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Introduction to ocular anatomy and physiology - a presentation at www.eyenirvaan.com

Introduction to ocular anatomy and physiology - a presentation at www.eyenirvaan.com

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    Introduction to ocular anatomy and physiology -a presentation at www.eyenirvaan.com Introduction to ocular anatomy and physiology -a presentation at www.eyenirvaan.com Presentation Transcript

    • Gopi Suresh Vankudre M. Optom, FIACLE INTRODUCTION TO OCULAR ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Anatomy vs Physiology Anatomy Physiology • Anatomy is the identification and description of the structures of living things • Physiology is the science of life that helps us understand how the body works To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Eye As A Camera!!
    • Important facts about eye • Human eye is sensitive to visible spectrum i.e 380am – 780nm • Elements in the eye converts light signals to neural signals • Protected by bony orbit • Supplied by sensory and motor nervous system To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Let us revise few anatomic concepts! • • • • • • • • Anterior/ventral Posterior/dorsal Superior/cranial Inferior/caudal Medial Lateral Proximal Distal • Sagital • Coronal • Transverse To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Review of basic human histology • Histology- Branch which deals with bodily microscopic structures • Tissue – Collection of similar cells involved in similar function • Body is made from four basic tissues – – – – Epithelium Connective Muscle Nervous To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Epithelium • Covers the external surface • Lie on basement membrane • Classified according to shape – – – – Squamous or flat Cuboidal Columnar Simple or stratified • Endothelium
    • Glandular Epithelium • Glands are epithelial cells gathered in group adapted for secretion To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Connective tissue Provides structure and support Consist of cells, fibers and ground substance To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Muscle tissue To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Nerve tissue • Consist of two cells neurons and neuroglia • Neuron carries stimulus • Neroglia provide structure and metabolic support • Dendrites • Axons To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Review of important physiological concepts • Nucleus directs cell function.consist of DNA and RNA • Rough endoplasmic reticulum(ER) creates proteins and smooth ER synthesizes protein and lipid • Golgi apparatus modify and pack proteins • Cell membrane – Central hydrophobic lipid layer and hydrophilic phosphate groups on both sides • Mitochondria produces cell’s supply of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) • Lysozymes acts like a defence mechanism
    • Passive transport mechanism • Passive fluid and solute transport by diffusion which does not require energy To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Active transport mechanism • Active transport mechanism requires energy • Energy is supplied by ATP molecule which is produced either by aerobic or anaerobic process To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Intercellular junctions related to eyes • Zonula occludens: Joining with the adjacent cells • Hemidesmosomes: Provides strong connection between the cell and its basement membrane and underlying tissue To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • External Anatomy of the Eye To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Lacrimal Apparatus of the Eye To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Anatomy of the Eyeball • Fibrous Tunic: – Cornea – Sclera • Vascular Tunic – Choroid coat – Ciliary Body (Ciliary muscle, Ciliary process) – Iris • Nervous Tunic – Retina To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Accessory structures of the Eye from a sagittal view
    • Three different chambers • Anterior • Posterior • Vitreous To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Internal Anatomy of the Eye
    • Detail view of the anterior anatomy of the eye
    • Production of Aqueous Humor and Intraocular pressure 1. Ciliary Process: Produces Aqueous Humor 2. Posterior Chamber: Aqueous Humor flows from this chamber through the pupil in Anterior Chamber 3. Canal of Schlemm Reabsorbs Aqueous Humor Glaucoma: Increase in intraocular pressure due to build up of Aqueous Humor
    • Opthalmoscopic view of the retina showing the location of the Macula to the Optic Disc To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Histology of the retina of the eye
    • Intrinsic Eye Muscles and their response to light
    • The Visual Pathway
    • Light Refractory Pathway: 1. Bulbar Conjunctiva 2. Cornea 3. Aqueous Humor 4. Lens 5. Vitreous Humor 6. Ganglion Cell Layer 7. Inner Synaptic Layer 8. Bipolar Layer 9. Outer Synaptic Layer 10. Photoreceptor Layer
    • Abnormalities of The Eye: 1. Myopic nearsighted 2. Hypermetropic Farsighted 3. Presbyopia age-related failure of lens to accommodate 4. Astigmatism Distorted vision due to irregular-shaped lens or cornea 5. Color Blindness genetic defect that causes dysfunction of cones
    • Accommodation of the Lens for near vision • Ciliary muscles contract • Ciliary body pulls forward and inward • Tension on suspensory ligaments of lens is decreased • Lens becomes thicker (rounder) due to its elasticity • Pupils constricts To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Accommodation of the Lens for far vision • Ciliary muscles relaxes • Ciliary body returns to its resting state, backward and outward • Tension on suspensory ligaments of lens is increased • Lens becomes thinner (flatter) due to its elasticity • Pupils dilate To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com
    • Anatomy of Rods and Cones
    • Physiology of Rods and Photopigments
    • Visual Pathway • • • • • • • • Cones Bipolar neurons Ganglion cell’s axon forms the optic nerve Optic nerve to the Optic Chiasm Optic tract Lateral geniculate nuclei of the thalamus Optic Radiations Primary visual areas of the occipital lobes
    • Thank You! To view more presentations and articles, visit www.eyenirvaan.com