Air Barrier Paper Sheet material used to protect the exterior wall sheathing by blocking air and liquid but allowing vapor to pass through.
Attic Ventilation Soffit vent Gable vent Attic ventilation is vital in allowing water vapor to escape the residence and also keep the house cooler in the summer.
Backhoe A backhoe is a multi-use excavator. It is used for everything from ditches to removing stumps. The actual backhoe on this combo front loader/backhoe is located at the rear of the tractor and is a 18 in. bucket.
Brick Arches Here are two examples of brick arches, both with keystones. The arch above the window on the left is a French arch. The window on the right has a roman arch above it.
Brick Bonds English Garden Wall Running
Soldier Rowlock Shiner Sailor Header
Brick Sizes Here are two brick sizes. The top bricks are modular (3-5/8x2-1/4x7-5/8). The bottom bricks are utility size(3-5/8x3-5/8x11-5/8).
Bulldozer The machine to the left is a bulldozer. It is used for pushing large quantities of earth for the purposes of land development/construction.
Cladding Stone Random Rubble EIFS Wood Board Brick Wood shakes
Code Requirements The building code requires that each bedroom without an exterior door have an egress of min. 5.7 sq. ft., of at least 20” width and 24” height. The egress in the background is 30”w x 60” h.
Concrete Joints Control joint-(with crack running from it) a groove made in concrete to allow cracking. Isolation joint-(between slab and brick wall) a space between a wall or structure and an adjoining concrete slab filled with a compressible material to allow expansion and contraction between the concrete and the structure.
Concrete Masonry Units Here are CMU’s on top of modular brick. 3 courses of modular brick equal one of CMU’s. Here are two different sizes of CMU. The bottom two are 8 in. blocks while the top level is two 4 inch blocks.
Decorative CMU The bottom blocks are split blocks.
Doors Transom- orange circle A window above a door. Sidelight- blue circle A window on the side of a door. Flush door Green circle- top rail Red- panel Blue- stile Orange- lock rail Yellow- bottom rail
Electrical Components Top Row: Left to Right. Transformer, Meter(red circle), Service Head(green circle), Service panel. Bottom left: Duplex receptacle. The power travels from the high voltage line into the transformer where the voltage is decreased. Power then runs into the service head located on the building, through the meter, which records electricity used, and into the service panel. The service panel controls the circuits in the house and prevents them from overloading. From the service panel the power travels on individual circuits containing duplex receptacles.
Framing Elements Anchor bolt—Red circle Sill plate – Blue square Floor joists – Green circle Subflooring – Purple square Sole plate – yellow square Stud – Orange circle Top plate – Aqua circle Ceiling joist – Brown circle Rafter – Black circle Roof decking – Green square Sheathing – Pink square
Front End Loader Pictured on the right is a front end loader. It is a wheeled or tracked machine with a large bucket used for moving and loading large quantities of earth or material.
Gypsum Board Also known as sheetrock or drywall, it is used as an interior facing material. It consists of gypsum material sandwiched between a paper back and front. It is nailed or screwed in place and the joints are taped and plastered.
Heat Pump The photo on the left is that of a heat pump compressor and the photo on the right is the air handling unit. The compressor moves outdoor air across coils to change the air temperature. The air handling unit forces the air throughout a system of ducts to control the temperature of the house. One advantage is an increase of efficiency by a factor of about 3. A disadvantage is the fact it is very noisy.
Insulation Batt/Blanket Insulation Rigid foam board Insulation is used to slow the conduction of heat through the walls, roof, and floor of the house.
Lintel Highlighted by the green rectangle is a steel lintel. It is used to provide added strength across the opening of a door or window.
Mortar Below is an extruded 3/8 “ joint. It is neither tooled or troweled. Type N mortar was probably used. Below is a concave joint. It is a tooled joint, apx 3/8 “. This is the base of an arch, however it is most likely a veneer wall. Type N was probably used.
Oriented strand board Strands of wood, oriented in the same direction and plied together with pressure. Manufactured in 4x8 sheets and used for sheathing and subflooring.
Plumbing Top left: Kitchen sink. 2” drain pipe Top right: Plumbing vent (in green circle) Bottom left: Green- Shower/tub. 2” drain pipe Yellow- Water closet. 3” drain pipe Red- Lavatory. 1.5” drain pipe
Plywood Veneers(thin slices of wood) of wood glued together and formed under pressure. The veneers are usually laid at right angles to each other to help resist warping.
Radiant Barrier Highlighted in the green circle is a radiant barrier. It is used to block out the heat of radiation from the sun.
Rebar Highlighted by the yellow circle is #5 rebar. It is 5/8” diameter. Rebar is steel rod used to reinforce concrete. The surface deformations are to increase the surface area of the rod and allow a better bond with the concrete.
Steep Roof Drainage Gutter – (Yellow circle) A channel used to collect rain water running off a roof. Downspout – (Pink circle) A drain pipe used to transport the water from the gutter to the ground. Splash block – (Green circle) A device used to divert the running water from the downspout in the direction of choice.
Steep roof materials Left: Highlighted in red is underlayment. It is asphalt impregnated felt used to waterproof roof decking. Center: Highlighted in green is a metal panel roof. Metal panels can be made from galvanized, stainless, or terne coated steel. Also copper, lead-coated copper, or terne. Right: Highlighted in pink is a wood shingle roof. A shingle is a small unit that is overlapped in layers with offset vertical joints.
Steep roof shapes Gable roof Hip roof Gambrel roof
Steep roof terms Green circle – Ridge: The level intersection of roof planes at their highest point. Orange arrow – Valley: The intersection of two sloping roof planes. Pink square – Eave: The level low edge of a roof on the. Aqua square – Rake: The sloping edge of a roof. Blue circle – Fascia: A flat board covering the joint between the wall and the roof. Green square – Soffit: The horizontal member of the overhang of a roof.
Stone random rubble Random ashlar Coursed rubble Coursed ashlar
Vapor retarder A foil like material used to slow down the passage of water vapor in/out of a building. It is usually installed on the backside of insulation.
Waterproofing Waterproofing a foundation wall is critical in preventing the passage of ground water into the basement or crawlspace. The waterproofing shown here is liquid applied.
Weep hole Circled in green is a weep hole. A weep hole is a space left open between bricks, on a vertical joint, to allow water drain out of the airspace between the brick face and the exterior sheathing. Sometimes it is filled with a wick type material, or contains wire mesh to keep animals and insects out.
Welded wire fabric Shown in the orange circle. Welded wire fabric is placed in concrete slabs to add strength and support, and to prevent cracking. The wire mat shown here is 8’ x 6’.
Windows This is a double hung window. It is called double hung because it slides in the track as well as pivots out into a hopper. This is sliding window, one sash slides in a track. This is a casement window. It is hinged on one side and the sash can be cranked open.