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Climate resilient and environmentally sound agriculture - Module 5

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Part II - Addressing challenges

Part II - Addressing challenges
Module 5:
C-RESAP/climate-smart agriculture: technical considerations and examples of production systems

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    Climate resilient and environmentally sound agriculture - Module 5 Climate resilient and environmentally sound agriculture - Module 5 Presentation Transcript

    • CLIMATE-RESILIENT ANDENVIRONMENTALLY SOUND AGRICULTURE OR “CLIMATE-SMART” AGRICULTURE Information package for government authorities
    • Introduction to the information packageThe future of humankind and the planet relies on human activities becoming moreefficient, the food chain being no exception. This online information package waswritten with the idea of providing an overview of the challenges that the agriculturesector—and to a certain extent the food production chain—faces to feed the worldwhile becoming more efficient. It also explores ways to address these challenges.Through simplified concepts and relevant resources and examples, we explore theimpacts of global change on agriculture, the impacts of agriculture on ecosystemsand possible technical and policy considerations that can help building food securityunder current and future challenges.The technical and policy considerations explored are meant to contribute towardsclimate-resilient and environmentally sound or ―climate-smart‖ agriculture—agriculture that increases productivity; enhances resilience to global change; stopsecosystem services deterioration; and produces economic and social benefits.The information presented here comes from findings, experience and ideas from allover the world, as we believe there are already elements to catalyse change. Wealso believe this change has to come largely from local communities, for whichreason, wherever possible, we provide examples at local levels.See how to use the information package.
    • PACKAGE CONTENTPART IAGRICULTURE, FOOD SECURITY AND ECOSYSTEMS: CURRENTAND FUTURE CHALLENGESPART IIADDRESSING CHALLENGES
    • MODULE 5 C-RESAP/CLIMATE-SMART AGRICULTURE:TECHNICAL CONSIDERATIONS AND EXAMPLES OF PRODUCTION SYSTEMS
    • Module objectives and structureObjectivesDescription of the different technical aspects that need to be considered in order to introduce C-RESAP/climate-smart practices and presentation of some examples of C-RESAP/climate-smartagriculture.StructureThe module has an introduction to the principles that underpin climate-smart practices and 6 units:1. Technical planning towards climate-smart agriculture: which emphasis the need for changing to an ecosystem management based approach combined with sound land use planning.2. Technical components towards climate-smart crop production.3. Technical components towards climate-smart livestock production.4. Technical components towards climate-smart fisheries and aquaculture5. Integrated systems towards climate-smart agriculture.6. Increasing efficiency in different systems.CaveatAlthough farmers have been adapting to different threats for many years, a clear focus on climate-smart agriculture is much more recent. Examples may come from experiences that can beconsidered sustainable and because their characteristics are promising for climate-smart agriculture.Truly climate-smart agricultural practices will be unique to specific local conditions, but they will sharecommon aspects (the ―components‖ described here) with practices elsewhere. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Food production with health in mind • Food production and distribution must consider health as the wider goal: health of humans and health of ecosystems The future of people and the planet relies on more efficient human activities, with the food chain being no exception. Food production and distribution must consider health as the wider goal: human health through the provision of enough, nutritious, good quality and safe food with the least possible impact on ecosystems’ health. In addition, interactions with other sectors should be considered in a time of multiple challenges, e.g. the need to share water resources with other sectors or preserving ecosystem services for other uses. Whatever future agricultural practices are called (e.g. sound, smarter, sustainable), their key features will be to be efficient, to become more resilient to climate variability and change, to save, reuse or recycleChecking food quality in resources and to provide social and economic benefits.Tajikistan. Here we do not differentiate between the terms ―climate-smart‖ andPhoto: FAO/V. Maximov. ―climate-resilient and environmentally sound‖ agriculture. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Sustainable systems • Sustainable systems will provide the ―win-win‖ outcomes required to meet the challenges of feeding the world’s population and reduce the impact of agriculture on ecosystems The production of food needed by society will need to come from intensifying production from existing resources, as there are relatively few opportunities for expanding. There is now widespread recognition that an ecosystem approach must underpin sustainable crop production intensification, and that together with increases in productivity in the livestock and fisheries sectors, resulting systems should take human and ecosystem health into consideration. Sustainable systems will provide the ―win-win‖ outcomes required to meet the challenges of feeding the world’s population and reduce the impact of agriculture on ecosystems. They will allow countries toSustainable production plan, develop and manage food production addressing society’sapproaches used in FAO for needs and aspirations, without jeopardizing the right of futurecrop, livestock and fisheries generations to enjoy environmental goods and services.production (click on images). Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Getting smarter in the field • Farmers, herders and fishing communities need solutions to multiple challenges • Food security and climate change can be addressed together by transforming agriculture and adopting practices that are ―climate-smart‖ Farmers, herders and fishing communities have been adapting for centuries, but the rate of change is becoming too fast for them to be able to respond. Many environmental and economic challenges add to their work, therefore they need to look for solutions that allow them to maintain production, improve income and fulfil the demand for agricultural products. Food security and climate change can be addressed together by transforming agriculture and adopting practices that are ―climate- smart‖. Here we define climate-smart agriculture as agriculture that sustainably increases productivity (e.g. through sustainable production intensification) and resilience (adaptation), reduces greenhouse gases“Climate-Smart” Agriculture, (mitigation), and enhances achievement of national food security andFAO. development goals (adapted from FAO). Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Technical planning towards climate- smart agriculture Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Managing ecosystems, not administrative units • Ecosystem management is more useful than management at administrative unit level for tackling multiple challenges Planning is commonly done at administrative division level. This makes it more difficult to account for differences in environmental, economic and social conditions. Managing ecosystems, rather than administrative units, is more useful for tackling multiple challenges. Ecosystem management is not new; in some areas planning is done at watershed or basin (physiographic) levels. This type of management is often done for water resources, but can become truly ecosystem management if multiple aspects are considered. These include production opportunities (e.g. possible future comparative production advantages, types of agriculture, diversification opportunities), adaptation to climate change (e.g. flood control, storm water management, water allocation, cropping cycles), status of resources and conservation needs (e.g. erosion control, water,Ecosystem management, biodiversity, forestry and ecosystem services conservation) as well asUNEP . socio-economic aspects. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Managing ecosystems, not administrative units Examples Canadian Ecological Framework Since the late 1960s, governments, non- governmental organizations, universities and industry have worked to develop a common hierarchical ecosystem framework and terminology for Canada. The underlying principle for the initiative was the commitment and need to think, plan, and act in terms of ecosystems. The principle required people to move away from an emphasis on individual elements that comprise an ecosystem to a perspective that is more comprehensive. This required a consistent, national spatial context within which ecosystems at various levels of generalization can be described, monitored, and reported on. The framework providesPart of a map from the National Ecological for common communication and reporting betweenFramework for Canada. different jurisdictions and disciplines. See more…Source: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Land evaluation and land use planning • Land evaluation and land use planning can also be part of strategies for smarter agriculture and ecosystem management by identifying the land with the highest productivity potential Traditionally, land evaluation and land use planning have been carried out to identify land potential and facilitate a more orderly and efficient distribution of land between urban, industrial, farmland, forest, transportation or other uses. It contributes to the conservation of forest, farmland, grasslands or other ecosystems. Land evaluation and land use planning can also be part of strategies for smarter agriculture and ecosystem management by identifying land with the highest productivity potential, land with the highest vulnerability and land with the highest potential for carbon sequestration under different climate change scenarios. Modern tools of spatial analysis and climate change scenariosParticipatory land use planning can be combined in land use planning. It will be most effectiveinvolves communities in the when done by involving communities in allocating land to satisfyallocation of land uses—some FAOapproaches (click on images). community needs and responsibilities for ecosystem preservation. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Land evaluation and land use planning Examples Land use planning and reducing carbon losses The original motivation for Oregon’s land use planning program was to protect commercial forest and farm land from development. At the time nobody was thinking about carbon emissions. A recent study from the PacificEstimated cumulative loss of forest and agricultural land to low- Northwest Research Station, USAdensity or greater development in western Oregon with, and showed that this programme haswithout, the state’s land use planning programme. If maintained, protected forest and farmland andOregon’s land use planning programme will continue to yield contributed to avoiding 1.7 Mt ofcarbon storage benefits. By 2024, avoided development on an carbon dioxide emissions annually—additional 83,000 ha of forest and agricultural land will yield anadditional 3.5 Mt of avoided carbon losses (equivalent to 12.8 the amount of carbon that would haveMt of CO2 emissions, or 0.64 Mt CO2 per year). been emitted by 395,000 cars in oneSource: Land use planning: a time-tested approach for year.addressing climate change. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Land evaluation and land use planning Examples Participatory land use development in Bosnia and Herzegovina The project Inventory of Post-War Situation of Land Resources in Bosnia and Herzegovina (FAO, 2004) produced an inventory of the state of the land resources of Bosnia and Herzegovina and strengthened institutional capacities to monitor land resources, including local administrations dealing with land resources management. The methodology created by the project is an example of a participatory approach, which couldThe variables that determine land use. be further expanded for climateSource: Participatory land use development in the municipalities ofBosnia and Herzegovina, FAO, 2004. change considerations. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Diversifying rural income • Diversifying rural income may be a strategy towards more climate-resilient livelihoods, but new activities should show larger incomes and be feasible in terms of land, labour, capital and market access Diversifying rural income, an old strategy in many countries, implies the re-allocation of some of the productive resources of a farm to new activities, such as growing new crops; introducing livestock and their products; embarking on value-adding activities (e.g. small scale food processing); shifting production to preserve ecosystem services; providing services to other farmers or food industries; and working on non-farming activities. Rural income diversification may be a strategy towards more resilient systems in low productivity areas, but it needs support from policies to ensure income generated by new farm enterprises is larger than the existing activities, but with similar or less risk.A farmer boiling olivesthat will be processed While growing new crops, raising animals or adding value to productioninto soap in Honduras. may be technically possible, they may not be suitable in terms of land,Photo: FAO/G. Bizzarri. labour, capital resources or market access. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Diversifying rural income Examples Conditions for non-farming activities in Syria Rural areas in Syria are still dominated by agriculture; nevertheless, farming is no longer the only activity. A recent study from the National Agricultural Policy Center in selected rural areas concluded that promoting non-farm activities needed: • Improvement of the education level of rural households; • Promotion of the professional and technical education to increase labour capacity; • Promotion of the access of households to credit markets, enhancing the productive assets of rural households; • Increase in investment in rural areas to create diversification opportunities. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Technical planning ReflectionsIn the past, communities have developed mainly through spontaneous actions and guided bycommon sense and traditional knowledge. The multiple challenges that the world is facing arelikely to result in contradicting interests among different sectors.Sitting at the table with the multiple sectors and actors interested in local development to plan forlocal resources allocation may offer an opportunity to save resources and increase resilience.Advanced land evaluation and land use planning tools, combined with innovative approaches toresource management (like ecosystem management), scientific data on potential impacts ofclimate, economic analyses and participatory decision making can contribute to these aims.Do you know of any efforts of land evaluation, zoning and planning, even if not done throughscientific methods?Did you know that as part of land use planning you could identify areas which are morevulnerable to risks from storms, landslides or tides?Looking at the resources on ecosystem management, could you try it in your area? Perhaps yourlocal environmental management agencies could provide guidelines. It is not about data, butabout thinking from a system perspective!Which opportunities are there for income diversification? For example, how can you add value tothe produce of the area? You could look for ideas in the Rural infrastructure and agro-industrieswebsite. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Technical components towardsclimate-smart crop production Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Diversifying crop systems • Monoculture has a number of disadvantages that result in losses • Diversification of crop systems provides an opportunity to introduce varieties that are more resilient and may also provide economic benefits Monoculture (the cultivation of the same species year after year in the same place) increases pests, diseases and certain weeds; reduces yields; has greater economic risk; results in inadequate distribution of labour throughout the year; increases toxic substances or growth inhibitors in the soil; and reduces biodiversity. Change in climatic conditions and length of growing periods will require planning for cropping patterns and varieties which make the most of the new conditions, preserving productivity and soil fertility. Diverse crop production and crop rotations (cultivation ofSlow-forming terraces and crop subsistence, cash or green manure/cover crops with different char-diversification, including maize,banana and vegetable cropping acteristics on the same field during successive years, and followingin Kiseny region, north-eastern a previously established sequence), may provide higher resilienceRwanda. for agro-ecosystems. New cropping patterns should consider risks,Photo: FAO/A. Odoul. agro-ecological, economic and social aspects. More... Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Diversifying crop systems Examples Video of a farmer in Kenya talking Crop diversification in about her crop diversification Kiaranga, Kenya strategies. Source: CGIAR- Climate Change Agriculture and Food Security. Cassava generally thrives in challenging environments, particularly under hot, dry conditions. Some experts suggest those traits could make cassava attractive for farmers in areas where future hotter, drier weather makes current staples, such as maize, less viable. Suitability changes of Climatic conditions in some cassava in Kyaranga areas will benefit yields of village, Kenya. cassava. For example, inSource: CGIAR- Climate Kiaranga village, Kenya, yieldsChange Agriculture and Food Security. are predicted to increase by 9%. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Genetic resources and resilience • Systems where a variety of genetic resources are available are less affected by biotic and abiotic shocks • Genetic resources can be used for a more efficient agriculture and adapt to climate change Systems where a variety of genetic resources are available are less affected by biotic and abiotic shocks. Therefore, the preservation and sound use of domesticated plant and animal genetic resources and their wild relatives is fundamental in a smarter agriculture. At a broader level, the conservation of genetic resources, as a means of increasing resilience in agriculture, implies: characterising the structure of ecosystems and studying their responses to climate change; identifying species that naturally cope better with stress; supporting breeding of stress-resistant animal breeds and plant varieties; and allowing for the distribution of seeds of new varieties.Video about the At field level, using genetic resources implies introducing moreMillennium Seed Bank productive and better adapted animal breeds and crops (e.g. morePartnership. efficient in water and nutrient utilization, tolerant to stresses),Source: Kew, Royal Botanic diversifying cropping systems and using interactions between plantsGardens, UK. and soil organisms. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Genetic resources and resilience Examples A field trial of salt-tolerant Plant breeding durum wheat in New South Wales, Australia. Plant breeding is the art and science of Source: CSIRO. genetically improving plants for the benefit of Photo: R. James, CSIRO. humankind. It can contribute to climate-smart agriculture by developing: • Stress-resistant or more efficient varieties (resistant to heat, drought, salinity, floods, and water and nutrient efficient) • Environmentally friendly varieties (e.g. pests resistant varieties require fewer pesticides). • High-yielding varieties (increasing food production per unit area and alleviating Submergence- pressure to add more arable land to tolerant rice.Source: International production systems). Rice Research See also The Global Partnership Initiative for Institute (IRRI). Plant Breeding Capacity (GIPB). Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Retaining soil moisture • Practices that protect crops from either excess or lack of soil moisture are fundamental for adaptation of agriculture to climate change Practices that protect crops from either excess or lack of soil moisture are fundamental for adaptation of agriculture to climate change. These include improving soil water holding capacity in dry areas, or draining excess of moisture in wet areas. Soil organic matter improves and stabilizes soil structure, so that soils can absorb higher amounts of water without causing surfaceWater cellars in China. runoff (therefore reducing soil erosion, inundation or flooding). It also improves the water absorption capacity of soils during extended drought. Organic matter in soils can be increased through mulching with crop residues, as in Conservation Agriculture. In dry areas soil moisture content can be increased through the use of water harvesting. In areas with excess or heavy episodes of rain, drainage and biodrainage contribute to reduce inundation and flooding. See more...Biodrainage in Rajasthan, India. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Retaining soil moisture Examples Zaï or Tassa planting pits Zaï or Tassa planting pits, are a water harvesting technique that retain rainwater around crops through the use of wide pits. Pits range in size, depth and distance. Stones may be placed on the upslope side of the soil around the pits to help control runoff. Plants are grown in the pits. Manure is usually incorporated into the pits, making Zaï pits a soil moisture conservation and soil fertility improvement technique. Zaï planting in Sudan (left) Despite the high initial labour cost, the Zaï and Burkina Faso (above). system has been adopted in the Sahel region Source: Climate Program of West Africa and is now commonly Office, NOAA, USA. practised in eastern and southern Africa as Photo: Carla Roncoli, well. Emory University. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Managing organic matter • Organic matter is important for soil quality as it controls critical soil functions • Increasing soil organic matter in soils can contribute to improve production and reducing environmental impacts of agriculture Organic matter deserves special attention as it affects several critical soil functions. It enhances water and nutrient holding capacity and improves soil structure, therefore practices that preserve or increase soil organic carbon can improve productivity and environmental quality and reduce the severity and costs of natural phenomena (e.g. drought and flood). See more… In addition, increasing soil organic matter levels in depleted soils convert them in carbon sinks, contributing to offset emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Management of organic matter in drylands and tropics soils, whichManagement Practices can are generally low in organic matter, and in intensive agriculturalincrease soil organic matter and systems, where years of tillage have depleted organic matter, is ofenhance soil quality. outmost importance to increase the efficiency of agriculturalSource: Natural ResourcesConservation Service (NRCS). systems their possibilities to adapt to climate change. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Managing organic matter Examples Crop residues left on soils increase organic matter Crop residues are the parts of plants left in the field after the crops have been harvested and thrashed. Crop residues are good sources of plant nutrients, are the primary source of organic material added to the soil, and are important components for the stability of agricultural ecosystems. Leaving crop residues on the land as mulch is ideal to increase organic matter, especially in depleted soils. Crop residue is not a waste but rather a tremendous natural resource. About 25% ofPartial removal of wheat straw for fodder while leaving long nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), 50% ofstubble in the field. sulfur (S) and 75% of potassium (K) uptakeSource: Cereal Knowledge Bank, International Maize and by cereal crops are retained in crop residues,Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). making them a valuable nutrient source. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Avoiding further soil erosion • Erosion control measures have been implemented in many countries; in combination with other measures they will be fundamental for a climate-smart agriculture Erosion, already a serious problem in some agricultural lands, may increase in areas with more frequent or intense weather events. A series of measures have been tested in different countries with erosion problems over the years and these could be used as part of a wider smart agriculture plan. The types of measures for reducing erosion (and therefore preserving soil organic matter) include: • Agronomic (e.g. mulching, reduced tillage, Conservation Agriculture); • Vegetative (e.g. using grass or forest strips, cover crops); • Structural (e.g. check dams, bank stabilization, stone walls);Technologies database. • Management (e.g. introducing fallow, changing land use).Source: World Overview ofConservation Approaches and To be more effective, these measures are often used inTechnologies (WOCAT). combination. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Avoiding further soil erosion Examples The World Overview of Conservation Approaches and Technologies (WOCAT) supports innovation and decision-making processes in sustainable land management, particularly in connection with soil and water conservation. Land management specialists all over the world have contributed to document practices for different agro-ecosystems. These are available in WOCAT’s information products, e.g. Sustainable land management in practice and Where the land is greener or the Technologies and Approaches databases. WOCAT also has systematic methods toFor greener land and bluer water (video). document practices and approaches, which areWOCAT collects practices for sustainable land useful for sharing information. If your specialistsmanagement, including soil and water conservation would be interested in sharing their practices,Source: World Conservation Approaches and methods can be found here.Technologies. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Increasing nutrient use efficiency • More efficient application methods of fertilizers, soil analyses, precise nutrient management and nutrient budgets or balances contribute to deliver nutrients according to crop demand and preserve soil fertility, avoid pollution and reduce costs Macronutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S) and micronutrients in soils contribute to increase yields, but they should be used efficiently. Phosphorous is of particular concern as its sources are finite. The effects of climate change on plant nutrient uptake are still not well understood, but it is likely that efficient plant nutrition may be an important component of adaptation of crops to climate change. A combination of organic matter (either manure, crop residues or green manure), and nitrogen fixing legumes can be used to reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers.The growth of a plant is More efficient application methods of organic and syntheticlimited by the nutrient that is in fertilizers, soil analyses, precise nutrient management and nutrientshortest supply (Liebig’s law of theminimum). budgets or balances can contribute to deliver nutrients according toSource: Plant nutrition for food crop demand and preserve soil fertility, avoid pollution and reducesecurity. costs. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Increasing nutrient use efficiency Examples Green manure Soils in many subsistence production systems are depleted and have poor nutrient content. The use of green manures (involves growing a crop that will be worked into the soil later) is an option to enhance soil fertility and protect soils. Almost any crop can be used but legumes are preferred for their capacity to fix nitrogen from the air.Green manuring in Washington State using Mustard varieties such as Orientalmustard (Brassica juncea) and White mustard (Sinapis alba). Farmers use Green manure can be introducedthem after wheat harvesting and before potatoes, to improve their soils and in the rotation, intercropped or leftthereby manage soil-borne pests, control wind erosion, increase infiltration as mulch (not tilled) as inand improve crop yields.Source: Green manuring with mustard - Improving an old technology. Conservation Agriculture. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Sound pest and disease control • A smarter agriculture needs pest control strategies that are more efficient and do not produce adverse side effects to the environment or human health • Integrated pest management (IPM) relies on healthy agro-ecosystems for pest control The ―business as usual‖ approach to pest management (reliance Examples of on large amounts of pesticides, some hazardous to environment plant and health) still followed by most farmers, limits their potential for protection in practising climate-smart agriculture. Save and Grow. Climate-smart agriculture needs pest control strategies that are more efficient and do not produce adverse side effects. These include applying integrated pest management technologies (IPM)—where ecological control is used in preference to hazardous pesticides—supported by policies and infrastructureA farmer using (e.g. early warning systems, training, regulation and incentives to an organic reduce trade and use of hazardous pesticides). pesticide in See also Plant protection in Save and grow- a policymaker’s Senegal. guide to the sustainable intensification of smallholder cropPhoto: FAO/O. Asselin. production and resources on IPM. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Sound pest and disease control Examples Monitoring pest movement: Locust Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria) live between West Africa and India, where they normally survive in isolation. With heavy rains and favourable conditions, they can increase rapidly, gregarize and form swarms. If infestations are not detected and controlled, they can affect large areas. The Emergency Prevention System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) helps to strengthen national desert locust control capacities by improving early warning, rapid reaction, pre- paredness, and introducing environmentally safer control techniques. This experience can be used to devise early warning systems forExamples of Locust desert watch.Source: Locust watch. pest control under climate change threats. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Sound pest and disease control Examples Farmer field schools: IPM and adaptation to climate change Integrated pest management (IPM) field schools are a means to train farmers on ecological pest control. The department of agricultural extension in West Java, Indonesia, has complemented the integrated pest management schools with climate field schools, incorporating climate information within the farm decision making process. Experience in Indonesia has shown that the use of farmer field schools can be an effective way of bridging this gap and this has led to the introduction of climate fieldFarmers being trained in IPM in Indonesia. schools (CFS).Photo: FAO/J.M. Micaud. Source: TECA, FAO. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Increasing water productivity • The biggest potential for physical water productivity gains is in very low-yielding areas, which typically coincide with poverty • There is a large scope to increase economic water productivity by switching to higher value agricultural uses or reducing production costs Climate-smart agriculture requires increasing the productivity of water, or gaining more yield and value from water. There is still ample scope for higher physical water productivity in low-yielding rainfed areas and in poorly performing irrigation systems, especially where groundwater is being depleted or over- extracted. T there is also scope for improvements in livestock and fisheries. There are many well water productivity improvements, but caution must be mixed with optimism. Water productivity gains are oftenPotential for water productivity difficult to realize, and there are misperceptions about the scope forgains. increasing physical water productivity.Source: Water for food, water forlife. A comprehensive assessment There is greater reason to be optimistic about increasing economicof water management in water productivity by switching to higher value agricultural uses oragriculture (Summary). by reducing costs of production. More… Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Increasing water productivity Examples Low-head drip irrigation kits in Kenya Small amounts of water can be applied in drip irrigation, which would not be possible under traditional irrigation methods (flood, furrow and sprinklers). It is with this in mind that the introduction of drip irrigation technology to smallholder farmers has attracted interest in Kenya. The Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) has been promoting the use of dripA farm kit drip irrigation system. It can service up to one- irrigation for smallholders. The range of loweighth of an acre and consists of a screen or disc filter, sub- cost drip irrigation systems in Kenya nowmainline, connectors and drip lines. The system usually gets includes bucket, drum, farm kits (eighthits water supplied from a 1,000 litre tank raised one 1 m acre) and family kits (1.4 acre) for vegetablehigh, to create the pressure. A typical one-eighth acre kitwith a tank to irrigate 2,500 plants costs US$424. gardens and orchard drip irrigation kits forSource: GRID (Issue 28), International Programme for fruit trees. These systems can supply waterTechnology and Research in Irrigation and Drainage for 500 to 5,000 plants. See more…(IPTRID). Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Using groundwater resources soundly Examples Drip irrigation from groundwater in Syria A two year FAO project in collaboration with Syrias Ministry of Agriculture demonstrated improved irrigation technology and management techniques to farmers in four regions of Syria hardest hit by groundwater shortages. Overall water savings ranged from 20% to over 50%, with drip irrigation being the most efficient and cost-effective. Farmers also reported savings in labour and pumping costs, as well as higher crop productivity. The project also revealed "technical and institutional factors" that had constrained the full potential of the new technologies. One of these was limited access to finance. There are now microfinance schemes, which enable farmers to use water efficient irrigation methods. Farmers are being encouraged to diversify by planting cash crops such as almond, grape and pistachio, which also require less water.An experimental drip irrigation Sources: The Aga Khan Foundation Rural Support Programmesystem in Syria. (SKF-RSP) and the humanitarian news and analysis service ofPhoto: FAO/Roberto Faidutti. the UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (IRIN). Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Controlling and coping with salinization • Increasing seepage due to sea level rise will cause soils in deltas and coastal areas to become increasingly salty • Practices to control or avoid salinization should be part of climate-smart agriculture Salt accumulation in soils resulting from intense irrigation, poor drainage or seawater seepage, reduces agricultural productivity. Increasing seepage due to sea level rise will cause soils in deltas and coastal areas to become increasingly salty. Practices to adapt to this include improving drainage, treating soils to remove salts, introducing salt-tolerant species or using mixed farming systems. In addition, cultivation systems and market opportunities for salt-tolerant crops provide new perspectives for agriculture in salt- affected areas. The experience of countries dealing with salinization, irrigation and coastal management will be useful for climate-smart agriculture.Salt management crop Institutions or programmes like FAO, ICARDA, ICBA, IMWI, IPTRID,systems. PAP-RAC, CAZALAC, IAEA, among others, work actively onSource: Colorado StateUniversity, USA. salinization, irrigation or coastal management. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Controlling and coping with salinization Examples About 800,000 ha (20% of the total area) in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam experiences seawater intrusion in the dry season. Farmers have adapted by alternating rice and shrimp farming. They can produce shrimp and rice on the same plot by flooding with saline water in the dry season for shrimp and, at the beginning of the wet season, they flush salinity out of their fields using rain and fresh river water before planting rice. This system could be further improved by considering future drought and flood scenarios, more salt-tolerant rice varieties (salinization is worsening), disease control and environmental concerns.A farmer inspects his rice crop on the Mekong Delta, Source: Perspectives on water and climateVietnam. change adaptation.Photo: FAO/L. Dematteis. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Technical considerations for crop production ReflectionsIt is likely that some of the previous considerations for crop production are already part of theagenda of your community. What differences are there? For example, are you: applying them witha focus on climate; thinking about future short and long term risks; acting together with othersectors to save resources as much as possible? Also, look at them in different ways—what oncewas considered sustainable may not be so anymore, as it may affect ecosystems or human health.The challenge is to produce less with more and having the know-how. It will be a matter of takingcomponents and experimenting them at local levels, looking for ―no-regret‖ options.Which of the previous technical components of climate-smart agriculture are you taking intoconsideration in crop production in your area?Which others, not listed here, that are specific for your area could contribute to climate-smartcrop production?How could you increase the knowledge of communities of these technology components?Could you translate the benefits of these components into economic gains? For example, usingfertilizers in a balanced way, how much would you increase yields and outputs? Or how muchwould farmers save in inputs if they adopt integrated pest management?How does your area manage soils, water? Are your systems diverse? Are they susceptible topests? How are these controlled? Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Technical components of climate- smart livestock production Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Livestock production efficiency and resilience • Improvements in livestock production are needed, while minimizing resource use and greenhouse gas emissions Significant productivity improvements in livestock production are needed to meet food security and development requirements, while minimizing resource use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Past productivity gains, in particular in large scale livestock production, have been achieved through advances in feeding and nutrition, genetics and reproduction and animal health control, as well as general improvements in animal husbandry. Extending these approaches to developing countries, especially in marginal lands in semi-arid areas and in small scale systems, where there are large productivity gaps, will be important for smarter livestock production. Better forecasting of risks, determination of the effects of climateLivestock drinking from a change, early detection and control of disease outbreaks andwaterpoint in Garissa, Kenya. strategies to support smallholders are also needed.Photo: FAO/Thomas Hug. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Large versus small scale operation • Specific technology and strategies need to be adopted in different circumstances, aiming to make systems as productive and resilient as possible under specific cultural backgrounds The ways large livestock facilities and small holders and pastoralists operate are obviously different and they will require different strategies for becoming more efficient and resilient. In poor areas, where livestock is not only a source of food for subsistence but also an asset, improvements in productivity may be more difficult to realise if herders and pastoralists do not have the right support. For instance, changing the widespread livestock herder practice of keeping many low productivity animals, or the smallholder Small and practice of maintaining livestock on minimal feed that cannot produce large scale a marketable surplus of meat or milk, can be difficult to change animal without cultural and economic changes. production. Specific strategies need to be adopted, aiming to make systems as Photos: productive and resilient as possible under specific cultural FAO/G. Dianaand I. Kodikara. backgrounds. Here we present examples for both types of operations. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Where to produce • As part of land use planning, areas with more potential for intensive or extensive livestock production should be delineated, to save resources and improve productivity African livestock owners are thought to be among the most vulnerable populations on earth. Yet, livestock also has potential to strengthen resilience to climate change, as livestock production systems tend to be more resilient than crop based systems. A report by ILRI on improving livestock productivity in Ethiopia suggests small stock production should be stratified and different zones delineated for different kinds of production systems. Herding and other extensive livestock-based systems are more suited to the lowlands as well as subalpine sheep-based regions, whereas intensive market- oriented systems are better suited to the highlands, where farmers typically mix crop growing with animal husbandry. Sources: Building climate change resilience for African livestock in sub-Building climate changeresilience for African Saharan Africa (IUCN), Sheep and goat production and marketinglivestock in sub-Saharan systems in Ethiopia: Characteristics and strategies for improvementAfrica. Source: IUCN. (ILRI). Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Improving feed • Better feeding strategies for small scale producers will come through the application of existing nutritional principles adapted to climate change threats Feed is the primary constraint to improving livestock production in smallholder systems, where livestock is fed on whatever livestock keepers have at hand. Better feeding strategies for small scale producers will come through the application of existing nutritional principles adapted to climate change threats (e.g. as mentioned in Module 3, thermal stress affects animal feeding patterns). Livestock diets, currently dominated by crop residues and other low-quality feeds, require more energy-rich feeds to support higher levels of milk and meat production. Milling by- products, oilcakes, and other agro-industrial by-A farmer feeding cattle fresh products, combined more effectively with basal diets to enhancefodder in Kafr el-Sheikh, Egypt. the animals’ use of the feed, can be used. Growing crops forPhoto: FAO/Giorgio Napolitano. animal feed will become economically competitive as animal product demand increases. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Improving feed Examples Improved sheep feeding Although Ethiopians raise vast numbers of small stock—about 25 million sheep and 21 million goats— the nation’s livestock sector continues to underperform. ILRI reported the success of farmers in the Goma District, where sheep fattening cycles (supplementing with cottonseed meal) have been set up. Farmers managed to fatten 15 sheep in three cycles in a single year, translating to significant increases in income, as households made a profits of between US$167–333 annually from the sale of fattened animals. Farmers are using the increased income to expand the fattening program, life improvement and to purchaseFarmers in the project Improving productivity and agricultural inputs like seeds, fertilizer and farm tools.market success of Ethiopian farmers. Source: Improving Food Production from Livestock andPhoto: International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI),Improving productivity and markets success of Improved fattening doubles incomes from sheep raisingEthiopian farmers project. in western Ethiopia–Top two innovators are women. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Reducing animal thermal stress • Methods to help animals alleviate thermal stress will be useful to reduce the impacts of climate change on livestock production • Whether grazing outdoors, or in confinement, energy efficient methods should have priority Methods to help animals alleviate thermal stress will be useful to reduce the impacts of climate change on livestock production. These may include: • Physical modification of the environment (shade, improved ventilation, combination of wetting and ventilation); • Improved nutritional management schemes (e.g. adjustments of ration, fibre, fat, protein and electrolytes); • Changing feeding patterns (e.g. cows tend to eat more feedAt 41°C, the risk of poultry death during the cooler parts of the day);is high and emergency measureshave to be taken. • Providing enough water (e.g. water intake may increase by 20%Source: Managing heat to >50% as a result of heat stress);stress, Part 1 - Layers respond to • Genetic development of less sensitive breeds (e.g. many localhot climatic conditions. WorldPoultry Net. breeds are already adapted to their harsh conditions). Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Reducing animal thermal stress Examples Tree shade Trees provide protection from sunlight, combined with cooling as moisture evaporates from the leaves. To choose which species is best, several aspects need to be considered, including protection capacity, compatibility with livestock and environment. For example, Waldige (1994) studied Mangifera indica, Caesalpinia sp., Pinus sp. and Casuarina sp. for their performance as cattle shade in Brazil. The best shade was given by Mangifera indica (mango tree), with the least radiant heat load; the worst results were for the Pinus sp. Protection is important for choosing shade but is not everything—mango trees were discarded as shade for cattle as their fruit is dangerous for them. Source: Weather and climate and animal productionCattle protected by tree belts in Australia. (WAMIS). See also Trees for shade and shelter andPhoto: Department of Primary Industries, VictoriaState Government, Australia. Cattle - Guidelines for the provision of shelter. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Genetic resources for a smarter production • Farmers access to animal genetic resources will be fundamental for maintaining production under future challenges The value provided by animal genetic diversity should be secured. This requires better characterization of breeds and production environments; the compilation of more complete breed inventories; improved mechanisms to monitor and respond to threats to genetic diversity; more effective in-situ and ex-situ conservation measures; genetic improvement programmes targeting adaptive traits in high- output; and performance traits in locally adapted breeds. In addition, animal breeding will need to account for higherIndigenous Nguni cattle, a breed temperatures, lower quality diets, greater disease challenges,that is better suited to survive the mitigation strategies and food demand.weather conditions in South Africa, Farmers’ access to genetic resources and associated technologyparticularly during periods ofdrought, than imported European and knowledge (e.g. more efficient converters of feed to meat, milkcattle. and eggs) and breeds better adapted to changes will bePhoto: FAO/Jon Spaull. fundamental for maintaining production under future challenges. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Genetic resources for a smarter production Examples Local breeds for coping with local conditions The Achai cow, a local breed of the Hindu Kush Mountains, is the smallest of all cattle breeds in Pakistan and is adapted to the environmental conditions of the area including rugged terrain grazing. The small body size could be the result of natural selection to reduce the sensitivity to fodder shortage in harsher environments. It is a multipurpose animal genetic resource being reared both as dairy and draft animal. Crossbred cattle and other introduced breeds cannot perform optimally in the area. Documenting the breedA herd of Achai cows in northern Pakistan. and selecting Achai cows with better production andSource: Mountain Cattle Breed for Coping with reproduction performances can help in improving theClimate Change: Needs for Conserving and breed’s traits and increase outputs. An action plan hasReintroducing the Achai in the Hindu Kush been presented to the Department of Livestock andMountain of Northern Pakistan. Dairy Development of the Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, whichPhoto: CDE, University of Bern. has initiated a conservation programme. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Efficient management of manure • Better management of animal manure is needed in order to reduce leach of nutrients and greenhouse gas emissions Factors that affect GHG emissions from manure include temperature, oxygen level (aeration), moisture, and sources of nutrients. These factors are affected, in turn, by manure type (livestock type), diet, storage and handling of manure (pile, anaerobic lagoon, etc.), and manure application (injected, incorporated, etc.). Practices that can reduce GHG emissions from manure include: • General manure management practices, e.g. type and timing of application;Covered lagoon at Iron CreekColony, Alberta. • Feed management, e.g. balanced feeding, controlling frequencySource: Manure Management and of feeding, changing diet components;Greenhouse Gases, Alberta • Storage, e.g. storing covered with permeable fabrics,Agriculture, Food and Rural underground or at lower temperatures;Development (AAFRD). • Treatment, e.g. covered lagoons with gas recovery, digesting toPhoto: Kendall Tupker. produce biogas, composting, adding urease inhibitors. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Efficient management of manure Examples Manure management options for confined pig production in rapidly growing economies Pig production has expanded dramatically in recent years but this has been accompanied by a high cost to the environment. Special care has to be given to manure management as livestock excreta has a major impact on the environment. There are plenty of manure management techniques available but they often are not well known. Also, the farmer or the decision maker frequently has insufficient knowledge of the economic, environmental and public health implications of these techniques.Recommendations on manure management fromthe Canadian Pork Council. The LEAD initiative is preparing a decision supportSource: Manure management strategies to reduce tool on manure management for confined piggreenhouse gas emissions for Canadian hog production in rapidly growing economies. See more…operations. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Improving grassland management • Arresting further degradation and restoring degraded grasslands, through grazing management and re-vegetation can also be part of climate-smart agriculture • Herders and pastoralists could also play a crucial role in soil carbon sequestration Arresting further degradation and restoring degraded grasslands, through grazing management and re-vegetation, are important for smart agriculture. This can include set‐asides, postponing grazing while forage species are growing or ensuring even grazing of various species. These practices along with supplementing poor quality forages with fodder trees, as in silvopastoral systems, can all contribute to increase productivity, resilience and boost carbon accumulation. Herders and pastoralists could also play a crucial role in soil carbon sequestration. Common grazing management practices that might increase carbon include: stocking rate management, rotational, planned or adaptive grazing and enclosure of grassland from livestock grazing. See also Livestock grazing and soil carbonGrasslands, Rangelands and sequestration.Forage Crops website, FAO. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Improved grassland management Examples The Qinghai project In 2008 FAO, the World Agroforestry Centre, the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Provincial Government began working with herders to jointly design improved grazing and land management practices that can restore soil health, improve milk and meat production and generate ecosystem services such as reducing run-off and flash floods and conserving biodiversity. They also aimed to develop a cost-effective means of estimating and crediting the extent to which such practices result in GHG reductions, so herders can earn money from selling carbon offset credits on emission trading markets. A methodology has resulted which can be used by other areas.Degraded grasslands in Qinghai province, China. Source: FAO. See also Methodology for Sustainable Grassland Management.Photo: FAO/P. Gerber. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Disease prevention and surveillance • Protecting animals from diseases, their spread and possible human health impacts is important, especially early detection of new threats brought by climate change Protecting animals from diseases, their spread and possible human health impacts may take different forms at field level: • Training farmers in early detection of illnesses, recognising new threats and increasing their access to veterinary services; • Implementing biosecurity measures at farm level, e.g. isolating new or sick animals, regulating the movement of people, animals, and equipment and establishing cleaning procedures; • Introducing identification and traceability systems, which although expensive may reduce impacts of outbreaks; • Making farmers participate in data collection and early warning systems which connect animal health and climate warnings;A local veterinarian inspection inKazakhstan. • Establishing emergency response plans;Photo: FAO/L. Miuccio. • Enforcing health inspection procedures at local level. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Disease prevention and surveillance Examples Participatory disease surveillance Efficient surveillance requires close collaboration between government, business and civil society. Participatory disease surveillance (PDS) has been developed to integrate civil society into surveillance activities. The PDS approach was refined in Africa as an accurate and rapid method to understand the distribution and dynamics of rinderpest in pastoral areas. It relies on traditional livestock owners’ knowledge of the clinical, grossA Maasai livestock owner whose cattle herd has suffered pathological and epidemiological features offrom and subsequently been inoculated againstrinderpest in Kenya (Global Rinderpest Eradication diseases that occur locally.Programme). The approach can be used in conjunction withSource: Towards a safer world: Animal health and new training for potential diseases broughtbiosecurity. under climate change scenarios. See morePhoto: FAO/T. Karumba. resources. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Increasing livestock water productivity • Livestock water productivity is defined as the ratio of net beneficial livestock- related products and services to the water depleted in producing them • Increasing water productivity is also closely related to improving animal productivity Livestock water productivity is defined as the ratio of net beneficial livestock-related products and services to the water depleted in producing them. It acknowledges the importance of competing uses of water but focuses on livestock-water interaction. Three basic strategies help to increase livestock water productivity directly: improving feed sourcing; enhancing animal productivity; and conserving water. Provision of sufficient drinking water of adequate quality also improves livestock water productivity. However, it does not factor directly into the livestock water productivity equation because water that has been drunk remains inside the animal andPart of a framework for assessing thus within the production system, although subsequent evaporativewater productivity. depletion may follow.Source: Water and livestock for Source: Water and livestock for human development, CAWMA.human development, CAWMA. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Increasing water productivity Examples Pastoral market chains in Sudan Kordofan and Darfur, Sudan, are home to pastoralists who depend on grazing livestock but the markets for their animals are in Khartoum. Migration corridors supplied with water and feed enable animals to trek to markets and arrive in relatively good condition. Watering points require effective management, such as the provision of drinking troughs, physically separated from wells and other water sources to mitigate the degradation of water sources and vegetation buffers to protect riparian areas. Once in Khartoum, buyers fatten animals with crop residues and feed supplements procuredProviding drinking water in from the irrigation systems of the Nile.troughs helps preventingcontamination of wells and surface This case exemplifies the interconnection of pastoral andwater. irrigated production systems and the need for area wideSource: Water and livestock for approaches to their management.human development, CAWMA. Source: Water and livestock for human development,Photo: D. Penden. CAWMA. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Technical considerations for livestock production Reflections As for crop production, some of the previous considerations may be already practised in your area. There are some commonalities that can be further explored, e.g. water productivity, early identification and prevention of diseases, crop residue management and the need to increase efficiency in general . There are many opportunities for increasing efficiency in the livestock sector, as well as for reducing its impact on the environment. Which are the most common livestock systems in your area? Are they extensive or intensive? What are their main features? For the different components discussed, how could production be improved in your area? If the effects of climate variability and climate change are already being felt, what have been the actions taken by producers? Which measures in your area will be feasible to reduce animal heat stress? Could farmers get together and implement common measures (e.g. common shed or ventilation areas)? What measures would you undertake to increase water productivity across crop and livestock production? Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Technical components towards climate-smart fisheries and aquaculture Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Efficient and resilient fisheries • There are a series of measures that fishing communities can take to become more efficient and resilient • Responses to direct impacts of extreme events on fisheries infrastructure and communities are likely to be more effective if they are part of long-term planning In general, responses to direct impacts of extreme events on fisheries infrastructure and communities are likely to be more effective if they are anticipatory, as part of long-term integrated management planning. However, preparation should be commensurate with risk, as excessive protective measures could themselves have negative social and economic impacts. As climatic changes increase environmental variation, fisheries managers will have to move beyond static understandings of managed stocks or populations. There is a need for implementation of adaptive, integrated and participatory approaches to fisheries management, as required for an ecosystem approach.Fishing for mackerel off the coastof Peru. Source: Climate change for fisheries and aquaculture, (FAO).Photo: FAO/T. Dioses. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Efficient and resilient fisheries Examples Global Climate change may offer win-win outcomes where adaptation or mitigation measures improve economic efficiency and resilience to climatic and other change vectors. For example, this could include decreasing fishing efforts to sustainable levels, decreasing fuel use and hence CO2 emissions. Africa The fish sector makes vital contributions to food and nutrition security of 200 million Africans and provides income for over 10 million engaged in fish production, processing and trade. Fish has become a leading export commodity, with an annual export value of US$2.7 billion. However, exploitation of natural fish stocks is reaching limits. Investment is needed urgently to improve the management of natural fish stocks and enhance fish trade in domestic, regional and global marketsExamples of potential adaptationmeasures in fisheries. Source: The NEPAD Action Plan for the Development of AfricanSource: Climate change for Fisheries and Aquaculture.fisheries and aquaculture (FAO). Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Efficient and resilient aquaculture • In most cases improved management and better aquaculture practices would be the best and most immediate form of adaptation • Aquaculture could also be a useful adaptation option for other sectors In most cases and for most climate change-related impacts, improved management and better aquaculture practices would be the best and most immediate form of adaptation, providing a sound basis for production that could accommodate possible impacts. Aquaculture could be a useful adaptation option for other sectors, such as coastal agriculture under salinization threats, and could also have a role in biofuel production, through use of algal biomass or discards and by-products of fish processing. Integrating aquaculture with other practices, including agro- aquaculture, multitrophic aquaculture and culture-based fisheries, also offers the possibility of recycling nutrients and using energyExamples of potential adaptation and water much more efficiently. Short-cycle aquaculture may alsomeasures in aquaculture. be valuable, using new species, technologies or managementSource: Climate change forfisheries and aquaculture (FAO). practices to exploit seasonal opportunities. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Efficient and resilient aquaculture Examples Aquaculture zoning and monitoring Adequate site selection and aquaculture zoning can be important adaptation measures to climate change. When selecting aquaculture sites it is very important to determine likely threats through risk assessment analysis, particularly in coastal and more exposed areas and weather related risks must be considered.Red tide monitoring in Chile in At the same time, the likelihood of disease spread can beMagallanes and Region Antarctica minimized by increasing the minimum distance between farmsWebsite (Spanish). Source: IFOP . and by implementing tight biosecurity programmes for aquaculture clusters or zones. An important adaptation measure is the implementation of effective integrated monitoring systems. These should provide adequate information on physical and chemical conditions of Climate change aquatic environments, early detection of diseases and implications for fisheries and presence of pest species, including harmful algal blooms. An aquaculture. example is the monitoring of red tide in Chile, linked to shellfish. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Considerations for fisheries and aquaculture Reflections Communities depending on fishing will be probably some of the most affected by climate change and variability. In addition, current trends in some areas may mean that their production needs to become more efficient and ecological. Improving infrastructure and possibilities for monitoring the status of fisheries and aquaculture will be important technical components of adaptation for fishing communities. Integration with other agriculture sectors and planning together with them will be equally important. What are the most common systems in your area? How often are they stricken by climatic events? If there have been recent events, are there records of their cost in terms of infrastructure, life and rehabilitation? Which of the measures presented in the adaptation measures tables are being implemented? Which are the constraints for implementation? Are there water quality monitoring networks in your area? Are you aware of networks in neighbouring communities? If not, could you organise different communities to set up or request the set up of such a system? How are current management practices compared with those considered more efficient? Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems towards climate- smart agriculture Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems- Conservation agriculture • Conservation agriculture is perhaps the closest approach to agriculture that results in less land degradation, increasing resilience and mitigating climate change Conservation Agriculture (CA), is an approach to manage agro- ecosystems that contributes to preserve ecosystem services by increasing soil organic matter; reducing erosion; enhancing soil quality; preserving moisture; and reducing GHG emissions, fuel and labour. Conservation Agriculture is characterized by: • Continuous minimum mechanical soil disturbance; • Permanent organic soil cover (with cover crops or residues); • Diversification of crops (in sequences and/or associations).Conservation Agriculture avoids In CA, mechanical soil disturbance is reduced to an absoluteusing tillage and burning residues minimum or avoided (reduced or zero tillage) and pesticides andand keeps the soil covered. plant nutrients are applied in ways that do not disrupt biologicalPhotos: FAO Conservation Agriculture processes. CA can be adapted to all agricultural landscapes andwebsite and The paradigm of land uses and be the basis for further integration. See more…conservation agriculture. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems- Conservation agriculture Examples Conservation agriculture networks Success stories on Conservation Agriculture (CA) have been documented all over the world. Examples can be found in the websites of national and international networks promoting CA. Examples include: FAO Conservation Agriculture projects Conservation Agriculture Network for Southeast Asia The African Conservation Tillage Network Conservation Agriculture Systems Alliance Professional Alliance for Conservation Agriculture Federaçao Brasileira de Plantio Direto na PalhaExamples of Conservation Agriculture literature, FAO. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Crop and livestock systems: recycling • Successful integration involves intentionally creating synergies among crops, livestock, fish or trees that result in enhanced social, economic and environmental sustainability The added value of integrating crops and livestock has been understood and practised by farmers for thousands of years and yet these systems can hold a key for a smarter agriculture in the future. There are multiple ways and scales in which integration can be implemented. Successful integration involves intentionally creating synergies between crops, livestock, fish or trees that result in enhanced social, economic and environmental sustainability. When managed well, integrated crop-livestock systems (IC-LS) benefit ecosystems through increased biological diversity, effectiveIn integrated crop and livestock nutrient recycling, improved soil health, preserved ecosystemsystems synergies result in services and enhanced forest preservation.recycling and maximum use ofresources. There are examples of functioning IC-LS, including some with trees,Source. Integrated crop-livestock pasture and fish. Combinations with Conservation Agriculture aresystems, IFAD. likely to become more common. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Crop and livestock systems: recycling Examples A farmer in Bichi village, Nigeria. Successful applied research in Nigeria Photo: International A successful example of a mixed crop and livestock Livestock Research system was the introduction of cereal-legume Institute (ILRI). intercropping to animal husbandry in Bichi, Nigeria. Crop residues removed from the fields after the grain harvest are conserved for dry-season livestock feeding. Cereal stalks may also be used for fuel and building material. At the onset of each growing season, livestock manure accumulated during the dry season is returned to fertilize the fields. Improved dual-purpose (food and feed) varieties of sorghum and cowpea, measured daily feeding of ruminants, improved simple housing for animals (forOther examples of manure collection) and intercropping resulted in 100– crop-livestock 300% increases in grain yield, as well as increased systems in livestock weight. ConservationAgriculture (FAO). Source: (Achieving more with less, ILRI). Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems: Agroforestry • Planting trees in agricultural lands is not only cost effective compared to other mitigation strategies, but also provides a range of co-•benefits to increase system resilience and improve rural livelihoods In broad terms agroforestry is the use of trees and shrubs in crop or animal production and land management systems. Growing trees and shrubs can increase farm income, diversify production and spread risk. It can reduce the impacts of weather events (e.g. heavy rains, droughts, heat waves and wind storms); prevent erosion; stabilize soils; incorporate nutrients through nitrogen fixation; increase water infiltration rates; enrich biodiversity in the landscape; provide timber and fodder; raise carbon sequestration in the system; and increase ecosystem stability. Planting trees in agricultural lands is not only cost effective compared to other mitigation strategies but also provides a range ofAn agroforestry scheme in Peru:Dagame trees, pasture and co-•benefits to increase system resilience and improve ruralbuffalo. livelihoods. Agroforestry has also been combined with ConservationPhoto: FAO/A. Brack. Agriculture systems. See more… Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems: Agroforestry Examples Multi-storey cropping in the Philippines Farmers can cultivate a mixture of crops with different heights (multi-storey) and growth characteristics, which together optimise the use of soil, moisture, space and increase carbon sequestration. In this system, perennial crops (coconut, banana, coffee, papaya, pineapple) and annuals/biennials (root crops: taro, yam, sweet potato, etc.) are intercropped. It is applicable where farms are small and the system needs to be intensive. In this particular area, coconuts are usually planted first. When they reach a height of 4.5 m (after 3–4 years), bananas, coffee and/or papaya are planted underneath. Black pepper may also be part of the system. After sufficient space has developed at ground level, in about three to four years, root crops are planted.Multi-storey cropping.Source: C. Pretorius, through WOCAT. See more... Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems: Fish and crops • Integrated agriculture-aquaculture offers special advantages in waste recycling and encourages better water management for agriculture and forestry The diversification that comes from integrating crops, vegetables, livestock, trees and fish imparts stability in production, efficiency in resource use, and conservation of the environment. In integrated farming, wastes of one enterprise become inputs to another and, thus, optimize the use of resources and lessen pollution. Stability in many contrasting habitats permits diversity of genetic resources and survival of beneficial insects and otherA model integrated fish farm in wildlife.Vientiane, Laos: a fish pondintegrated with floating Integrated agriculture-aquaculture offers special advantages overvegetables. The vegetables are and above its role in waste recycling and its importance inconsumed by the farm family and encouraging better water management for agriculture and forestry.the surplus is sold at localmarkets. Rice cultivation is also In addition, fish are efficient converters of low-grade feed andpractised at the pond edge. wastes into high-value protein.Photo: FAO/K. Pratt. Source: Integrated agriculture-aquaculture. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems: Fish and crops Examples India An integrated system of fish and crops (rice, maize, sunflower and vegetables) together with poultry and goats was studied in Karnataka, India, on land previously farmed with a rice mono-cropping system. In this system, poultry droppings provided nutrients for natural food organisms in the water for the fish. After harvesting the fish, the nutrient-rich water was used to irrigate the crops, which produced fodder for the goats as well as food and income for the farmer. The results were improved crop yields, higher income and lower energy use compared with the traditional mono-cropping system. Source: Channabasavanna et al., 2009. Follow the links for more examples of an integrated fish, cropAnother example of an integrated fish-rice and livestock systems in China and Malaysia.system (Madagascar). More…Photo: FAO. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems- Food in the cities • Urban and peri-urban agriculture has the potential to enhance resilience of urban populations to climate change by diversifying food and income sources Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) has the potential to enhance resilience to climate change by reducing the vulnerability of the urban poor, diversifying food and income sources and making people more resilient in periods of low food supply from rural areas. UPA is also a means to keep areas that are vulnerable to flooding or landslides free from construction and to maintain their natural functions (enhancing water storage and infiltration, reducing run-off) resulting in fewer impacts of high rainfall. To reduce risks of contamination from urban sources, farmingVideo: The Sack Gardens of should be practised in low traffic areas or away from factories;Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya.Source: Solidarités and The hedges and trees should be planted to minimise the spread ofResource Centres on Urban airborne pollution; and the cultivation of leafy vegetables in proximityAgriculture and Food Security to roads should be avoided. See More…(RUAF) Foundation. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems- Food in the cities Examples A FAO programme on urban horticulture in the five main cities of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) has reduced chronic malnutrition levels in urban areas and created a surplus with a market value of over US$400 million. The programme started as a response to mass urban migration following a five-year conflict in the eastern DRC; now it assists local urban growers to produce 330,000 t of vegetables annually. This compares to 148,000 t in 2005/2006, an increase of 122% over a short period of five years. Less than 10% of the vegetables produced by the project are consumed by beneficiaries. The remainder, constituting more than 250,000 t of produce, is sold inGrowing greener cities in the Democratic urban markets and supermarkets for up to US$4 a kiloRepublic of Congo, FAO, 2010. for the major vegetables produced: tomatoes, sweetSource: Greener cities, Urban and peri-urban peppers and onions. More…horticulture, FAO. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems: Food and energy • Integrated Food Energy Systems (IFES) can meet basic energy needs by simultaneously producing food and energy Integrated Food Energy Systems (IFES) aim at addressing unsustainable biomass-based energy sources to meet basic energy needs by simultaneously producing food and energy. The first combines food and energy crops on the same plot of land, such as in agroforesty systems (e.g. growing trees for fuelwood and charcoal). The second type of IFES is achieved through the use of by- •products/residues of one product to produce another (e.g. biogas from livestock residues, animal feed from by•-products of corn ethanol, or bagasse for energy as a by•-product of sugarcane products).A fuel efficient stove built fromlocally available materials by Solar thermal, photovoltaic, geothermal, wind and water power arewomen in Daudu, Nigeria. other options and can be included in IFES, despite the high start•-upSource: Greenwatch Initiative. costs and specialized support required. More… Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems: Food and energy Examples Cooking with biogas in China By turning human and animal waste into methane for lighting and cooking, a biogas project in China’s Guangxi Province is reducing poverty and also helping reduce methane’s more damaging global warming effects (IFAD). Each household involved has built its own plant to channel waste from domestic toilets and nearby shelters for animals (usually pigs) into a sealed tank where waste ferments and is naturally converted into gas and compost. More… Anaerobic digestion in India Anaerobic digestion has the potential to meet the energyA woman cooking with biogas, which requirements of rural India and counter the effects of recklessshe produces in her yard with the burning of biomass resources. It also offers an alternative towaste from her pigsty and family inefficient and unhealthy dung-burning stoves.latrine in Sichuan, China.Photo: FAO/Florita Botts. Source: Altenergymag. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Integrated systems ReflectionsAlthough farmers have been spontaneously implementing mixed systems, these may not be asefficient as they could be. A key element of successful systems is recycling and saving as muchenergy as possible and reducing wastage.Systems that are enhanced by state of the art research, e.g. the integration of more efficient plantor stress resistant varieties; the use of local breeds with adapted traits: or highly diversifiedsystems will perhaps have more opportunities.How far does the integration of systems go in your area?Conservation Agriculture has shown good results, although it needs adaptation to localconditions—are your extension services aware of these systems? Often, early trials fail as not allelements of CA are used. If it has been attempted in your area, have you integrated the threeprinciples? Are these systems also integrated with livestock or forestry production?If you are experimenting with integrated systems, are you documenting them? Documentationmay be an useful way to show your progress and make the case for external help from local ornational institutions. Documentation should include details of how, where, what and whom areimplementing the systems. It is also important to document impacts beyond economic benefits,e.g. social and ecological benefits. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Increasing efficiency in different systems Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Reducing GHG emissions from crop production • Greenhouse gas emissions in the livestock sector can be reduced through different activities that also lead to more efficient production Greenhouse gas emissions in crop production can be reduced through different activities including: • Managing plant nutrients in a more efficient way, e.g. through the application of fertilizer/manure according to soils needs, better nutrient release and application methods, better manure application methods, application of nutrients according to growth stage, and better timing application to avoid losses; • Leaving crop residues in soils, reducing slash and burning and making more efficient use of fuel, e.g. Conservation Agriculture adopts these three measures; • Applying sustainable crop intensification measures in areasFertilization of aubergines in already cultivated to avoid further deforestation, in particular,holes to save fertilizer. China increasing efficiency in rice systems will contribute to reducePhoto: C-RESAP project. CH4 emissions. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Reducing GHG emissions from livestock • Greenhouse gas emissions in the livestock sector can be reduced through different activities that also lead to more efficient production Greenhouse gas emissions in the livestock sector can be reduced through different activities that also lead to more efficient production, including: • Improved animal feeding management: e.g. using balanced diets, feeding animals according to their growth stage, using rotational grazing, feeding livestock high quality forage, including legumes for grazing and including oils in grain diets; • Manure management (collection, storage, spreading, treatment); • Selecting breeds: where resources allow and breeding services exist, replacing low-producing breeds with animals of higher yielding breeds, more efficient or better adapted to localA farmer in Egypt feeding cows conditions;with fresh fodder. • Management of crop production for feed;Photo: FAO/Giulio Napolitano. • Better grazing land management for carbon sequestration. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Reducing greenhouse gas emissions Examples Promising research to reduce greenhouse gas emissions Recent research from CIAT shows that one promising option for GHG mitigation from crop- livestock systems is contained in the roots of the tropical forage grass Brachiaria humidicola. As well as being highly nutritious and palatable to ruminants, brachiaria inhibits nitrification. Nitrification is the microbial process in soil that causes the conversion of fertilizer nitrogen into nitrous oxide. Brachiaria’s biological nitrification inhibition capacity could see the grass take centre stage in the push to significantly reduce theLivestock, Climate Change, and Brachiaria. greenhouse gas footprint of crop-livestockSource: International Center for Tropical Agriculture, CIAT. systems. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Energy efficiency • Energy costs may only be a small percentage of turnover in agricultural businesses but reducing them can increase profits and competitiveness Energy costs may only be a small percentage of turnover in agricultural businesses but reducing them can increase profits and competitiveness. In addition, there are environmental and reputational advantages to reducing energy use, e.g. consumers are increasingly asking farmers to demonstrate their green credentials. Being energy efficient and using renewables to reduce the carbon footprint can help to enhance business. Farm carbon accounting can be used to show the impact of reducing energy use on farm GHG emissions.Planting directly over crop Several aspects, from field operations to storage and transport ofresidues without using tillage produce can be improved, e.g. by considering minimum or noreduces energy consumption. tillage; regularly maintaining agricultural equipment; keepingSource: Conservation agriculture records of fuel use; improving ventilation or insulation in storagewebsite areas; replacing lighting with more efficient lamps; using morePhoto: T. Friedrich. efficient refrigeration; and producing energy from waste. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Energy efficiency Examples Low energy fuel efficient fishing Well-designed and responsibly-used passive fishing gear such as gill nets, pots, hook and lines and traps can reduce the requirement for fossil fuel consumption by as much as 30–40% over conventional active fishing gear, such as trawls. Moreover, the use of biodegradable materials can minimize the amount of ghost fishing when fishing gear are inadvertently lost as a result of bad weather. Other innovations in design of vessels and fishing equipment coupled with safety training can minimize accidents and loss of life at sea, and assist to remove the reputation of fishingFishermen weaving nets in the Philippines. as being the most dangerous occupation in thePhoto: FAO/F. Mattioli. world. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Reducing postharvest losses • Reducing postharvest losses will increase in general the efficiency of production for all agriculture sectors Postharvest losses of crops can be reduced by treatments including the use of chemical and biological compounds (e.g. fungicides, bactericides and insecticides) and the control of temperature, relative humidity and air, as well as improving infrastructure for packaging, storage and transport (FAO, 1989 and 1994; Madrid, 2011). For fisheries, reducing post-harvest losses means wiser use of resources, reducing spoilage and discards and converting low-value resources, which are available on a sustainable basis, into productsImproved method of selling fish for direct human consumption. Reducing spoilage requires improvedat the wholesale market at fish handling on board, processing, preservation, and transportationMercedes, the Philippines. The (FAO, 2005).fish are displayed on aninsulated ice table. The meat and dairy sector will require more efficient refrigeration inPhoto: FAO/F. Maimone. order to maintain the food cold-chain, to cope with increasing temperatures resulting from climate change (James, 2010). Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Technology options are not enough ReflectionsThe section on integrated systems discussed the importance of food-energy systems. Beyondthese, integration is also the need to become more energy efficient and productive and userenewable energies.The previous few slides were meant to highlight some of the points where efficiency can beincreased, but they are only the start. There are plenty of possibilities, which vary with localagriculture and other activities.What is clear is that no matter how sound technologies are, and how much ecological benefitthey can bring, if they are not economically and socially acceptable, they will not be taken up. Inaddition, if the right mechanisms to support change are not in place, this change will be too slowand will result in further losses for communities.The final module presents some of the tools and options that will be necessary in many placesto implement climate-smart agriculture. As with practices or technologies, these should be seenthrough a climate-focused lens and look for ―no-regret‖ options.Climate change and all other challenges will need radical changes of mind, often accompaniedby initially tough decisions, but the more informed communities are, the more chances ofacceptance and success there will be. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • ResourcesReferences used in this module and further readingThis list contains the references used in this module. You can access the full text of some ofthese references through this information package or through their respective websites, byclicking on references, hyperlinks or images. In the case of material for which we cannotinclude the full text due to special copyrights, we provide a link to its abstract in the Internet.Institutions dealing with the issues covered in the moduleIn this list you will find resources to identify national and international institutions that might holdinformation on the topics covered through out this information package.Glossary, abbreviations and acronymsIn this glossary you can find the most common terms as used in the context of climate change.In addition the FAOTERM portal contains agricultural terms in different languages. Acronyms ofinstitutions and abbreviations used throughout the package are included here. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems
    • Please select one of the following to continue:Part I - Agriculture, food security and ecosystems: current and future challenges Module 1. An introduction to current and future challenges Module 2. Climate variability and climate change Module 3. Impacts of climate change on agro-ecosystems and food production Module 4. Agriculture, environment and healthPart II - Addressing challenges Module 5. C-RESAP/climate-smart agriculture: technical considerations and examples of production systems Module 6. C-RESAP/climate-smart agriculture: supporting tools and policiesAbout the information package: How to use Credits Contact usHow to cite the information packageC. Licona Manzur and Rhodri P. Thomas (2011). Climate resilient and environmentally sound agricultureor ―climate-smart‖ agriculture: An information package for government authorities. Institute of AgriculturalResources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Food and AgricultureOrganization of the United Nations. Module 5. Technical considerations and examples of production systems