Ever green sahel    an overview antoine kalinganire et al.
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Ever green sahel an overview antoine kalinganire et al.

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Ever green sahel    an overview antoine kalinganire et al. Ever green sahel an overview antoine kalinganire et al. Presentation Transcript

  • Evergreen Agriculture in the SahelEvergreen Agriculture in the Sahel An overviewAn overview A Kalinganire, J Bayala, J Binam, C Dembele J Weber & Z Tchoundjeu World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF-WCA)
  • Talk planTalk plan  Africa drylands Tree functions Challenges & opportunities for the Sahel  Promising innovations: • FMNR • Rehabilitation of degraded lands • Land – soil – water management • Plans for scaling-up Concluding remarks
  • Characterisation of drylandCharacterisation of dryland AfricaAfrica 44 Agricultural productivity isAgricultural productivity is limited by poor availability oflimited by poor availability of moisture (semi-arid, arid andmoisture (semi-arid, arid and hyper arid areas)hyper arid areas) More than 30 % of the world’sMore than 30 % of the world’s drylands are found in Africadrylands are found in Africa Cover 1.96 billion ha in 25Cover 1.96 billion ha in 25 countriescountries Represents 65% of theRepresents 65% of the continental land masscontinental land mass Home to over 400 millionHome to over 400 million people, majority rural poorpeople, majority rural poor smallholder farmerssmallholder farmers Annual population growth rateAnnual population growth rate is >3%is >3%
  • Challenges for the SahelChallenges for the Sahel 66 Fragile environment with sparseFragile environment with sparse vegetative covervegetative cover Poor farming practicesPoor farming practices Inadequate germplasm in the contextInadequate germplasm in the context of climate changeof climate change Overstocking grazing areasOverstocking grazing areas Soil erosion leading to crusted soilSoil erosion leading to crusted soil and increased water loss due toand increased water loss due to runoff – land cover degradationrunoff – land cover degradation Low native soil fertility and generalLow native soil fertility and general nutrient depletion in cultivated landnutrient depletion in cultivated land Poor access to markets of AFPoor access to markets of AF productsproducts Policy – Land/tree tenure & genderPolicy – Land/tree tenure & gender
  • Agroforestry - tree functionsAgroforestry - tree functions  Challenges in dryland Africa are complex - this calls for an integrated agro-ecosystem approach including tree- agriculture-livestock Provide added value tree products that generate income or improve food and nutritional security and health of smallholders Provide services that increase agricultural production and environmental benefits Regeneration of degraded lands and retention of soil moisture enhances agricultural productivity Planting trees and shrubs have proven to be very efficient in reducing wind erosion and stabilizing sand dunes in dryland Africa Wild species (domestication)of plants useful as food, medicines, fodder, fertiliser species, cosmetics or fibre
  • Food securityFood security Rising population implies increasing food demands –Rising population implies increasing food demands – chronic food insecurity & nutrition deficitchronic food insecurity & nutrition deficit
  • Opportunities for the SahelOpportunities for the Sahel 66 Varied sources of water, both rainfall andVaried sources of water, both rainfall and irrigation, cropping systems areirrigation, cropping systems are diversified (vegetable production, treediversified (vegetable production, tree based systems etc.)based systems etc.) Demographic pressure lead to increasingDemographic pressure lead to increasing market demands – opportunities formarket demands – opportunities for intensification (agricultural and treeintensification (agricultural and tree crops, livestock)crops, livestock) Increased private sector participation inIncreased private sector participation in agricultural production and marketingagricultural production and marketing (inputs dealers, processing of agricultural(inputs dealers, processing of agricultural products, micro-finance etc.)products, micro-finance etc.) Development of appropriate farmingDevelopment of appropriate farming practices: ISFM, Tree domestication,practices: ISFM, Tree domestication, FMNR, Integrated water managementFMNR, Integrated water management approachapproach
  • Challenging actionsChallenging actions How to increase tree and agricultural crop and animal productivity for increasing population through intensification and diversification? How to enhance environmental services?
  • Sustainable land managementSustainable land management 1414 Regeneration of degraded landsRegeneration of degraded lands and retention of soil moistureand retention of soil moisture enhances agriculturalenhances agricultural productivityproductivity Tree effect on microclimate -Tree effect on microclimate - planting trees/shrubs, live fencesplanting trees/shrubs, live fences have proven to be very efficient inhave proven to be very efficient in reducing wind erosion andreducing wind erosion and stabilizing sand dunesstabilizing sand dunes Tree domestication,Tree domestication, nutritional banks (vegetable andnutritional banks (vegetable and fruit trees), fodder banks,fruit trees), fodder banks, medicinals, etc.medicinals, etc.
  • FMNR development in the SahelFMNR development in the Sahel NIGER 5 million ha regenerated MALI more than 3 million ha of old parklands in Southern Mali BURKINA FASO at least 1million ha
  • FMNR: various steps…FMNR: various steps…
  • Biomass production withBiomass production with P.P. reticulatumreticulatum ,, G. senegalensisG. senegalensis during dry seasonduring dry season • Biomass production during dry season: mulch & fodder • Soil conservation and erosion control
  • Sustainable waterSustainable water managementmanagement 2020 Contours and cut- offContours and cut- off ditches, half-moon shapedditches, half-moon shaped earth bounds, zai etc.earth bounds, zai etc. reinforced with stones servereinforced with stones serve as micro-catchments basinsas micro-catchments basins to reduce water runoff andto reduce water runoff and erosionerosion.. Associating trees with theseAssociating trees with these structures increases harvestingstructures increases harvesting of scarce rainfall by channellingof scarce rainfall by channelling run-off into the micro-run-off into the micro- catchments formed by thecatchments formed by the bounds and concentrated inbounds and concentrated in basins around the trees.basins around the trees.
  • Sustainable soil management 1818 Improved fallow systems,Improved fallow systems, introduction of leguminousintroduction of leguminous cover crops, nitrogen fixing,cover crops, nitrogen fixing, phosphorous cycling treesphosphorous cycling trees and shrubs have restored soiland shrubs have restored soil fertility to degraded lands.fertility to degraded lands. Trees when intercroppedTrees when intercropped withwith crops add nutrients andcrops add nutrients and organic matter to the soil andorganic matter to the soil and also reduce weeds and soilalso reduce weeds and soil surface evaporationsurface evaporation
  • Scaling-up and outScaling-up and out There are interesting innovations for an evergreen agriculture for the drylands, especially for the Sahel, for the adaptation and mitigation to CC and enhancing agricultural (millet and sorghum) and tree crop productivity …How do we scale it up?
  •  Empowerment of farmers with capacities for better land management and enhancing crop production through participatory approaches and collective action (joined-up thinking).  Identify, analyze and publish grass-root success stories and use these as a starting point for expansion.  Use training approaches that facilitate the exchange amongst farmers like Farmers’ field school, farmer-to-farmer and village-to-village approaches –increase the flow of information, knowledge and technologies to farmers.  System thinking – crop-tree-livestock based approach. Extension services, NGOs and farmersExtension services, NGOs and farmers organisations….organisations….
  •  Practical policy interventions/options to manage Sahelian ecosystems: evaluationPractical policy interventions/options to manage Sahelian ecosystems: evaluation of the implications of contemporary tenure systems, land statutes necessaryof the implications of contemporary tenure systems, land statutes necessary (advocacy for policy change); and gender issues.(advocacy for policy change); and gender issues.  Tree management practices need to be assessed within the context of greeningTree management practices need to be assessed within the context of greening the Sahel : institutionalisation of policies for sustainable utilisation of Sahelianthe Sahel : institutionalisation of policies for sustainable utilisation of Sahelian dryland forests.dryland forests.  Legal requirements are needed to trade Non-Tree Forest Products in officialLegal requirements are needed to trade Non-Tree Forest Products in official markets rather in the informal sector (baobab on EU markets).markets rather in the informal sector (baobab on EU markets).  Investments from private investors, governments and rural communitiesInvestments from private investors, governments and rural communities (engagement) are needed for scaling-up of re-greening practices targeting both(engagement) are needed for scaling-up of re-greening practices targeting both environmental services and food security.environmental services and food security.  Better access and functioning markets of forest/agroforestry products to enhanceBetter access and functioning markets of forest/agroforestry products to enhance re-greening best practices – improved income for smallholders/communities.re-greening best practices – improved income for smallholders/communities.  Linkages with on-going initiatives on FMNR, micro-dosing, water harvesting e.g. Great Green Wall initiative for the Sahara/Sahel etc. Policy makers and funding agencies---Policy makers and funding agencies---
  • Existing practices contribute positively in re-greening drylands/Sahel in a sustainable manner; reducing poverty, food insecurity, deforestation & desertification. ConclusionConclusion Considerable work need to be done, how rural communities and investors would adopt such technologies
  • Thank you!Thank you!