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Democratic Transition
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Transcript

  • 1. Democratic Transition 1975-82
  • 2. Transition & Consolidation
    • Samuel Huntington
    • “ the third wave¨
    • study of democratization in 1970´s
    • Standards for a Democratic Society
    • I. Universal Suffrage
    • II. Civil & Judicial rights
    • III. Free and competitive elections
  • 3. Precursors to Transition
    • Leftist Movements
    • Terrorism- GRAPO & ETA
    • Carrero Blanco 1973
    • Economic Change as Catalyst for change
    • Portugal´s Carnation Revolution 1974
    • Western Democracies & Economic interests
  • 4. 1975-76
    • November 20 th 1975. Death of Franco
    • Juan Carlos I- King of Spain
    • Adolfo Suarez July 1976
    • Objective:
    • Build a democratic state on Francoist Laws and Institutions
    • Analysis of Change:
    • From Above: Leaders and Institutions
    • From Below: Civil forces
  • 5.
    • 1976 : Year of Strikes, Violence
    • 1976: Political Reform Act
    • -included dissolution of parliament
    • -also passed in referendum
    • Year Anniversary of Franco´s death-
    • “ Nostaligicos” - Call for military to intervene
  • 6. 1977
    • Legalization of Trade Unions and Communist Party
    • 1 st elections in 41 years- June 16th- UCD wins
    • Moncloa Pacts-Economic pacts
    • between governmental forces and opposition
  • 7. Consensus & Constitution
    • Process of consensus:
    • “ Pacto de Silencio”
    • Ruptura Pactada: Negotiates break with past
    • Constitution: 6 th of December 1978 -National referendum
    • PNV only political force that abstains from voting
  • 8. 1979-81
    • 1979: Elections post Constitution:
    • Lowered political participation
    • 33% abstention compared to - 1977 22% abstention
    • 1980 Autonomous community elections
    • -Basque country: PNV, HB, PSOE
    • -Catuluña: CIU, PSC-PSOE, PSUC
    • 23 de Febrero 1981- Coup de État attempt
    • 1982- PSOE wins absolute majority- 48% of votes