“SPECIES DIVERSITY OF MACRO ALGAE IN DUNGOS TUBIG INDANGAN,
Macro algae are members of the huge group of plants known as the algae (singular
‘alga’). The algae (the primary producers of the planet ) are primitive photosynthetic plants that
include the singe called ‘phytoplankton’ of the oceans and the multi-called macro algae or
seaweeds that can range in size from microscopic to the massive bull kelps (Durvillaea) and
Giant kelps (Macrocystis) (Dr Allan Millar 2009).
Macro algae should not be confused with seagrases. The latter are closely related to
hand plants as they roots, vascular tissue and produce flowers and pollen. Macro algae on the
other hand, derive all their nutrients directly from the surroundings water through their tissue, a
bite like sponge soak up moisture, and their holdfast are purely for physically anchoring the
Thallus to the seabed while seaweeds do reproduce sexually, their reproductive structure are
mostly microscopic and require fine dissection to be revealed. (McCarthy, P. M. & Orchard)
Naturally ecosystem around the world is continually changing. But in recent decades it
has become increasingly evident that terrestrial and marine environments are degrading.
(Laverly P. S. and McComb A J. 1991). It has considered that the main cause is rapid human
population growth and increasing demand of resources for our survival in particular for macro
algae ecosystem, they are experiencing a significant change as reflected in the decline of species
diversity. (Parson TR, Maita Y, Lalli CM 1984).
Macro algal species are divided among three large groups that are named according to
the color their dominant photosynthetic and accessory pigments: red (Rhodophyta), green
(chlophyta) and brown (phaephyta). (Raven PH, Evert RF, Eichnorn SE 1986).
Red algae are the largest and most diverse group, and extremely important reef-building
organism. (Woelkerling W.J. 1990). Green algae contain chlorophyll and often favor stressful
environment where nutrients are high and herbivory is low. Other calcified and continues
heavily to sandy sediment of the reef areas. Brown algae range in color from beige to almost
black and are more abundant in temperate seas. (Cribb, A. B. 1996).
The flexibility of macro algae is central to their ability to survive and sometimes
dominate the landscape in the harsh hydrodynamic condition of the wave-swept rocky intertidal
zone (koehl 1984; koehl1986, 1996, Gaylord, 2000; Deny and Gaylord, 2002).
What is the most dominant species among of these Green, Red and Brown algae found
in the Tubig, Indangan Simunul Tawi-Tawi.
Objective of the problem
To identify the three group if macro algae Species in Simunul Tubig Indangan
Morphology and Physiology
A range of algal morphologies are exhibited, and convergence of features in unrelated
groups is common. The only groups to exhibit three dimensional multi cellular thalli are the red
and brown, and some chlorophytes Xiao, S.; Knoll, A.H.; Yuan, X.; Pueschel, C.M. (2004).
Macro algae (seaweeds) are the major primary producers of coastal seas and provide
food and habitat that supports coastal food webs and fisheries (Dr Chris Hepburn 2009).
Vesicle, is a small bubble within a cell, and thus a type of organelle
Primary shoot, are the new plant growth, they can include stems, flowering stems with
flower. The new growth from seed germination that grows upward.
Lateral shoot, commonly called branch. It develops from auxiliary buds on the stem’s
surface. A lateral shoots is a part of plant’s shoot system.
Basal, located at or near the base of a plant stem. Basal placentaion
Thallus, plant body of algae formerly assigned to the obsolete group thallophyta. A
Thallus is composed of filaments of cells and ranges in size from a unicellular structure
to complex treelike form.
Holdfast is root-like structure that anchors aquatic sessile organism to their substrate.
In three lines even higher levels of organization have been reached, with full tissue
differentiation. These are Brown algae, Waggoner, Ben (1994–2008). Some of which may reach
50 m in length (kelps) Thomas, D N (2002). The Red Waggoner, Ben (1994–2008). And the
green algae the most complex forms are found among the green algae (see charales and
Charophyta), in a linage that eventually led to the higher land plants. The point where these
non-algal plants begin and algae stops is usually taken to be the presence of reproductive organs
with protective cell layer, a characteristic not found in the other alga groups.
Many algae, particularly members of the characeae Tazawa, Masashi (2010). Have
served as model experimental organism to understand the mechanism of the water
permeability of membranes, osmo regulation, turgor regulation, salt tolerance, cytoplasmic
sreaming, and the generation of action potentials.
Simunul is one of the Municipalities of Tawi-Tawi found in the southwestern part of the
Philippines. It is compose of barangays connected by land, namely Barangay Tubig Indangan,
Ungos, Tampakan and Ubol. In Barangay Tubig Indangan there is a certain site named “Rohul” it
is the edge part Tubig Indangan. “Rohul” it is the given site to me as the area of study. Because
of it’s reached in natural resources rarely seen by outside visitors. And far from human treat. It
is located on the edge part of Tubig Indangan. There are six houses familys living in the seashore
they are native on that place were there main source of living are seaweed farming and fishing.
Good source of light and temperature for all photosynthetic plants that requires lights
as source of energy for the synthesis of organic product necessary for their normal growth and
Sandy-muddy Substratum provides mechanical support for the attachments for the
algae. Constants Water movements in this area is an overall primary factor which control or
influence the nature or status of macro algal communities as well as modify or moderate the
extreme effects of other ecological factors
Composition of the Area
Mixed sand and mud
Open coastal area
Water level during low tide ½ feet
Water level during high tide 5 feet
Undamaged sandy beaches
Light and temperature
Water movement constant
Materials and Method
This study is carried out in Barangay Tubig Indangan Tawi-Tawi. By determining the
diversity macro algae in open coastal area we will used LIT method (Line Intercepted Transect)
using a transect line with the measured of 100meters starting from the sea grass bed
perpendicular to the shoreline. Individual species will be counted inside of the 100m transect
line. These will show and tested the species diversity of macro algae, based on the Shannon-
Wiener Diversity Index (H) with the formula of:
H = - pi(lnpi) Larger H = more diversity.
Variables associated with the Shannon-Weiner Diversity index:
S – Total number of species in the community (richness)
pi – proportion of S made up of the ith
Hmax = ln(S)
EH – equitability (evenness; b/t 0 and 1) = H / Hmax