The Second Republic 1931-36

4,071 views
3,780 views

Published on

Published in: Education, News & Politics
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
4,071
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
8
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The Second Republic 1931-36

  1. 1. The Second Republic 1931-36
  2. 2. ´La niña bonita´ <ul><li>1st real attempt at representative democracy </li></ul><ul><li>Counters European trends </li></ul><ul><li>Economic crisis and political extremism </li></ul><ul><li>High expectations cause popular disenchantment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 1 st general elections: 1931 <ul><li>PSOE: 118 deputies (largest party) </li></ul><ul><li>Regional & Left wing Republicans: 180 deputies </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Republican Party (PRR): 90 deputies (2 nd largest party) </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse right wing parties: 45 deputies </li></ul>
  4. 4. Constitution of 1931 <ul><li>“ Democratic Republic of worker of all types” </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of association and expression </li></ul><ul><li>Universal suffrage (including women) </li></ul><ul><li>Separation of church and state </li></ul><ul><li>Provinces can organize regional autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>State does not recognize noble titles </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1931-33: Years of Reform <ul><li>Military Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>-law of jurisdiction </li></ul><ul><li>-oath of loyalty to the Republic </li></ul><ul><li>-encouragement of early retirement of officers </li></ul><ul><li>Ecclesiastical Reforms </li></ul><ul><li>-divorce and civil marriage allowed </li></ul><ul><li>-religious symbol banned from public buildings </li></ul><ul><li>-ecclesiastical orders banned from teaching </li></ul><ul><li>-clergy must disclose property and are taxed </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Labor reforms </li></ul><ul><li>-8 hour working day </li></ul><ul><li>-salaries increased </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture: </li></ul><ul><li>-IRA (Institute for Agricultural Reform) </li></ul><ul><li>-Law of Municipal Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>-Law of Obligatory Cultivation </li></ul><ul><li>Most important issues for the right wing: </li></ul><ul><li>Catalan Autonomy (1932) </li></ul><ul><li>Agrarian Reform </li></ul>
  7. 7. Divisions in the Right wing <ul><li>The new right </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian, Nationalist, & anti-democratic </li></ul><ul><li>-Violent overthrow of Govt. -defensive and pragmatic </li></ul><ul><li>-Carlistas, Monarchists, Falange -mass party politics </li></ul><ul><li>-minority but strong - destroy the republic from within </li></ul><ul><li>-CEDA-coalition of </li></ul><ul><li> catholic group interests </li></ul>‘ Catastrofistas’ ‘ Accidentalistas’
  8. 8. Divisions in the Left Wing <ul><li>FAI: </li></ul><ul><li>-Anarchists opposed to Republican government </li></ul><ul><li>-urban violence & rural uprising </li></ul><ul><li>CNT: </li></ul><ul><li>initial cooperation---followed by opposition </li></ul><ul><li>PSOE </li></ul><ul><li>Moderates vs. Revolutionaries </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2 nd general elections:1933 <ul><li>CEDA: 117 deputies </li></ul><ul><li>Radical Republican Party (PRR): 108 deputies </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse Left wing parties: 99 deputies </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse Right-wing parties: 90 deputies </li></ul>
  10. 10. 1933-35 <ul><li>Cancelled reform package of PSOE </li></ul><ul><li>-anti-clerical legislation abandoned </li></ul><ul><li>-power returns to landowners and </li></ul><ul><li>Industrialists </li></ul><ul><li>Repealed Catalan regional autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Seeds of the civil war---Two Polarized Camps </li></ul>
  11. 11. Revolution of 1934 (Oct.) <ul><li>Nationwide general strike </li></ul><ul><li>-worker uprising in Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>-Declaration of Catalan independence </li></ul><ul><li>-70,000 Asturian miners revolt—occupy Oviedo </li></ul><ul><li>-Franco and army put down revolt </li></ul><ul><li>- Churches are burned and priests killed </li></ul><ul><li>-3,000 killed & 40,000 prisoners </li></ul>
  12. 12. 3rd general elections 1936 <ul><li>Popular Front : </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition of Left-wing and Regional parties </li></ul><ul><li>National Front : </li></ul><ul><li>Coalition of right wing parties </li></ul> Votes Deputies Popular Front: 4,654,116 263 (34.3% of votes) Nationalist Front: 4,503,505 156 (33.3% of vote)
  13. 13. 1936 <ul><li>February - June </li></ul><ul><li>Political prisoners are freed </li></ul><ul><li>Agrarian reform </li></ul><ul><li>Military leaders sent to posts outside of Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Catalonia & Basques granted autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Political Violence: </li></ul><ul><li>Open clashes between Right & Left wing </li></ul><ul><li>259 political killings </li></ul><ul><li>CEDA looks to foment a military conspiracy </li></ul><ul><li>July </li></ul><ul><li>Murder of Jesus Castillo (lit. of Assault Guards ) </li></ul><ul><li>Murder of Calvo Sotello (leader of Monarchist party) </li></ul>

×