Research Biomass Residuals on Palm-Oil and Rice for Port of Rotterdam in Indonesia and Malaysia

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This is the presentation of a research I did with two colleagues on the residuals of Palm Oil and Rice for the Port of Rotterdam. The research is focused on the availibilty, use and transport to Harbours in Malaysia and Indonesia.

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Research Biomass Residuals on Palm-Oil and Rice for Port of Rotterdam in Indonesia and Malaysia

  1. 1. Biomass  residuals  in  the  Palm  Oil  and  Rice  Industry:   A  risky  business  or  a  huge  opportunity? Port  of  Ro(erdam Ewout  Kalkman,  Sietske  Trompert  &  Rogier  Strijbos Supervising  professor:  Jan  Verhoeven The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  2. 2. The  Research  QuesJon What  are  poten+al  export  flows  of  bio-­‐based  residuals  from   Indonesia  and  Malaysia  and  how  can  they  be  collected,   processed,  transported  to  and  stored  in  a  local  port  for  export   to  NW-­‐Europe? The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  3. 3. Residuals  of  two  commodiJes Rice Palm  oil The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  4. 4. Residuals  of  two  commodiJes Rice The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  5. 5. Rice  residual:  Husk The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  6. 6. Rice  residual:  Husk 25%  of  Rice  ProducJon The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  7. 7. Rice  residual:  Husk 25%  of  Rice  ProducJon Total:  15.8  million  tons The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  8. 8. Rice  residual:  Husk 25%  of  Rice  ProducJon Total:  15.8  million  tons Not  used  or  burned The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  9. 9. Rice  residual:  Husk 25%  of  Rice  ProducJon Total:  15.8  million  tons Not  used  or  burned Used  for  cooking The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  10. 10. Rice  residual:  Husk 25%  of  Rice  ProducJon Total:  15.8  million  tons Not  used  or  burned Used  for  cooking Interest  from:  Dutch/   German/Russian  parJes The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  11. 11. Rice  residual:  Husk 25%  of  Rice  ProducJon Total:  15.8  million  tons Not  used  or  burned Used  for  cooking Interest  from:  Dutch/   German/Russian  parJes Compressing  technique  in   R&D The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  12. 12. OpJons  for  Rice  Husk The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  13. 13. OpJons  for  Rice  Husk Op+on  1 DescripJon Central  storage/compression   of  all  the  husk. Analysis Best  opJon: •  High  amount  of  husk   available •  Low  transporta+on  cost •  Low  investment  in  labour •  Low  investment  in   machinery •  High  storage  cost The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  14. 14. OpJons  for  Rice  Husk Op+on  1 Op+on  2 DescripJon Central  storage/compression   Supply  all  the  Medium  and  large  mills   of  all  the  husk. with  compressing  machinery. Analysis Best  opJon: Second  best  opJon: •  High  amount  of  husk   •  Low  amount  of  husk  available available •  High  transporta+on  cost •  Low  transporta+on  cost •  High  investment  in  labour •  Low  investment  in  labour •  High  investment  in  machinery •  Low  investment  in   •  Low  storage  cost machinery •  High  storage  cost The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  15. 15. OpJons  for  Rice  Husk  (2) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  16. 16. OpJons  for  Rice  Husk  (2) Op+on  3 DescripJon Supply  all  the  medium  and  large  mills   with  compressing  machinery.  Collect   the  husk  from  tradi>onal  mills  at  a   central  storage  place. Analysis Less  best  opJon: •  High  amount  of  husk  available •  High  transporta+on  cost •  High  investment  in  labour •  High  investment  in  machinery •  High  storage  cost The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  17. 17. CondiJons  for  the  advised  opJon The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  18. 18. CondiJons  for  the  advised  opJon 1. Working together with an organization on collection and storage of the rice husk. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  19. 19. CondiJons  for  the  advised  opJon 1. Working together with an organization on collection and storage of the rice husk. 2. A central location for storage and compressing. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  20. 20. CondiJons  for  the  advised  opJon 1. Working together with an organization on collection and storage of the rice husk. 2. A central location for storage and compressing. 3. The storage facility needs to be accessible by container trucks. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  21. 21. CondiJons  for  the  advised  opJon 1. Working together with an organization on collection and storage of the rice husk. 2. A central location for storage and compressing. 3. The storage facility needs to be accessible by container trucks. 4. Investments in compression machinery. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  22. 22. CondiJons  for  the  advised  opJon 1. Working together with an organization on collection and storage of the rice husk. 2. A central location for storage and compressing. 3. The storage facility needs to be accessible by container trucks. 4. Investments in compression machinery. 5. Training of local workers to handle the compressing machinery. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  23. 23. SWOT-­‐analysis  Rice  Husk The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  24. 24. SWOT-­‐analysis  Rice  Husk Strengths •  Largely  available  quan++es  of  rice  husk;   •  High  energy  poten+al; The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  25. 25. SWOT-­‐analysis  Rice  Husk Strengths Weaknesses •  Largely  available  quan++es  of  rice  husk;   •  Availability  of  rice  husk  on  scaMered     •  High  energy  poten+al;    places;   •  Many  smaller  RMU  which  are  uneasy  to      access; •  High  investments  in  labour  and      machinery; The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  26. 26. SWOT-­‐analysis  Rice  Husk Strengths Weaknesses •  Largely  available  quan++es  of  rice  husk;   •  Availability  of  rice  husk  on  scaMered     •  High  energy  poten+al;    places;   •  Many  smaller  RMU  which  are  uneasy  to      access; •  High  investments  in  labour  and      machinery; Opportuni+es •Government  will  support  this      development;   The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  27. 27. SWOT-­‐analysis  Rice  Husk Strengths Weaknesses •  Largely  available  quan++es  of  rice  husk;   •  Availability  of  rice  husk  on  scaMered     •  High  energy  poten+al;    places;   •  Many  smaller  RMU  which  are  uneasy  to      access; •  High  investments  in  labour  and      machinery; Opportuni+es Threats •Government  will  support  this   •  Lack  in  infrastructure;      development;   •  Traffic  jams;   •  Corrup+on;   •  Decentraliza+on; The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  28. 28. Advise  for  Rice  Husk Impor+ng  Rice  Husk  from  Indonesia: A  risky  business  or  a  huge  opportunity? The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  29. 29. Advise  for  Rice  Husk Impor+ng  Rice  Husk  from  Indonesia: A  risky  business  or  a  huge  opportunity? Risky  Business The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  30. 30. Residuals  of  two  commodiJes Rice Palm  oil The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  31. 31. Residuals  of  two  commodiJes Palm  oil The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  32. 32. Palm  oil  residuals The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  33. 33. Palm  oil  residuals Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  34. 34. Palm  oil  residuals Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  35. 35. Palm  oil  residuals Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  36. 36. Palm  oil  residuals Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) Palm  oil  mill  effluent   (POME) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  37. 37. Palm  oil  residuals Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  38. 38. Palm  oil  residuals Residuals  50  %   Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) of  FFB Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  39. 39. Palm  oil  residuals Residuals  50  %   Energy  potenJal   Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) of  FFB 20.000  kj  per  kg Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  40. 40. Availability  (per  year) Palm  oil  residuals Malaysia Indonesia EFB 17.3  million 17.1  million PKS 5.5  million 5.5  million POME 55  million  m3 54.5  million  m3 MF 11  million 10.9  million PKC 2.2  million No  figures  available The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  41. 41. Local  use The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  42. 42. Local  use Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  43. 43. Local  use Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) FerJlizer The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  44. 44. Local  use Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) FerJlizer and Illegally  dumping The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  45. 45. Local  use Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) FerJlizer and Illegally  dumping Energy  for  boilers The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  46. 46. Local  use  (2) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  47. 47. Local  use  (2) Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  48. 48. Local  use  (2) Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) Not  used The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  49. 49. Local  use  (2) Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) Not  used Animal  feed The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  50. 50. SubsJtutes The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  51. 51. SubsJtutes Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  52. 52. SubsJtutes Cost  efficient   ferJlizer Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  53. 53. SubsJtutes Cost  efficient   POME ferJlizer Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  54. 54. SubsJtutes Cost  efficient   POME ferJlizer Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) Not  used  so   no  subsJtute Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  55. 55. SubsJtutes Cost  efficient   POME ferJlizer Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) Not  used  so   Animal  feed   no  subsJtute product Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  56. 56. Compressing  techniques Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  57. 57. Compressing  techniques Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  58. 58. Compressing  techniques Briqueies Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  59. 59. Compressing  techniques Briqueies Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) ComposJng The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  60. 60. Compressing  techniques Briqueies Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) ComposJng Burning  into  Potash The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  61. 61. Compressing  techniques  (2) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  62. 62. Compressing  techniques  (2) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  63. 63. Compressing  techniques  (2) No  techniques Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (MF) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  64. 64. Compressing  techniques  (3) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  65. 65. Compressing  techniques  (3) Palm  oil  mill  effluent   (POME) Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  66. 66. Compressing  techniques  (3) Liquefying   methane  gas Palm  oil  mill  effluent   (POME) Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  67. 67. Compressing  techniques  (3) Liquefying   methane  gas Palm  oil  mill  effluent   (POME) PalleJzing Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  68. 68. So  much  residuals,  what  now? Empty  Fruit  Bunch  (EFB) Palm  Kernel  Shell  (PKS) Mesocarp  Fibre  (FM) Palm  oil  mill  effluent   Palm  Kernel  Cake  (PKC) (POME) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  69. 69. OpJons  for  Palm  Oil The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  70. 70. OpJons  for  Palm  Oil Op+on  1 DescripJon Supply  planta>ons  with   fer>lizer  and  supply  mills   with  compressing   techniques.  Transport  the   EFB  to  the  ports. Analysis Best  opJon: •  Good  energy  poten+al •  Rela+ve  low  investments  in      comparison  to  the  other   op+ons The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  71. 71. OpJons  for  Palm  Oil Op+on  1 Op+on  2 DescripJon Supply  planta>ons  with   Supply  mills  with  an  energy  source  and   fer>lizer  and  supply  mills   compression  techniques.  Invest  in  a   with  compressing   biogas  plant.  Transport  the  PKS  and  MF   techniques.  Transport  the   to  the  ports. EFB  to  the  ports. Analysis Best  opJon: Less  best  opJon: •  Good  energy  poten+al •  High  energy  poten+al •  Rela+ve  low  investments  in   •  Highest  investment  costs    comparison  to  the  other   op+ons The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  72. 72. OpJons  for  Palm  Oil  (2) The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  73. 73. OpJons  for  Palm  Oil  (2) Op+on  3 DescripJon Invest  in  a  biogas  plant.   Liquefy  the  methane  gas   from  the  POME  and   transport  it  to  the  ports. Analysis Less  best  opJon: •  Highest  energy  poten+al •  Large  investment  costs The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  74. 74. OpJons  for  Palm  Oil  (2) Op+on  3 Op+on  4 DescripJon Invest  in  a  biogas  plant.   Buy  the  PKC  for  market  price.  Invest  in   Liquefy  the  methane  gas   palle>zing  techniques  and  transport   from  the  POME  and   the  compressed  PKS  to  the  ports. transport  it  to  the  ports. Analysis Less  best  opJon: Second  best  opJon: •  Highest  energy  poten+al •  Low  energy  poten+al •  Large  investment  costs •  Low  investment  costs The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  75. 75. CondiJons  for  the  advised  opJon The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  76. 76. CondiJons  for  the  advised  opJon 1. Convince smallholders and plantations about the selling of EFB instead of dumping it. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  77. 77. CondiJons  for  the  advised  opJon 1. Convince smallholders and plantations about the selling of EFB instead of dumping it. 2. Supply mills with a new fertilizer instead of EFB. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  78. 78. CondiJons  for  the  advised  opJon 1. Convince smallholders and plantations about the selling of EFB instead of dumping it. 2. Supply mills with a new fertilizer instead of EFB. 3. Supply the mills with a compressing technique, to compress EFB in to briquettes. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  79. 79. CondiJons  for  the  advised  opJon 1. Convince smallholders and plantations about the selling of EFB instead of dumping it. 2. Supply mills with a new fertilizer instead of EFB. 3. Supply the mills with a compressing technique, to compress EFB in to briquettes. 4. Assure that the mills are accessible by large container trucks. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  80. 80. OpportuniJes  and  Threats  Indonesia The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  81. 81. OpportuniJes  and  Threats  Indonesia Opportuni++es •  Large  areas  of  undeveloped  oil  palm      planta+ons  available; •  Low  land  costs; •  Increasing  of  produc+on  by  smallholders    by  using  fer+lizer  and  new  gene+c  stock; •  Zero-­‐waste  policy. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  82. 82. OpportuniJes  and  Threats  Indonesia Opportuni++es Threats •  Large  areas  of  undeveloped  oil  palm   •  Extremely  limited  infrastructure    planta+ons  available; •  Extremely  limited  processing  capabili+es •  Low  land  costs; •  Investment  climate  (corrup+on  etc.) •  Increasing  of  produc+on  by  smallholders   •  Decentralized  government  by  using  fer+lizer  and  new  gene+c  stock; •  Less  focus  on  sustainability; •  Zero-­‐waste  policy. •  Selling  of  residuals  increases  price. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  83. 83. Advise  for  Palm  Oil  in  Indonesia Impor+ng  palm  oil  residuals  from  Indonesia: A  risky  business  or  a  huge  opportunity? The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  84. 84. Advise  for  Palm  Oil  in  Indonesia Impor+ng  palm  oil  residuals  from  Indonesia: A  risky  business  or  a  huge  opportunity? Risky  Business The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  85. 85. OpportuniJes  and  Threats  Malaysia The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  86. 86. OpportuniJes  and  Threats  Malaysia Opportuni++es •  Infrastructure; •  Expected  produc+on  growth  palm  oil;   •  Research  in  re-­‐use  of  biomass  residuals;   •  Economically  and  poli+cally  stable;   •  Sustainability  issues  /  green  technology  is            s+mulated  by  the  government. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  87. 87. OpportuniJes  and  Threats  Malaysia Opportuni++es Threats •  Infrastructure; •  Short  term  focus  (Red  Tape); •  Expected  produc+on  growth  palm  oil;   •  Other  par+es  interested  in  PKS  and  PKC. •  Research  in  re-­‐use  of  biomass  residuals;   •  Selling  of  residuals  increases  price.   •  Economically  and  poli+cally  stable;   •  Sustainability  issues  /  green  technology  is            s+mulated  by  the  government. The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  88. 88. Advise  for  Palm  Oil  in  Malaysia Impor+ng  Palm  Oil  residuals  from  Malaysia: A  risky  business  or  a  huge  opportunity? The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  89. 89. Advise  for  Palm  Oil  in  Malaysia Impor+ng  Palm  Oil  residuals  from  Malaysia: A  risky  business  or  a  huge  opportunity? Huge   opportunity The  Amsterdam  Research  Project
  90. 90. QuesJons The  Amsterdam  Research  Project

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