Gopi Suresh Vankudre

M. Optom, FIACLE

INTRODUCTION TO
OCULAR ANATOMY
& PHYSIOLOGY
To view more presentations and article...
Anatomy vs Physiology
Anatomy

Physiology

• Anatomy is the
identification and
description of the
structures of living thi...
Eye As A Camera!!
Important facts about eye
• Human eye is sensitive to visible spectrum
i.e 380am – 780nm
• Elements in the eye converts li...
Let us revise few anatomic
concepts!
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Anterior/ventral
Posterior/dorsal
Superior/cranial
Inferior/caudal
M...
Review of basic human histology
• Histology- Branch which
deals with bodily
microscopic structures
• Tissue – Collection o...
Epithelium
• Covers the external surface
• Lie on basement membrane
• Classified according to
shape
–
–
–
–

Squamous or f...
Glandular Epithelium
• Glands are epithelial cells
gathered in group adapted
for secretion

To view more presentations and...
Connective tissue
Provides structure and
support
Consist of cells, fibers and
ground substance

To view more presentations...
Muscle tissue

To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
Nerve tissue
• Consist of two cells neurons
and neuroglia
• Neuron carries stimulus
• Neroglia provide structure
and metab...
Review of important physiological
concepts
• Nucleus directs cell
function.consist of DNA and
RNA
• Rough endoplasmic
reti...
Passive transport mechanism
• Passive fluid and solute
transport by diffusion
which does not require
energy

To view more ...
Active transport mechanism
• Active transport
mechanism requires
energy
• Energy is supplied by
ATP molecule which is
prod...
Intercellular junctions related to
eyes
• Zonula occludens: Joining with the adjacent
cells
• Hemidesmosomes: Provides str...
External Anatomy of the Eye

To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
Lacrimal Apparatus of the Eye

To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
Anatomy of the Eyeball
• Fibrous Tunic:
– Cornea
– Sclera

• Vascular Tunic
– Choroid coat
– Ciliary Body (Ciliary muscle,...
Accessory structures of the Eye
from a sagittal view
Three different chambers
• Anterior
• Posterior
• Vitreous

To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan....
Internal Anatomy of the Eye
Detail view of the anterior
anatomy
of the eye
Production of Aqueous Humor
and Intraocular pressure

1. Ciliary Process:
Produces Aqueous Humor
2. Posterior Chamber:
Aqu...
Opthalmoscopic view of the retina showing
the location of the Macula to the Optic Disc

To view more presentations and art...
Histology of the retina of the eye
Intrinsic Eye Muscles and
their response to light
The Visual Pathway
Light Refractory
Pathway:
1. Bulbar Conjunctiva
2. Cornea
3. Aqueous Humor
4. Lens
5. Vitreous Humor
6. Ganglion Cell Laye...
Abnormalities of
The Eye:

1. Myopic nearsighted
2. Hypermetropic Farsighted
3. Presbyopia age-related failure of
lens to ...
Accommodation of the Lens
for near vision
• Ciliary muscles contract
• Ciliary body pulls forward and inward
• Tension on ...
Accommodation of the Lens
for far vision
• Ciliary muscles relaxes
• Ciliary body returns to its resting state,
backward a...
Anatomy of Rods and
Cones
Physiology of Rods and
Photopigments
Visual Pathway
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Cones
Bipolar neurons
Ganglion cell’s axon forms the optic nerve
Optic nerve to the Optic ...
Thank You!

To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
Introduction to ocular anatomy and physiology -a presentation at www.eyenirvaan.com
Introduction to ocular anatomy and physiology -a presentation at www.eyenirvaan.com
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Introduction to ocular anatomy and physiology -a presentation at www.eyenirvaan.com

  1. 1. Gopi Suresh Vankudre M. Optom, FIACLE INTRODUCTION TO OCULAR ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  2. 2. Anatomy vs Physiology Anatomy Physiology • Anatomy is the identification and description of the structures of living things • Physiology is the science of life that helps us understand how the body works To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  3. 3. Eye As A Camera!!
  4. 4. Important facts about eye • Human eye is sensitive to visible spectrum i.e 380am – 780nm • Elements in the eye converts light signals to neural signals • Protected by bony orbit • Supplied by sensory and motor nervous system To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  5. 5. Let us revise few anatomic concepts! • • • • • • • • Anterior/ventral Posterior/dorsal Superior/cranial Inferior/caudal Medial Lateral Proximal Distal • Sagital • Coronal • Transverse To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  6. 6. Review of basic human histology • Histology- Branch which deals with bodily microscopic structures • Tissue – Collection of similar cells involved in similar function • Body is made from four basic tissues – – – – Epithelium Connective Muscle Nervous To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  7. 7. Epithelium • Covers the external surface • Lie on basement membrane • Classified according to shape – – – – Squamous or flat Cuboidal Columnar Simple or stratified • Endothelium
  8. 8. Glandular Epithelium • Glands are epithelial cells gathered in group adapted for secretion To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  9. 9. Connective tissue Provides structure and support Consist of cells, fibers and ground substance To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  10. 10. Muscle tissue To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  11. 11. Nerve tissue • Consist of two cells neurons and neuroglia • Neuron carries stimulus • Neroglia provide structure and metabolic support • Dendrites • Axons To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  12. 12. Review of important physiological concepts • Nucleus directs cell function.consist of DNA and RNA • Rough endoplasmic reticulum(ER) creates proteins and smooth ER synthesizes protein and lipid • Golgi apparatus modify and pack proteins • Cell membrane – Central hydrophobic lipid layer and hydrophilic phosphate groups on both sides • Mitochondria produces cell’s supply of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) • Lysozymes acts like a defence mechanism
  13. 13. Passive transport mechanism • Passive fluid and solute transport by diffusion which does not require energy To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  14. 14. Active transport mechanism • Active transport mechanism requires energy • Energy is supplied by ATP molecule which is produced either by aerobic or anaerobic process To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  15. 15. Intercellular junctions related to eyes • Zonula occludens: Joining with the adjacent cells • Hemidesmosomes: Provides strong connection between the cell and its basement membrane and underlying tissue To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  16. 16. External Anatomy of the Eye To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  17. 17. Lacrimal Apparatus of the Eye To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  18. 18. Anatomy of the Eyeball • Fibrous Tunic: – Cornea – Sclera • Vascular Tunic – Choroid coat – Ciliary Body (Ciliary muscle, Ciliary process) – Iris • Nervous Tunic – Retina To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  19. 19. Accessory structures of the Eye from a sagittal view
  20. 20. Three different chambers • Anterior • Posterior • Vitreous To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  21. 21. Internal Anatomy of the Eye
  22. 22. Detail view of the anterior anatomy of the eye
  23. 23. Production of Aqueous Humor and Intraocular pressure 1. Ciliary Process: Produces Aqueous Humor 2. Posterior Chamber: Aqueous Humor flows from this chamber through the pupil in Anterior Chamber 3. Canal of Schlemm Reabsorbs Aqueous Humor Glaucoma: Increase in intraocular pressure due to build up of Aqueous Humor
  24. 24. Opthalmoscopic view of the retina showing the location of the Macula to the Optic Disc To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  25. 25. Histology of the retina of the eye
  26. 26. Intrinsic Eye Muscles and their response to light
  27. 27. The Visual Pathway
  28. 28. Light Refractory Pathway: 1. Bulbar Conjunctiva 2. Cornea 3. Aqueous Humor 4. Lens 5. Vitreous Humor 6. Ganglion Cell Layer 7. Inner Synaptic Layer 8. Bipolar Layer 9. Outer Synaptic Layer 10. Photoreceptor Layer
  29. 29. Abnormalities of The Eye: 1. Myopic nearsighted 2. Hypermetropic Farsighted 3. Presbyopia age-related failure of lens to accommodate 4. Astigmatism Distorted vision due to irregular-shaped lens or cornea 5. Color Blindness genetic defect that causes dysfunction of cones
  30. 30. Accommodation of the Lens for near vision • Ciliary muscles contract • Ciliary body pulls forward and inward • Tension on suspensory ligaments of lens is decreased • Lens becomes thicker (rounder) due to its elasticity • Pupils constricts To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  31. 31. Accommodation of the Lens for far vision • Ciliary muscles relaxes • Ciliary body returns to its resting state, backward and outward • Tension on suspensory ligaments of lens is increased • Lens becomes thinner (flatter) due to its elasticity • Pupils dilate To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
  32. 32. Anatomy of Rods and Cones
  33. 33. Physiology of Rods and Photopigments
  34. 34. Visual Pathway • • • • • • • • Cones Bipolar neurons Ganglion cell’s axon forms the optic nerve Optic nerve to the Optic Chiasm Optic tract Lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus Optic Radiations Primary visual areas of the occipital lobes
  35. 35. Thank You! To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com

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