute for collateral. For instance, loans for purchase of inputs are linked to the sale of output as a condition for the loan. Some examples of innovative financing include: warehouse receipts, contract farming, trade finance, other commodity-finance instruments suchInnovations in financing as repurchase agreements and export receivable financing.food security by PIDS Credit delivery mechanisms link informal financial intermediariesdiscussing different financing with formal ones is a widespread practice in many countries.models for small scalefarmers. Source: IFAD. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Access to financing Examples Examples of innovative financing A number of initiatives to support farmers have appeared in the last decades, among them: • Self-help groups (SHGs) linked to banking in India: SHGs are a village-based financial intermediary usually composed of 10–20 local women. Many SHGs are linked to banks for the delivery of microcredit. See example… • Unit Desas are village banks of the Bank Rakyat Indonesia. The strength of Unit Desas is savings mobilization. Each is managed by 4 to 11 personnel at a ratio of one loan staff per 400 borrowers and one cashier per 150 daily transactions. See more…Parmesan warehouses in Italy. • Bank Finance against Warehouse Cheese: Loans againstSource: Innovative financing in Parmesan are offered by four banks in the Italy‘s northernagriculture II-Lending against Emilia-Romagna region. The cheese is stored in climate-warehouse stored cheese as collateral. controlled warehouses as collateral for the term of thePhoto: R. Mohite, FTKMC. loan. See more… Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • The macro-level picture:investment, incentives and legal frameworks Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Financing and investment • Climate-smart agriculture needs adequate investment for enabling farmers to be more efficient in their production and adapt to climate change • Public and private sources should be combined in innovative ways to meet requirements Climate change adaptation and mitigation costs in rural areas are expected to be high, therefore climate-smart agriculture needs adequate investment, both in public infrastructure and in funding for enabling farmers to be more efficient in their production and adapt to climate change. Considerable investment is required in filling data and knowledge gaps and in research and development of technologies, methodologies, as well as the conservation and production of suitable varieties and breeds. Public and private sources, as well as those earmarked for climateInvestment needs versus available change and food security should be combined to meet theresources (in blue) in developing investment requirements of the agricultural sector. See alsocountries: A funding gap. Financing and Investments for Climate-smart Agriculture andSource: ―Climate-Smart‖ Private Sector Finance and Climate Change Adaptation.Agriculture, FAO. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Financing and investment Examples Adapt yesterday’s irrigation to tomorrow’s needs Irrigation is critical to meet global food needs, but the era of rapid expansion of large-scale public irrigated agriculture is over. A major new task is adapting yesterday‘s irrigation systems to tomorrow‘s needs.Projections of capital investment in Investments in irrigation must become more strategic.irrigation development and rehabilitation. Irrigation has to be seen in the context of other developmentSource: Reinventing irrigation, CAWMA. investments and consider the full spectrum of irrigation options—from large-scale systems to small-scale technologies supplying water to bridge dry spells in rainfed areas, together with the integration of water for crop, livestock and fish. The challenge for irrigated agriculture is to improve equity, reduce environmental damage, increase ecosystem services, and enhance water and land productivity in existing and new irrigated systems.Rehabilitation of an old reservoirfor irrigation, Morocco. Source: Water for food water for life: A comprehensive assessmentPhoto: FAO/ R. Messori. of water management in agriculture (CAWMA). Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Insurance • Index insurance products, where payments are based on an independent measure highly correlated with farm-level yield or revenue outcomes, could be considered to support farmers Various forms of insurance exist in agriculture. However, these can involve high opportunity costs in the form of foregone development. The increasing incidence of weather shocks are even further reducing efficacy of local insurance arrangements The traditional agricultural reinsurance is not considered a success. Index insurance products, where payments are based on an independent measure highly correlated with farm-level yield or revenue outcomes, are explored as alternatives. Index insurance makes use of variables exogenous to the policyholder—such as area-level yield or an objective weather event or measure such as temperature or rainfall—but have a strong correlation to farm-levelSome advantages of index losses.insurance contracts. Source: Managing agricultural production risk (The World Bank).Source: Managing agricultural See also New approaches to crop yield insurance in developingproduction risk, The World Bank. countries (IFPRI). Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Insurance Examples Weather index insurance two cases: Mexico and Kenya • Since 2002–03, Mexico has used an insurance scheme managed by a government owned insurer to improve relief efforts in the event of drought. Vulnerable smallholder farmers are identified in advance and payments can be made as soon as a predetermined threshold is crossed (using a weather-based index which correlates local rainfall with crop yields). The scheme puts relief funding on a more predictable footing and transfers part of the risk to the international reinsurance market. More… • Kilimo Salama (―Safe Agriculture‖) insures farm inputs against drought and excess rain. The project, a private sector initiative, offer farmers who plant on as little as one acre insurance policies to shield them from significant financial losses when drought or excess rain are expectedAGROASEMEX (Mexico) and Kilimo to wreak havoc on their harvests. They use mobile phoneSalama (Kenya) insurance schemes registry and payment system and distribution through ruralwebsites. retailers that are micro-insurance firsts. More… Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Incentives for climate-smart agriculture • Farmers need incentives to change their practices towards climate-resilient and environmentally sound agriculture Ideally, change towards a more climate-resilient and environmentally sound agriculture should happen as a result of the compelling need of becoming more efficient and resilient. Still at the beginning farmers may need smart incentives to change their practices, especially in areas where investment is low. These may come, for example, in the form of incentives: • Make agricultural operations more energy efficient; • Mitigate GHG emissions through energy generation or waste recycling;The state of food andagriculture 2007 – Paying • Payment for ecosystem services;farmers for • Preferential prices for commodities produced by sustainableenvironmental production intensification through certification schemes.services, FAO. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Incentives for climate-smart agriculture Examples Environmental Quality Incentives Program, USA The Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), administered by USDA‘s Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), is a voluntary program that provides financial and technical assistance to agricultural producers through contracts up to a maximum term of ten years in length. These contracts provide financial assistance to help plan and implement conservation practices that address natural resource concerns and for opportunities to improve soil, water, plant, animal, air and related resourcesThe Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) on agricultural land and non-industrial privatewebsite. forestland. See more... Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Legislation and regulation • Reforms in laws and regulation—and the way they are interconnected—will be called for, if countries are to have a more efficient food chain • Of particular importance will be better mechanisms to implement these frameworks at local levels The interests and mitigation and adaptation targets of different sectors in a country vary widely. Until now, the tendency has been to legislate and regulate sectors separately, which often has created contradictory provisions and difficulty to implement at local levels. Reforms in, for example, water, land use and tenure, environment, biodiversity, agriculture, forestry, social and economic laws and regulation—and the way they are interconnected—will be called for, if countries are to have a more efficient food chain. Provisions for better access to resources or rights, e.g. seed systems, genetic resources and contractual farming arrangements, are also needed. Of particular importance will be better mechanisms to implementClimate change conference for these frameworks at local levels.Mexican climate legislation.Source: UNDP Mexico. , The GLOBE climate legislation study, presents examples of efforts in different countries to establish legislation frameworks. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Preparing a climate-smart action planPreparing and implementing a climate-smart action plan ensures actions result in improvedadaptive capacity and more resilient communities. Aspects that need to be considered include:• Identifying actors: Those affected by potential actions need to be involved since the beginning• Building capacity of actors for planning: by informing them of challenges, the need to become more efficient and reducing risks (e.g. through training, awareness campaigns, meetings).• Inviting actors to determine risks and opportunities: This also involves external support to present scientific findings regarding potential risks in your community. Risk and opportunity identification should cover environmental and economic threats and opportunities (current and future) and not being limited to agriculture, but driven by a multidisciplinary perspective to development.• Identifying mechanisms for disaster risk management in all sectors, including roles and responsibilities of different actors, establishment of early warning and monitoring systems, securing support and funding from central governments. For agriculture this entails providing specific sectoral solutions that are compatible with development priorities and other sectors.• It should also include finding common ground for actions with neighbouring communities, to ensure planning is done in the context of a larger picture, e.g. that your local responses link to subnational, national and hopefully global economic and environmental priorities.• Revising and improving continuously, through monitoring and evaluation of activities. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • ResourcesReferences used in this module and further readingThis list contains the references used in this module. You can access the full text of some ofthese references through this information package or through their respective websites, byclicking on references, hyperlinks or images. In the case of material for which we cannotinclude the full text due to special copyrights, we provide a link to its abstract in the Internet.Institutions dealing with the issues covered in the moduleIn this list you will find contact details of national and international institutions that might holdinformation on the topics covered.Glossary, abbreviations and acronymsIn this glossary you can find the most common terms as used in the context of climate change.In addition the FAOTERM portal contains agricultural terms in different languages. Acronyms ofinstitutions and abbreviations used throughout the package are included here. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies
  • Accessing other modules:Part I - Agriculture, food security and ecosystems: current and future challenges Module 1. An introduction to current and future challenges Module 2. Climate variability and climate change Module 3. Impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems and food production Module 4. Agriculture, environment and healthPart II - Addressing challenges Module 5. C-RESAP/climate-smart agriculture: technical considerations and examples of production systems Module 6. C-RESAP/climate-smart agriculture: supporting tools and policiesAbout the information package: How to use Credits Contact usHow to cite the information packageC. Licona Manzur and Rhodri P. Thomas (2011). Climate resilient and environmentally sound agricultureor ―climate-smart‖ agriculture: An information package for government authorities. Institute of AgriculturalResources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Food and AgricultureOrganization of the United Nations. Module 6. Supporting tools and policies