UNIVERSIDAD CENTRAL DE VENEZUELA FACULTAD DE HUMANIDADES Y EDUCACIÓN MAESTRÍA EN INGLÉS COMO LENGUA EXTRANJERA September 22, 2009 Digital Literacy: What a 21st Century EFL Teacher Should Know This presentation is a version of the original presented at VenTesol 2009 Evelyn Izquierdo Escuela de Educación Universidad Central de Venezuela [email_address]
The 21st Century Society Knowledge Learning ICT Digital networks Virtual Communities Knowledge construction Flexibility and versatility Continuous challenges XXI Century Society Globalization Intelligence Creativity and interactivity Foreign languages No time or space limit Dynamism Inter-cultural environment/diversity Intelligence tele-distributed Solving-problem skills Social networks Analysis skills Conexiones y relaciones virtuales Brecha digital Virtual relations and connections Group Vs Individual Digital divide A huge amount of information at a high speed Computer Assisted Communication
Digital literacy is the ability to locate, organize, understand, evaluate, and create information using digital technology (Wikipedia, 2009). It also involves cognitive skills such as: reading, writing, numeracy, critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Without this abilities there is no digital literacy (ETS, 2002).
According to UNESCO’s ICT Competency Standards for Teachers (2008) to live, learn, and work successfully in an increasingly complex, information-rich and knowledge-based society, students and teachers must utilize technology effectively. Within a sound educational setting, technology can enable students to become:
• Capable information technology users
• Information seekers, analyzers, and evaluators
• Problem solvers and decision makers
• Creative and effective users of productivity tools
• Communicators, collaborators, publishers, and producers
• Informed, responsible, and contributing citizens
Information process Writing skills Collaborative work Reading comprehension of oral and written texts Shared knowledge Social networks Web search Discrimination and appropriate selection of information needed Critical thinking Internet and Web tools use Digital Literacy Competencies
ICT s. That means having knowledge about high technology and understand how it can be used inside and outside the classroom. He or she must know how to use a computer, Web tools, mobile phone and other electronic devices.
The importance of making connections through online social networks and being part of them
The usefulness of online communities of practice to promote collaboration, interaction, and group activities in order to learn together and share knowledge. CoPs are excellent for professional development.
Web 1.0 Web 1.0 are personal or institutional sites based on ‘http’ (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) to publish information. They are static Web pages designed with frames and ‘gif’ buttons, and with a reduced need of being updated. These sites are very useful to issue information; however, there is no direct contact between the user and the site owner. That is, the user cannot participate in the creation of the site. There is only a very limited contact with a ‘Webmaster’.
Web 2.0 Web 2.0 facilitates communication, information exchange and collaboration under a dynamic environment where users participate in the design and production of the site. Web 2.0 sites allow the use of multiple artifacts, being able to generate and share information, organize social networks, exchange videos photos, wikis, blogs, podcasts, and folksonomies among other advantages . ( Wikipedia , 2009 ). Image by http://hinchcliffe.org/img/web1vsweb2.png
Web 2.0: Blogs A blog is defined as a dynamic Web 2.0 site with dated entries, usually by a single author, often accompanied by links to other blogs that the site’s editor visits on a regular basis. Think of a blog as one person’s public diary or suggestion list. ( http://www.learningcircuits.org/2002/apr2002/cross.html)
Web 2.0: Podcasts A podcast is a series of digital media files, usually either digital audio or video, that is made available for download via web syndication. It is generally in mp3 o AAC format. Podcasts, videocasts or vodcasts can be downloaded and retrieved later by the user in a computer or portable audio device. (Wikipedia, 2009)
Web 2.0: Audio and video Audio tools like: Skype , Voicethread , Snapvine , and video tools like: You Tube o Google Video , among others, have also become highly demanded and dynamic teaching resources. They are very friendly and easy to use. They can be embedded in Wikis, Blogs and any other Web 2.0 site.
Web 3.0: Virtual worlds, digital games and M-learning
Virtual worlds and digital games are:
Facilitate interaction through an avatar
Provide audio and text chat (VW)
Simulate real life environments
Develop creativity and imagination
Excellent for language teaching
Uses mobile phones and Internet connection for instruction.
Virtual worlds and digital games: Second Life Second Life , OpenSim , Sun Microsystems MPK20 , World of Warcraft , Eve Online , Club Penguin , WhyVille , Gaia , WebKinz , Neopets , HabboHotel , There , Kaneva , Stardoll , PixieHollow , Virtual MTV , BarbieGirls , Small worlds , Lego , Vizwoz , Twinity , Active Worlds , Meez y HiPiHi , among others, are the most known virtual worlds lately. The most famous is Second Life . Second Life is an online, totally free, 3D virtual world that offers its users opportunities to create, interact, having fun and learn through an avatar. It is a net of networks that allows users to organize in groups and communities of practice.
A Virtual learning environment (VLE) is a software system designed to facilitate teachers and students a virtual environment to develop online courses. Both teachers and students can administrate and control the system giving them the opportunity to create, modify, delete, upload, download, chat, store, etc. To run the software an Internet server is needed.
Some VLE providers like Elluminate and WiZiQ offer synchronous videoconference tools, and others like Moodle offers both , synchronous and asynchronous tools.
Social networks It is a term mainly used for communication and information technology (ICT). In our context a network is a public or private node of Web-based sites that allow individuals to build a community in order to keep members connected, share information or common interests, exchange ideas and thoughts with their peers, and work collaboratively. A network can be run by owners, administrators or co-moderators. Members can join the community by invitation or directly by the Web site. Nowadays, most networks are developed by using a Web 2.0 (Izquierdo, 2008).
Web providers: Yahoo , Google y MSN . They offer a wide variety of options within their platforms to create networks and connections with other providers.
Social networks to reach a high amount of contacts: Facebook , MySpace , Sonico , Hi5 , Tagged , Orkut , Bebo , Ning
Sites to storage and share audio, create podcasts, leave audio messages or make phone calls: Snapvine , Podbeam , Skype , etc.
Photos: Flickr , Bubbleshare , Picassa , Photobucket etc.
Videos : You Tube , TeacherTube , Bliptv , Metacafe , etc.
Blogs (blogs): Blogger , Wordpress , etc.
Microblogging: Twitter , Crowdstatus , etc.
Wikis: Wikipedia , Wikieducator , Wetpaint , Wikispaces , PBwiki
Social bookmarking: Del.icio.us , Diigo
Doc and PPT storage sites: Thinkfree , Box.net , Google docs , Slideshare
Learning environments, platforms or virtual rooms: Learning Times , Tapped in , Elluminate , WiZiQ , Moodle
Virtual worlds: Second Life and others already mentioned
Communities of Practice (CoPs) A CoP is a group of individuals participating in communal activity, and experiencing/continuously creating their shared identity through engaging in and contributing to the practices of their communities. Online Cops usually use Web 2.0 tools and social networks to keep connected.
Communities of practice: Webheads in Action (WIA)
Webheads in Action : Online community of practice created in 1997-8 by Vance Stevens, in Abu Dhabi, Maggi Doty in Germany, and Michael Coghlan, in Australia, for ESL learners and facilitators as a student-teacher community Currently 808 members, mostly language teachers who use ICT in ELT.
It has a completely horizontal organization
Experts and newbies share at the same level
Each member develops a unique sense of belonging
Promotion and daily practice of Web tools and teaching resources
Collaborative and multi-cultural projects
Sharing spirit, cooperation, respect and appreciation, friendship and fraternity ,
voluntarism and much more…
Communities of practice: Learning with Computers
LWC : Learning with Computers: A hands-on international community created in 2005, 458 members, aimed at English teachers interested in integrating Web tools into their classes
ELTnet : English Language Teachers' Network • A young emergent national network sponsored by the British Council in Venezuela, created in 2008, 290 members, aimed at secondary school teachers
Communities of practice: AVEALMEC: Venezuelan CALL Association
AVEALMEC : Asociación Venezolana para la Enseñanza y el Aprendizaje de Lenguas Mediados por el Computador
A young national association created in 2007 by teachers from different national universities, 25 very active members and other teachers under training, aimed at language teachers interested in ICT, a subscription fee is required
Teachers should use different digital resources to ease a productive teaching and learning process.
Teachers are responsible for the education of a new society, so we cannot be behind the ICT development. We are supposed to teach the current and future net generation, and not the other way around.
We have to reinforce the cognitive and social skills in our students, successful keys in the 21st century society. It is not the common literacy anymore. It has to do with a new society based on group work more than individuals.
Students should: a) be aware of their environment, b) be willing to learn with different formats, c) be flexible enough to face new challenges, d) understand diversity, and e) be open to a continuous learning.
Educators should cooperate in order to guarantee new spaces for technology access to more and more people in the world and under the same conditions.
Technology provides us with new resources and opportunities to teach in a different way, but it is not a panacea per se. Teachers must use ICTs appropriately to make them productive, effective and encouraging.
American Association for Higher Education (October, 1999) and the Council of Independent Colleges (February, 2004). Information Literacy Competency Standards of Higher Education. [Online] Available at: http:// www.ala.org /ala/ mgrps / divs / acrl /standards/ standards.pdf Retrieved April 15, 2009.
Downes, S. (2007) What connectivism is . [En línea] Blog: Half an hour. [Online] Available at : http:// halfanhour.blogspot.com /2007/02/ what - connectivism - is.html Retrieved November 23, 2008
Educational Testing Service, International ICT Literacy Panel (2002). Digital transformation: A framework for ICT literacy (A report of the International ICT Literacy Panel). Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service. [Online] Disponible en: http:// www.ets.org /Media/ Research / pdf / ictreport.pdf Retrieved March 18, 2009
Izquierdo, E. (2008). Networking - Redes de apoyo para profesores de inglés. Presentation at Lenguas y Contemporaneidad. Universidad Metropolitana, Caracas, May 30-31, 2008. [Online] Available at: http://docs.google.com/Presentation?id=dgbxs8sn_200gg24mdc4
Izquierdo, E. y Verschoor, J. (2009). Social Bookmarks . Integrating Technology for Instruction and Learning. [Online] Available at: http:// www.slideshare.net / EvelynIzquierdo /social-bookmarking-1293488 Retrieved April 3, 2009
Jones, C. (2003). What is a Community of Practice? [Online] http://groups.yahoo.com/ group /evonline2002_webheads/files/2003/ colloquium / CoP.ppt Retrieved August 14, 2005.