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TREE-TRUNKS
AND
TUMOURS

The evolution of cancer –
Where did it come from, and where is it
going?
Dr Kat Arney
The enemy within us - caused by good cells
going bad

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Needs
more
energy

Grows
uncontrollably

Ignores
signals to
stop
dividing

Avoids
normal
cell death

Avoids
destruction
by...
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10
+

+
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Some things to remember:
•
•
•
•
•

CANCER IS OLD
CANCER IS NATURAL
CANCER IS COMPLICATED
CANCER IS WILY
CANCER IS NOT
UNB...
LET’S MAKE IT
SOONER
THANK YOU

Call our cancer information nurses:
Freephone 0808 800 4040
9am-5pm, Monday-Friday

cruk.org
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Tumours and Tree Trunks - GeekyScience: Evolution

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  • Mummies around the world including children. Washington: A 2150-year-old Egyptian mummy, catalogued as M1, has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, a new study has revealed. The man, about 5ft 5in tall, was between 51 and 60 years old when he died. “It is the oldest known case of prostate cancer in ancient Egypt and the second oldest case in history,” Prates said. Oldest known case is 2,700 in Russia. Evidence in Neanderthal fossil: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21798647 Dinosaurs: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10437878 Melanoma in coral trout, fruit fly RET mutation (causes thyroid cancer in humans)
  • Egyptian papyrus 3000-1500 BC, Hippocrates 400BC,
  • Not just one type of cancer.
  • Not just one type of cancer.
  • Cancer is complicated! It’s not just cells dividing out of control that causes cancer. Scientists have identified 10 key features that set cancer cells apart from normal cells. Years of painstaking lab research now mean that scientists understand a lot about each of these areas. But we still have a long way to go, that’s why we are funding research into how to tackle them all. Some examples are included on the slide.Note to speaker: you don’t need to cover each hallmark - this slide is meant to demonstrate how complex cancer is, but also how much we understand about it and that we have researchers working in all of these fields. To find out more about the individual researchers please visit:http://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerandresearch/ourcurrentresearch/researchbygrantee/prof-karen-vousdenhttp://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerandresearch/ourcurrentresearch/researchbygrantee/prof-frances-balkwillhttp://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerandresearch/ourcurrentresearch/researchbygrantee/dr-kairbaan-hodivala-dilkehttp://www.cancerresearchuk.org/cancer-info/cancerandresearch/ourcurrentresearch/researchbygrantee/prof-julian-downward
  • Germline and somatic mutations. Pick up more mutations as they get more messed up – key driver is chromosomal instability. Evidence for catastrophic events (egchromothripsis). Balance between being mutated enough to keep living, and so mutated you die.
  • http://massgenomics.org/2012/04/the-genetic-architecture-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer.html
  • Selective pressures – the immune system, the local environment, chemotherapy, radiotherapy
  • Heterogeneity
  • Good news!– survival. Also childhood cancer success. Thanks to research.surgery, Radiotherapy and chemotherapy as well as prevention and screening. CRUK’s work has been at the heart of progress – all thanks to our supporters
  • The future? More of the same, but also step-changes. Moving from ‘flickering remissions’ to cures – combinations of new agents, companies working together, understanding how cancers are evolving and staying one step ahead. Better screening and understanding of risk, informed by genetics. Also moving towards “liquid biopsies” – eg blood tests for monitoring and even screening. Still a lot of mileage in the ‘old’ ways – radiotherapy and surgery (better imaging, intelligent knife etc). Make it more accurate, more informative. Targeting the tumour microeinvironment and blood supply, and kicking off the immune system, targeting key gatekeepers like Myc.
  • The future? More of the same, but also step-changes. Moving from ‘flickering remissions’ to cures – combinations of new agents, companies working together, understanding how cancers are evolving and staying one step ahead. Better screening and understanding of risk, informed by genetics. Also moving towards “liquid biopsies” – eg blood tests for monitoring and even screening. Still a lot of mileage in the ‘old’ ways – radiotherapy and surgery (better imaging, intelligent knife etc). Make it more accurate, more informative. Targeting the tumour microeinvironment and blood supply, and kicking off the immune system, targeting key gatekeepers like Myc.
  • Then not a lot happened
  • PercivallPott – 1775, 1st cancer hospital in Reims in the 18th C, Joseph Recamier coined the term metastasis in 1829, Wilhelm Rontgen 1895
  • Sidney Farber, Richard Doll and Richard Peto – smoking, 1962 LIFE magazine, New ICRF labs at Lincoln’s inn fields in 1963, Moon landings 1969, Nixon’s cancer act 1971, cisplatin 70s, Medical Oncology 70s
  • CT scanner – 1970s (also MRI, ultrasound and PET), End of the reign of radical surgery (Barts and others), David Lane p53 in 1979. 1986 – Bailar report, 1980s tamoxifen trials (incremental progress), Nurse/Hunt
  • Oncogenes and tumour suppressors – brakes and accelerators, Discovery of specific cancer genes in families, genetic research paving the way for targeted treatments – Glivec, Herceptin, antibodies and small molecules
  • Other important things – hospices, pain medication, information, cultural shift and ambassadors. . More and more people surviving, making sure that treatments are kinder with fewer long-term side effects. Mary Lasker, Betty Ford, Susan Sonntag and Cicely Saunders
  • Transcript of "Tumours and Tree Trunks - GeekyScience: Evolution"

    1. 1. TREE-TRUNKS AND TUMOURS The evolution of cancer – Where did it come from, and where is it going? Dr Kat Arney
    2. 2. The enemy within us - caused by good cells going bad 2
    3. 3. 3
    4. 4. 4
    5. 5. 5
    6. 6. 6
    7. 7. 7
    8. 8. Needs more energy Grows uncontrollably Ignores signals to stop dividing Avoids normal cell death Avoids destruction by immune system Has unstable DNA , which is prone to damage Replicates indefinitely Grows blood vessels, whic h supply nutrients to cancer Spreads to other parts of the body Hijacks immune system to increase growth
    9. 9. 9
    10. 10. 10
    11. 11. + + 11
    12. 12. 12
    13. 13. 13
    14. 14. 14
    15. 15. 15
    16. 16. 16
    17. 17. 17
    18. 18. 18
    19. 19. 19
    20. 20. 20
    21. 21. 21
    22. 22. 22
    23. 23. Some things to remember: • • • • • CANCER IS OLD CANCER IS NATURAL CANCER IS COMPLICATED CANCER IS WILY CANCER IS NOT UNBEATABLE, BUT IS HARD TO “CURE” • RESEARCH IS OUR BEST WEAPON • AND WE HAVE SO MUCH MORE TO DO 23
    24. 24. LET’S MAKE IT SOONER
    25. 25. THANK YOU Call our cancer information nurses: Freephone 0808 800 4040 9am-5pm, Monday-Friday cruk.org
    26. 26. 26
    27. 27. 27
    28. 28. 28
    29. 29. 29
    30. 30. 30
    31. 31. 31
    32. 32. 32
    33. 33. 33
    34. 34. 34
    35. 35. 35
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