- Great philosopherscome at the end of the“Golden Age” and the beginning of the fourthcentury B.C.-The fourth century B.C. was the “Age of Doing”:building’ decorating, provider plays to entertainthe doers.-The fifth century B.C. was the “Age ofContemplation”; there was a time to then in whichto think.
1. Socrates (c. 470-399 B.C.) was one of the greatest teacher of all time, and wrote nothing. He was put to death in 399 B.C. accused of ―Corrupting Youth‖ Phaedo – Plato’s account of his lastconversation with his friends and of his death inthe Dialogue.
2. Plato (c. 428-347 B.C.) – was an aristocrat, asoldier, an athlete and a musician. He became aphilosopher and a passionate lover of wisdomwhen he met Socrates- Dialogues- purport to be the actual words ofSocrates, but the organization of each one sees toindicate that there are Plato’s application andextension of the master’s teaching
- The Republic- Plato’s most important legacy and results of Plato’s research. It only tells how the ―Philosopher kings‖ should be chosen and educated to rule, but also gives Plato’s ideas on theology, ethics, psychology, and politics, and art.- Einstein’s Theory of Relativity is Platonicbecause it stresses faith based on a mathematicalsolution rather than the evidence of the senses.
3. Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) was born inMacedonia, the son of the King’s physician.- He went to Athens to study at Plato’s Academy.- He was called home to become the tutor of young Alexander .
- In 2years, Aristotle went back to Athens where he started a school(School of Athens) after Alexander was on the throne.Aristotle was interested with things and so:- He became the world’s first scientist.- He established the first zoological garden.- All he had was a ruler and a compass.
- The application of mathematics and physics is unknown to him; his astronomy is childish romance; his biology absurd.- Organon – is a tool that he created a new science and logic which was explained. It is an elaborate set of formulae which govern right reasoning and tool for debating. It is also a key to his method resides in the syllogism, which consist of major premise, minor premise and conclusion.
1. BOETHIUS - a Roman philosopher who translated organon at the end of the 5th century B.C. and became the basis of Scholastic philosophy.- There is a considerableevidence that these greekworks weretranslated, copied andstudied by the medievalmonks.
2. ST. AUGUSTINE – inthe 4th century B.C. , hecombined Plato’s idealismwith Aristotle’sorganization. His city ofGod is Platonic.
3. ST. BENEDICT- inthe 6th century A.D., hefounded the MonteCassino Library, whichhe included Plato andAristotle.
4. JOHN SCOTUS ERIGENA –interpreted Christian theology inNeoplatonic terms. In the 10thcentury, there was a NeoplatonicSchool at Chartes.
5. AVERROES – animportant philosopherin Cordova, madeAristotle in his work.He demonstrated thesuperiority of reasonand philosophy overknowledge founded onfaith alone.
6. ABELARD - in thetwelfth century, he madeAristotle’s logic the basisof his teaching at theUniversity of Paris.But, condemned by aChurch council and forcedto stop teaching.
7. POPE GREGOR IX –in 1231, he becamealarmed and appointed acommission to expurgateAristotle, but 29 yearslater, Aristotle wastaught in every ChristianSchool.
8. THOMAS AQUINAS –the ―Angelic Doctor‖, hasmade reason a legitimatepartner of faith in his―SummaTheologica‖, which hasendured to this day as theofficial Roman CatholicPhilosophy.
Many people have been taught that Plato and Aristotle were ―lost‖ during the medieval period and had to wait until the Renaissance to be ―reborn‖
Plato and Aristotle were on opposite sides in the debate over universals. A universal is any general concept of : goodness, justice, and beauty Plato is a realist while Aristotle is a nominalist.
Realism is a philosophy of mind rooted in the"common sense― philosophy of mind knownas naïve realism, which has been developed as"direct" realism when distinguishedfrom representative realism, the view that wecannot perceive the external world directly.
Realism are terms that describe manifestations of philosophical realism, the belief that reality exists independently of observers. Platonic realism is a philosophical term usuallyused to refer to the idea of realism regarding theexistence of universal or abstract object after theGreek philosopher Plato (c. 427–347B.C.), a studentof Socrates.
-Platonic realism- ―Men come and go, but mangoes on forever.‖- Plato maintained that these universals hadobjective existence, in fact were more lasting andsubstantial man individual objects or people.
Nominalism are words that can be applied toindividual things having something in common—that flourished especially in late medieval times.Nominalism denied the real being of universals onthe ground that the use of a general word(e.g., ―humanity‖) does not imply the existence of ageneral thing named by it. The nominalist positiondid not necessarily deny, however, that there mustbe some similarity between the particular things towhich the general word is applied.
- Aristotle as a scientist, stressed the individualman or object, and his followers callednominalists. They held that all that exists outsideus is a world of specific objects, and that―universals‖ are merely names or terms.- Friederich Schlegel- in 19th century, a Germanphilosopher said that ―Every man is born eitherPlatonist or an Aristotelian ‖
- Alexander the Great (356-323B.C.), son of KingPhilip, established a town. The most flourishingcultural centers were Alexandria in Egypt, Antiochin Syria, and Pergamum in Asia Minor.
- Altar of Zeus in Pergamum – depicts a battlebetween gods and giants
- ―The Dying Gaul‖ – also comes fromPergamum, a Roman copy of a 3rd century B.C.bronze. The old warrior with his hard, dryskin, mattered hair and gaping wounds.
- ―Lacoon Group‖ – one of the finest example ofGreek sculpture. It depicts their deaths, is animpressive groups one’s sympathy is aroused forthe innocent victims, but great art seems todemand some restraint.
- ―Winged Victory‖ placed so tragically in theLouvre, is very dramatic. And believed that theGolden age of the Greece was gone.
- The little city-states of Greece becameinsignificant in Alexander’s empire and people losttheir bearings and resulting to the first ―Age ofAnxiety.” - Other philosophies lived briefly, but did notsatisfy.- The Epicureans were opportunistic;
- The Stoics were cold;- The Cynics were ―beatniks‖ of their day; and- The Skeptics were sure of nothing.- The Neo-Platonism was born and furnished Christian revelation with a structure of ideas.‖ In the beginning of the word.‖
- Hellenistic culture did not extend beyond thetowns of Alexander’s conquers, but the Greeklanguage took permanently root. - As Hellenism lost its creative impulse, it gaineda universal outlook. Alexander created acosmopolitan spirit based on intellectual ideas andcultural standards
- Ptolemy I(c. 367-283 B.C.) and his successors inEgypt made Alexandria with its University andfine library the greatest intellectual center in theworld.
- While Alexander’s successors were squabblingover the division of his empire, Rome had beencompleting her conquest of the Italian Peninsula. - After defeating the Hannibal and gainingCarthage, the Romans took another 30 years tosubdue Macedon; then it was the turn of theGreeks to be conquered.
- In A.D. 146 Greece was made subject to theRoman governor of Macedon.- For a hundred years well-to-do Roman parentshad sent their sons to the University of Athens. - By the middle of the 2nd century A.D., Greekideas had permeated Roman society, and theywere soon to permeated the Christian church as faras its systematic organization belief wasconcerned.
- Self-realization had been the gospel of Aristotle andself-sacrifice was the gospel of Christianity. UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS