Short history• According to the legend the first Pole was animmigrant!• He came to our land with Czech and Rus, thatmeans he was a newcomer- immigrant fromthe East.
• About fifteen century Roma and Armenianspeople from Turkey and Persia came to ourterritory.• Present-day immigration and the presence offoreigners in Poland is nothing new in our lands.• People are moving, migrating, looking for newplaces for themselves.• Some of them find this living space in Poland.• So it was, it is, and it will be!
• The first immigrants who arrived in our region wereJews- two brothers whom king Jagiello let to settle inour town.• They used to live in the suburbs because Krosno was avery important trade center.• With the influx of Jews the first synagogue was built inour town.• In 1900 in the county 6254 Jews lived-7,5%• In 1921 in the county 4861 Jews lived- 6%.• At the beginning of September 1939 in addition therewere 500 Jews deported from the territory of the Reichand the refugees from the West.
Despite of this fact the phenomenon of immigration of foreignersto Poland is a relatively new. It was not until several years - withthe start of the transformation of political system and the openingof the borders in 1989.The purposes of immigration are different: a business, work,study, in connection with the marriage of a Polish citizen or becauseof persecution in the country of origin.The main countries from which immigrants are recruited in Polandare those ones, which belong to the former Soviet Union, mainlyUkraine, Russia and Belarus.
We are able to identify three main categories ofmigrations :• family migration,• migration for work,• return migration.
Share of nationals and non- nationalsamong immigrants
As can be seen on Figure 1 interest in working in Poland is still growing, andespecially dynamic growth in the number of authorizations is taking place since 2008.The second graph indicates high and relatively stable interest in the work of thetemporary migrants from Ukraine to Poland.
A relatively large group of immigrants comes from developedcountries: Germany, the United States, France , Great Britainand Vietnam. Every third immigrant in Poland comes from acountry, which is our neighbour, for example, in the regionwhere we live- Podkarpacie - the majority of immigrants comefrom Ukraine.
There are two main characteristic features for immigrants livingin Poland.Firstly, they are usually very well educated (more than 36% havecompleted higher education), and they are rather young. Most ofimmigrants live in the big towns.Its because of the fact, that they are full of factories, universitiesand restaurants, and these places are connected with their work.
Employment of foreigners in Poland is still a marginalphenomenon. The most popular professions are artists,sportsmen and doctors practicing unconventional medicine.The largest group among immigrants in Poland are Ukrainiansand people from Vietnam. According to data from the NationalCensus 2002, Ukrainians were up to 20% of non-Polishnationality residences, and from Vietnam-about 4%.
For Ukrainians, Poland is attractive as a place of employment,because its very close to Poland and its rather easy to comehere- they need visa, but its for free.Other important reasons why the Ukrainians choose our countryas the place for living and working is higher salary than in theirown country, similar culture habits and language.
In turn the people from Vietnam are the second large group inPoland, despite of the fact that Vietnam is for us a distantcountry both geographically and culturally. This probably was aconsequence of close political and economic relations betweenPoland and Vietnam in the PRL .The second wave of immigrationflowed from Vietnam after the turn of the political system in1989, it had much more economical character.
As regards the sector of employment of Ukrainians, they are themost common trade, agriculture, construction and householdservices - in the case of illegal employment - industry, education(mainly teachers of foreign languages) and trade - based onformal employment.
The situation is completely different in the case of Vietnamese.They are - and this regardless of legal status - only in twoindustries: trade and catering (restaurants and bars withVietnamese cuisine.)
„We do not want it easier for immigrants”According to two-thirds of the Polish peoplegovernment should reduce the number of workersfrom the East. Compared to 1945, this number hasincreased significantly. Under the influence of thecrisis more and more people in Poland perceive awork of Belarusians, Russians and Ukrainians inPoland as a bad deal for the public employees andthe condition of the Polish economy.
To sum up Poland is a country with strong traditions ofemigration. At the same time, our country is not seen asattractive destination point for immigrants. Therefore, thephenomenon of immigration reaches a small scale and does nothave a big influence on our live.
“All the people are born free as far as their dignity andhuman rights are concerned. They are endowed withfree mind and conscience and they should treat otherpeople in the brotherly spirit” – The Common Declarationof Human Rights On the basis of this Declaration, foreigners inPoland have a right:• -to be treated equally ,• -to have their dignity respected ,• - to live, to be free and safe,• - to profess their religion, views and opinion,• - to educate,• - to have a family life,• - to work and to be properly paid for it,• - to unite and to participate in cultural and social lifeAll in all, international law gives every man the right to betreated with dignity and this law concerns all the peopleregardless of their ethnicity and their status in law.
The rights of immigrants in Poland:The Right to WorkPolish law requires that foreigners need permission to work legally inPoland. Yet, there are exceptions to that; foreigners who do not needthat permission are:• - refugees and people with supplemental protection who havepermission to stay in Poland for limited time,• - spouses of Polish citizens who have the right to live in Poland,• - citizens with valid Polish card,• - people who apply for a refugee status and their spouses,• - people delegated to work in Poland by foreign institutions.The Right to Health Protection.• All foreigners who pay their insurance premium have access tohealth care in Poland.The right to Education.• All the children in Poland under the age of 18 have a right toeducation. Education in Poland is obligatory till the age of 18.
Polish CitizenshipPerson who wants to get Polish citizenship should get:• - an application to Polish President,• - a copy of valid passport• - a copy of a birth certificate• - a copy of marriage certificate• - curriculum vitae,• - a declaration to get citizenship• - a document that confirms that a person does notpossess Polish citizenship• - current photos• - a mover of proposal must know Polish law.Polish citizenship can be granted to a foreigner who haslived in Poland for 5 years. The decision about thecitizenship can be done by the President of Poland.