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Presentation at New directions in humanities IX Congress Granada, Spain 11th june, 2011

Presentation at New directions in humanities IX Congress Granada, Spain 11th june, 2011

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    Granada0611 digital humanities Granada0611 digital humanities Presentation Transcript

    • jalvarez@fsof.uned.es   @alvarezuned  This  is  a  working  process  document.  Please  use  and  quote  as  tenta=ve  and  coopera=ve  ideas.  Tkank  you  for  your  observa=ons  
    •                  Digital  Humani=es  (Mind)                                                    Coopera=ve  Enterprise  (Body)            Network  Society  (World)   Hilary  Putnam:  The  threefold  cord:    mind,  body,  and   world  (Spanish  transla=on  J.  F.  Álvarez:  La  cuerda  de   tres  cabos).    
    • Network  Society  as  a  Threefold   Environment  
    • CYBERCITIZENS,  CULTURE     AND  PUBLIC  GOODS,    •  “Network  society  is  provoking  drama=c  changes  in  several   aspects  of  our  daily  life  as  cultural  traits,  business  and  the   more  disparages  spheres  of  privacy  and  social  life.  We  must   aZend  both  to  freedom  of  access  and  to  new  service   genera=on  because  of  the  peculiar  form  public  goods  are   rising  in  the  Net.  To  supersede  individual  capability   limita=ons  and  to  diffuse  digital  and  cultural  gaps,   electronic  government  could  be  a  cultural  decisive  tool  in   this  phase  of  cibersociety  enhancement.  Technologies   enhanced  the  human  capabili=es,  as  well  as  with  the  social   ac=ons  and  its  framework,  including  cultural  produc=on   and  management.  Technologies  are  also  transforming  the   genera=on,  reproduc=on  and  transmission  of  (social)   knowledge.”  (J.  Francisco  Álvarez,  Arbor,  2009)  
    • A  recurrent  idea   Mano  Marks´  Blog  Thursday,  June  2,  2011  Working  with  People    “The  Humani=es  are  tradi=onally  a  lonely  profession.  While  in  the  hard  sciences  its   not   uncommon   to   see   a   long   list   of   names   on   papers,   in   Humani=es  professions  theres  liZle  reward  for  mul=ple  people  working  on  a  project.  Tenure  was   based   on   ar=cles   you   wrote,   sole   project   work.   One   of   the   reasons   I   love  digital   humani=es   work   is   that   people   are   coming   together,   breaking   the  restric=ve  bonds  of  solitary  work”  Mano  Marks,  Geo  Developer  Advocate  at  Google  hZp://randommarkers.blogspot.com/2011/06/working-­‐with-­‐people.html    
    •   The  social  turn  in  humani=es   is  knocking  at  the  door  and  it  will   remain  here  forever!       @thatcampMadrid        21-­‐22th  november  2011  Good  News  for  Humani=es,  if  ….  
    •     hZp://madrid2011.thatcamp.org/category/general/     21th  -­‐22th    November,  2011  
    • Monitoring  trends,  promo=ng  and   strengthening  coopera=ve  research  •  Networks  and  open  systems  of  knowledge   management.  •  Best  tradi=ons  of  archival  and  documentary   prac=ces.  •  Future  research  model  is  based  on   coopera=on  and  build  on  networks  and  open   systems  of  knowledge  management.  •  DIGITAL  HUMANITIES  MANIFESTO  
    • DIGITAL  HUMANITIES  MANIFESTO  •  hZp://tcp.hypotheses.org/411  
    • Let´s  see  an  example   Granada    150  years  ago  •  Not  only  new  direc=ons  in  humani=es,  not  only  some  paradigma=c   change.    We  are  living  in  a  more  radical  change.  •  A  new  era  in  humani=es  research  is  coming,  but  what  does  it   mean?  •  New  tools,  new  collec=ons,  new  data:  a  huge  and  enormous  set  of   data  anybody  never  thought  before  are  now  at  our  finger=ps.  •  The  online  accessibility  to  a  large  number  of  documents    in  real   =me  is  drama=cally  changing  our  research  experience.    Thus,  let’s   see  a  simple  but  not  trivial  example:     –  Whilst  I  was  preparing  this  lecture  I  asked  me:  What  had  happened  at   the  University  of  Granada  150  years  ago?  What  documents  could  I   obtain  from  my  desk  work?  
    • new   150  years  ago  at   capabili=es   the  University  of     Granada   Open  access       Public    goods  Now  it´s  possible  with  the    support  of  Google,  UCM  and  HathiTrust  collec=on  
    • A  Survey  of  Digital  Humani=es  Centers   in  the  United  States.  2008  «Digital   humani,es   implies   humani,es-­‐based  research,   teaching,   and   intellectual   engagement  conducted   with   digital   technologies   and  resources.   The   use   of   these   technologies   may   be  prosaic   (e.g.,   using   new   media   to   conduct  humani=es   research   or   enhance   teaching)   or  transforma=ve   (e.g.,   developing   wholly   new  products   and   processes   that   transform   exis=ng  knowledge  and  create  new  scholarship)».   Diane  M.  Zorich.  November  2008  A  very  useful  work    but    the  coopera=on  perspec=ve  must  be  reforced  
    • SOME  OBSTACLES  TO  INNOVATION  IN   HUMANITIES  •  COPYRIGHT:  A  university  that  goes  too  far  could   end  up  facing  a  copyright-­‐infringement  lawsuit.  •  The  8.7-­‐million-­‐volume  library  pools  digital  copies   of  texts  that  Google  scanned  from  universi=es.   John  P.  Wilkin,  its  execu=ve  director,  es=mates   that  HathiTrust  may  contain  2.5  million  orphan   works.  HathiTrust  publishes  the  full  text  of  works   in  the  public  domain,  but  not  of  those  that  are   orphaned.  May  29,  2011  •  Out  of  Fear,  Colleges  Lock  Books  and  Images  Away  From  Scholars  •  Marc  Parry  Chronicle  of  Higher  Educa=on"  
    • What  revolu=on?   Technological  is  over    •  “Using   informa=on   technology   to   illuminate   the   human   record,   and   bringing   an   understanding   of   the   human  record  to  bear  on  the  development  and  use  of   informa=on   technology”.   Susan   Schreibman,   Ray   Siemens,   and   John   Unsworth     Introduc=on   to   Digital   Humani=es  p.16    •  “Today,  one  hears  less  and  less  of  it,  perhaps  because   (as  Ess  notes)  the  revolu=on  has  succeeded:  in  almost   all  their  poten=al,  no  longer  seem  revolu=onary  at  all”         p.17  •     
    • Sociotecnical  revolu=on  is  happening      •  My  thesis  is  that  nowadays  other  revolu=on  is   happening:  the  socio  technical  revolu=on  in   humani=es,  facilitated  by    the  presence  of    ICT.  It´s  no   a  material  or  physical  tool.  Instead,  it  is  at  the  very   social  structure  that  is  rising  as  a  basic  turn  in   humani=es  prac=ces  and  in  e-­‐science  in  general.  •  Openness,  accessibility,  how  informa=on  is  used  and   selected:    a  new  curator,  not  only  new  sosware  for   seman=c  webs,  now  the  SOCIAL  WEB  and  its  uses  are   transforming  the  prac=ce  of  humani=es.  
    • Welcome  to  the  Shared  Digital  Future   HathiTrust  is  a  bold  idea  with  big  plans     TOOLS  and  RESOURCES      for  a  new  era  in  humani,es  HathiTrust  is  a  partnership  of  major  research  ins=tu=ons  and  libraries  working  to  ensure  that  the  cultural  record  is  preserved  and  accessible  long  into  the  future.  There  are  more   than  fisy  partners  in  HathiTrust,  and  membership  is  open  to  ins=tu=ons  worldwide.    •  hZp://www.hathitrust.org/about   Currently  Digi,zed   8,771,712  total  volumes  ;  4,  789,293  book  =tles,  212,672  serial  =tles   3,070,099,200  pages    393  terabytes     2,382,779  volumes  (~27%  of  total)  in  the  public  domain       View  visualiza=ons  of  HathiTrust:   hZp://www.hathitrust.org/print/220    
    • Good  news   Yale  University  May  11,  2011    •  hZp://opac.yale.edu/news/ar=cle.aspx?id=8544      New  Haven,  Conn.—  Scholars,  ar=sts  and  other  individuals  around  the  world  will  enjoy  free  access  to  online  images  of  millions  of  objects  housed  in  Yale’s  museums,  archives,  and  libraries  thanks  to  a  new  “Open  Access”  policy  that  the  University  announced  today.  Yale  is  the  first  Ivy  League  university  to  make  its  collec=ons  accessible  in  this  fashion.    Jon  Butler  Ac=ng  University  Librarian  Yale  University    
    • Network  Society:    new  capabili=es  •  As  works  in  these  collec=ons  become  digi=zed,   the  museums  and  libraries  will  make  those   images  that  are  in  the  public  domain  freely   accessible.  In  a  departure  from  established   conven=on,  no  license  will  be  required  for  the   transmission  of  the  images  and  no  limita=ons  will   be  imposed  on  their  use.  The  result  is  that   scholars,  ar=sts,  students,  and  ci=zens  the  world   over  will  be  able  to  use  these  collec=ons  for   study,  publica=on,  teaching  and  inspira=on.  •  (Yale,    10  May    2011)  
    • Globaliza=on  and  scholarship   coopera=on  •  "Sharing  our  ar=s=c  resources  more  fully  across  Yale  and  well  beyond  its   campus  is  a  top  priority,"  asserts  Jock  Reynolds,  the  Henry  J.  Heinz  II   Director  of  the  Yale  University  Art  Gallery.      •  "Through  this  new  university  policy,  scholars,  ar=sts,  teachers,  and   students  worldwide  will  now  be  able  to  more  fully  engage  our  collec=ons   for  ac=ve  learning  and  use  in  publica=ons,  classrooms,  and  crea=ve   projects  without  incurring  any  fees  whatsoever,  elimina=ng  what  has   previously  been  for  many  a  daun=ng  financial  hurdle."      •  "High  costs  of  reproduc=on  rights  have  tradi=onally  limited  the  ability  of   scholars,  especially  ones  early  in  their  careers,  to  publish  richly  illustrated   books  and  ar=cles  in  the  history  of  art,  architecture,  and  material  and   visual  culture”,  according  to  Mariët  Westermann,  vice  president  of  the   Andrew  W.  Mellon  Founda=on.  "Yales  new  policy  provides  an  important   model  to  follow."  
    • UNESCO          1st    June     2011  
    • Execu=ve  Summary   A  report  prepared  for  UNESCO’s  Division  for  Freedom  of  Expression,   Democracy  and  Peace  •  -­‐-­‐-­‐  it  is  more  apparent  how  freedom  can  be  eroded   uninten=onally  as  various  actors  strategically  pursue  their   own  diverse  array  of  objec=ves.  The    findings  reinforce  the   significance  of  concerns  over  freedom  of  expression  and   connec=on,  while  acknowledging  countervailing  trends  and   the  open  future  of  technology,  policy  and  prac=ce.   Freedom  of  expression  is  not  an  inevitable  outcome  of   technological  innova=on.  It  can  be  diminished  or  reinforced   by  the  design  of  technologies,  policies  and  prac=ces  –   some=mes  far  removed  from  freedom  of  expression.  This   synthesis  points  out  the  need  to  focus  systema=c  research   on  this  wider  ecology  shaping  the  future  of  expression  in   the  digital  age.  
    • •  In  front  of  the  research  in  solitude  or  the  archivist  in  The  Name  of  the   Rose…  •  The  co-­‐building.  
    • The    we-­‐genera=on.  Further  than  nerds  or  techies        A  peculiar  experience  to  reflect  on  na=ve  digital.  “There  used  to  be  a  =me  when  we  would  be  called  ’nerds‘  or  ’techies‘.  Strange  people  with  a  near-­‐obsessive  compulsion  to  embrace  new  technology,  and  who’d  rather  communicate  with  their  friends  online  than  offline.  People  for  whom  the  Internet  itself  was  the  ul=mate  source  of  informa=on  for  solving  any  kind  of  problem  whatsoever.  However,  society  is  now  slowly  coming  to  terms  with  the  fact  that  a  whole  genera=on  is  growing  up  that  has  only  ever  known  the  ’digital  age‘,  and  has  therefore  en=rely  accepted  the  digital  way  of  doing  things.  We  call  ourselves  the  Digital  Na=ve  genera=on.”    we:  DIGITAL_NATIVES  by  Jonathan  Imme    2008    Coopera=ve  enterprise          Stephen  Downes    Art            MindKiss              and          we-­‐genera=on  
    • HYBRID  DAYS    hybrid  |ˈhīˌbrid|    a  thing  made  by  combining  two  different  elements;  a  mixture:  the  final  text  is  a  hybrid  of  the  stage  play  and  the  film.  •  Biology  the  offspring  of  two  plants  or  animals  of  different  species  or  varie=es,  such  as  a  mule  (a  hybrid  of  a  donkey  and  a  horse)  or  a  hybrid  of  wheat  and  rye.    This  open  event  is  about  Hybrid  Environments  where  science,  society  and  technology  enhancing  human  capabili=es  because  the  digital  is  mel=ng    with  the  physical  world  as  a  new  layer  that  increases  the  physical  world  possibili=es.  The  digital  is  not  isolated  from  the  physical  environment.    
    • •  Koppi,  Bogle  y  LaviJ  (2003)  conclude  their   work  by  no=ng  the  importance  of  rewarding   the  produc=on  work  of  teachers.  In  their   opinion,  to  develop  a  formal  reward  system   that  includes  the  produc=on  and  use  of  open-­‐ content  could  be  the  biggest  poli=cal  issue  to   develop  a  large  scale  open  educa=on   movement  in  the  field  of  the  learning  process.  •  Quoted  by:  “Impacto  del  Open  Course  Ware  (OCW)  en  los  docentes   universitarios”  (Universidad  de  Valencia,  2010)  p.  42  
    • Further  e-­‐learning   Further  Learning  management  systems  (LMS)  •  MOOC  (Massive  open  online  course)  v.g.  is  a  new  trend   in  learning  that  could  transform  the  process  of   transmission  of  knowledge  but  also  the  building  of  new   knowledge.    The  coopera=ve  enterprise  or,  at  least,  a   collec=ve  enterprise  is  in  the  nucleus  of  this  kind  of   ac=vi=es.  •  How  informa=on  is  used  and  selected?  This  is  the  role   of  new  curators.  The  humanist  researchers  could  be   who  play  this  new  role.    We  need  not  only  some   disrup=ve  sosware  to  build  well  seman=c  webs.  It  is  a   priority  to  aZend  to  the  SOCIAL  WEB  and  the  way  the   very  prac=ce  of  humani=es  has  been  transformed.  
    • •  Two  issues  are  nuclear  in  this  new  line:  openness  and  accessibility    •  “In  addi=on  to  char=ng  areas  in  which  past  advances  have  been  made,  and  in   which  innova=on  is  currently  taking  place,  this  volume  reveals  that  digital   humani=es  is  addressing  many  of  the  most  basic  research  paradigms  and  methods   in  the  disciplines,  to  focus  our  aZen=on  on  important  ques=ons  to  be  asked  and   answered,  in  addi=on  to  important  new  ways  of  asking  and  answering  that  are   enabled  by  our  interac=on  with  the  computer.”  p.  19  •  “The  process  that  one  goes  through  in  order  to  develop,  apply,  and  compute  these   knowledge  representa=ons  is  unlike  anything  that  humani=es  scholars,  outside  of   philosophy,  have  ever  been  required  to  do.  This  method,  or  perhaps  we  should  call   it  a  heuris=c,  discovers  a  new  horizon  for  humani=es  scholarship,  a  paradigm  as   powerful  as  any  that  has  arisen  in  any  humani=es  discipline  in  the  past  –  and,   indeed,  maybe  more  powerful,  because  the  rigor  it  requires  will  bring  to  our   aZen=on  undocumented  features  of  our  own  idea=on.  Coupled  with  enormous   storage  capacity  and  computa=onal  power,  this  heuris=c  presents  us  with  paZerns   and  connec=ons  in  the  human  record  that  we  would  never  otherwise  have  found   or  examined.”  p.  19  
    • •  “All  of  this  means  that  it  is  now  possible  to  store  and  to  manipulate  large   quan==es  of  data  stored  in  many  places  and  accessible  from  remote  sites,   today  typically  at  the  researcher’s  desk.  •  This  newfound  capacity  is  opening  up  what  I  osen  refer  to  as  e-­‐research,  a   new  brand  of  research.  Whether  it  is  manipula=ng  and  managing  material   in  electronic  journals  or  in  large  data  bases  such  as  StatsCan  or  in  archives   or  in  text  materials,  there  is  today  the  opportunity  to  ask  ques=ons  that   were  not  previously  possible  to  answer.  Indeed,  the  ques=ons  possible  to   address  today  are  so  far  removed  from  earlier  possibili=es  that  it  wasn’t   even  possible  to  conceive  of  completely  new  ques=ons”.    •  “=tle  “Mind  Technologies”  as  it  conveys  a  message  that  researchers  are   now  challenged  to  do  things  that  they  never  imagined  before,  while   humani=es  compu=ng  does  not  fully  capture  the  spirit  of  the  new   fron=ers  that  are  now  opening  up.”  David  Stangway    p.  x  •     •     
    •  Alterna=ve  Wor(l)ds:  The  Humani=es  in  2010,  Report  of  the  Working  Group  on  the  Future  of  the  Humani=es  (SSHRC,  2001)        (  YES  BUT  …    THE  OLD  IDEAS  SE  RESISTEN  A    MORIR)     (Technologies)    present  an  exci=ng  opportunity  for  scholars,  teachers  and  students  •  to  become  informed  partners  and  innovators.  In  par=cular,  new  technologies   provide  access  to  non-­‐linear,  visual  methods  of  conveying  informa=on.  Judicious   use  of  these  methods  can  enhance  the  integra=on  (…)  leading  to  collabora=on   between  several  disciplines  and  technical  fields  and  bringing  together  academics,   ar=sts,  mul=media  experts,  informa=on  technology  specialists,  librarians  and   students.    •  “The  humani=es  must  con=nue  to  seek  larger  structures  of  sense  in  order  to   create  cohesiveness  and  the  types  of  ‘intellectual  filters’  that  are  necessary  to  sort   out  knowledge  from  [mere]  informa=on:  this  part  of  its  mission  remains  the  same..   Guided  by  a  larger  plan,  they  (technologies)  can  however  work  to  create  sense.”  —  Conference  Delegate  •  Another  concern  is  that  while  the  new  technologies  can  provide  a  very  wide   audience  with  access  to  a  vast  variety  and  quan=ty  of  sources,  data  and   documents,  this  “universal  ready  access”  also  raises  ques=ons  about  the   authen=city  and  accuracy  of  texts  and  data.  The  linguis=c  and  textual  skills  of  the   humanist  will  con=nue  to  play  as  essen=al  a  role  in  the  age  of  electronic  texts  as   they  did  in  the  eras  of  hand  copied  manuscripts  and  moveable  lead  type.  
    • Bibliography  •  Borgman,  C.  L.  (2007).  Scholarship  in  the  digital  age  :  informa=on,  infrastructure,   and  the  Internet.  Cambridge,  Mass.,  MIT  Press.      •  Crane,  G.,  A.  Babeu,  and  D.  Bamman.  2007.  eScience  and  the  Humani=es.    Interna=onal  Journal  on  Digital  Libraries    7:117-­‐122        •  Echeverría,  J.  (1999).  Los  señores  del  aire:  Telépolis  y  el  tercer  entorno.  Barcelona,   Des=no.      •  Echeverría,  J.  (2003).  La  revolución  tecnocienŒfica.  Madrid,  Fondo  de  Cultura   Económica  de  España.      •  Zorich,  D.  (2008).  "A  survey  of  digital  humani=es  centers  in  the  United  States."  vii,   78  p.