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Flex 4 Deep Dive
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Flex 4 Deep Dive

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by EffectiveUI Senior Developer RJ Owen

by EffectiveUI Senior Developer RJ Owen

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  • 1. Flex 4 Deep Dive: UI and Dev
    • mostly development stuff | a little bit of design stuff
  • 2. Who are we?
    • RJ Owen
    • Senior Developer at EffectiveUI
    • Andy McIntosh
    • Experience Architect at EffectiveUI
    • Experienced Flex Developers, men in the trenches, the kind of guys who know what it’s like out there.
  • 3. Where’s Juan?
    • Juan Sanchez has abandoned the Rocky Mountain Adobe Camp in favor of a relaxing beach vacation.
    • Let’s all feel bad for Juan, and thank Andy for jumping in at the last second.
  • 4. Who are you?
    • Software designers and developers
    • Some Flex experience in Flex 3
    • Interested in building better interfaces
  • 5. What will we talk about?
    • Today we’ll cover:
    • Language updates in Flex 4
    • MXML graphics and the new Flash Text Engine
    • Effects and Animations
    • Containers and Layout
    • Components, Custom and Otherwise
      • Component Lifecycle, Skins
    • Credit where it’s due:
      • Our talk draws from Ely Greenfield’s “Flex 4 Migration” presentation from Adobe MAX 2008
  • 6. Flex T-Shirt Store Demo
    • Built for Adobe R&D team in 2 weeks
  • 7. Changes in 2009
    • Some MXML languages changes to support the new features of Flex 4
  • 8. What’s new in Flex 4?
    • A lot:
    • Spark components
    • Skin components, dynamic layout
    • FXG - declarative graphics
    • Flash Catalyst integration
    • Styles are different
    • States are different
    • “ Groups” vs. “Child Lists”; new container types
    • Enhanced Text renderer
    • New MXML tags
    • Effects and Animation
    • Chrome, Scrolling
    • Updated component lifestyle, architecture
    • Designer / Developer contract
    We’ve got our work cut out for us.
  • 9. Fundamental Changes
    • Designer / Developer Workflow
    Developer Designer Workflow
  • 10. Fundamental Changes
    • Graphics are 1st Tier Citizens
    • Flash Catalyst Integration
    • New “Spark” component architecture (old “Halo”)
    Flex 3 Component Model (Halo) Flex 4 Component Model (Spark)
  • 11. Changes in 2009: Namespaces
    • Duplicate components = duplicate tags.
        • Public outcry over “FxButton” vs. “Button”
    • Improved Productivity
    • Fix things, tinker with things
    • The result: MXML 2009
      • Contains new language features only available in 2009
      • One language namespace per file, but can mix and match per application
      • Spark and Halo live side by side in 2009
      • Spark is only intended to be used in 2009 – won’t generally work in 2006
  • 12. Flex Namespaces
    • xmlns:fx= “http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2009 ”
      • Language tags (Script, Style, and more)
      • Built in types (Array, String, Number, etc)
    • xmlns:s=“library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark”
      • All new classes introduced in Flex 4
      • RPC
      • Graphics
    • xmlns:mx=“library://ns.adobe.com/flex/halo”
      • All legacy Halo components
      • States, Validators, RPC, etc.
      • Anything that was in 2006
    • xmlns:mx=“ http://ns.adobe.com/mxml/2006 ”
      • The same as it was in Flex 3 - use this if you’re not going to use 2009 namespaces
  • 13. Changes in 2009: New Tags
    • <fx:Declarations />
    • A place to stick your stuff
    • Anything that’s not a visual child of a component belongs here.
    • Services, Data Models, singletons…anything that doesn’t show up in your UI ends up here
    • Previously ‘stuff’ could just go at the top of the file
    <s:Application> <fx:Declarations> <s:HTTPService … /> </fx:Declarations> <s:TextInput … /> … </s:Application>
  • 14. Changes in 2009: Styles
    • New components have overlapping class names
    • New with Flex 4: qualified CSS selectors
        • <Style>
          • @namespace s &quot;library://ns.adobe.com/flex/spark”; s|Button { }
        • </Style>
    • Required on all type identifiers in CSS
    • New syntax is global to an application – even in MXML 2006 documents
    • Namespaces are resolved at compile time – at runtime, types are fully qualified classnames
      • (i.e., s|Button above becomes spark.components.Button)
  • 15. Changes in 2009: Advanced Styles
    • Multiple Class Selectors: <Button id=“upButton” styleName=“default tiny” />
    • ID Selectors: #upButton { fontSize: 14 }
    • Descendant Selectors: s|Scrollbar #upButton { baseColor: #FF8888 }
    • Pseudo Selectors: s|Scrollbar #upButton:over { baseColor: #8888FF }
    default and tiny are two separate distinct styles!
  • 16. Changes in 2009: States - what’s broken?
    • States in Flex 3 and below suck
      • Overly verbose
      • Really awkward to use - AddChild children, RemoveChild children, etc.
      • Hard to optimize
      • We never ever ever use them. Ever.
      • Okay, Andy uses them all the time, but he hates them.
  • 17. Changes in 2009: States - Fix it!
    • States in Flex 4 are awesome
      • Declare your states with a ‘State’ tag
      • Describe ‘alternate views’ of your markup
      • Change values, bindings, event handlers
      • Include and exclude components as easily as setting visibility
      • Unscoped entries specify the ‘default’ for all states
      • States can be grouped into State Groups - see Flex documentation for more info
      • <fx:Reparent> tag to move children between states
      • WARNING: Use NEW STATES in 2009 documents – 2006 still supports legacy states.
    <states> <State name=”login&quot;/> <State name=”register&quot;/> <State name=”someOtherState” stateGroups=”group1”/> </states> <Group> <TextBox text=“username:” /> <TextInput /> <TextBox text=“password:” /> <TextInput /> <Button label=“new user?” /> <Checkbox includeIn=“register” label=“agree to terms” /> <Button label=“log in” label.register=“sign up” /> </Group>
  • 18. MXML for Graphics and new Text rendering
    • Flex 4 provides a declarative graphics language that makes drawing vector art easier (but not really “easy.”)
    • Flex 4 makes deliberate use of the new text rendering engine in Flash Player 10 (FTE) to allow you to manipulate text in the way you’d expect (FINALLY.)
  • 19. MXML Graphics
    • MXML Graphics library providing rich primitive support
      • Simple Shape primitives
        • (Rectangles, rounded rects, ellipses, circles)
      • Complex Paths
        • (Linear, Quadratic, and Bezier curve segments)
      • Full range of fills and strokes
        • (solid, transparent, bitmap, linear and radial gradients)
      • Masking, filters, blend modes, and more.
        • (blur, glow, dropshadow, screen, multiply…)
      • Color and 2D transformations
        • (rotate, scale, tint, brighten…)
      • Integrated text, bitmaps
    • Anyone heard of “Degrafa?”
  • 20. MXML Graphics: This is ugly, but cool <Graphic> <Path data=“ ….. “> <fill> <LinearGradient angle=“90”>…. </LinearGradient> </fill> </Path> <Path blendMode=“screen” data=“…” > <fill> <LinearGradient angle=“45”>… </LinearGradient> </fill> </Path> <GraphicText text=“MXML Graphics”> <filters> <Glow color=“#00FF00” strength=“3” … /> </filters> </GraphicText> </Graphic> Credit where it’s due: Ely Greenfield made this.
  • 21. MXML Graphics
    • 1st class citizens
      • Anything that can be set can be changed
      • Easy to animate with effects, states, transitions, code
      • Freely mix and match with Spark components
    • GraphicElement
      • Focused on performance
      • optimized for fast rendering, low overhead
      • One DisplayObject shared by many GraphicElements
      • Important to understand: Components are DisplayObjects GraphicElements draw into DisplayObjects
    GraphicElement Ellipse Line Path Bitmap Image
  • 22. MXML Graphics: DisplayObject sharing
    • Elements are “Drawn” into a DisplayObject (any Sprite - remember this.graphics.draw from Flex 3?)
    • DisplayObjects are shared to optimize rendering, memory, performance, etc.
    • Sharing can be affected by Rotation, Scale, 3D, BlendModes, Alpha, Filters, siblings
    Credit where it’s due: Ely Greenfield made this.
  • 23. MXML Graphics: FXG
    • FXG: graphics format based on MXML
    • Understood by Design tools
    • Based on flash rendering model.
    • Static – no binding, layout, event handlers, styling, etc.
    • Optimized by compiler
  • 24. Text in Flex 4
    • FTE: New low level text engine (player 10)
      • Stands for “Flash Text Engine”
    • TLF: New text layout library built on top of FTE.
      • “ Text Library for Flash?”
      • Might also stand for “Totally Like Fireballs”,“Typical Lightning Flamboyance” or “Tumultuous Latex Fusion”
    • Benefits:
      • Soft hyphens (we know you’ve all been missing those!)
      • Baseline control (e.g., superscripts and subscripts)
      • Right, center, and decimal tabs
      • Vertical justification
      • Multiple columns
      • Ligatures, capitalization styles, digit styles
      • Integrated Rendering of device fonts (a.k.a. I can fade and rotate my text FINALLY)
      • Bi-Directional text
      • etc.
  • 25. Text in Flex 4: New Text components
    • Spark Introduces 3 new ‘Primitive’ Text components:
      • SimpleText (Label, sorta)
      • RichText (Text, sorta)
          • careful - these do NOT extend UIComponent!!
      • RichEditableText (editable TextField)
    • 2 new skinnable text Spark components (based on the primitives):
      • TextInput
      • TextArea
        • (Creatively named identically to the current components.)
  • 26. Flex 4 Text: Old vs. New
    • Based on TextField
    • Simple layout support
    • Uses DefineFont3 embedded fonts
    Based on Flash Text Engine Complex layout and editing support Uses DefineFont4 embedded fonts Flex 3 / Halo Flex 4 / Spark An important note: embedded fonts can’t be shared. (Adobe is working on resolving this issue)
  • 27. Effects and Animation
    • We’re just going to touch on this, but it’s much improved over Flex 3.
  • 28. Effects and Animation
    • What’s wrong with Flex’s animation now?
      • Make use of the new Elements (graphics)
      • Designed for more advanced tools (i.e. Flast Catalyst)
      • More Flexible
    • Animate
      • Animates arbitrary targets (GraphicElements and more)
      • Animates arbitrary types (floats, integers, colors, vectors, paths)
      • Animates along arbitrary motion paths
      • Auto-reversing behavior for mirroring transitions (easy fix for “flickering” animations)
      • Precision timing for executing compound transitions
  • 29. Effects and Animation: Simple Animation
    • <Animate target=“{pane}” duration=“300”>
    • <AnimationProperty property=“x”
            • valueFrom=“200” valueTo=“400” />
    • <AnimationProperty property=“y”
            • valueFrom=“200” valueTo=“400” />
    • </Animate>
  • 30. Effects and Animation: Complex Animation <Animate target=“{pane}”> <MotionPath property=“x”> <KeyFrame time=“0” value=“200” /> <KeyFrame time=“150” value=“250” /> <KeyFrame time=“300” value=“400” /> </MotionPath> <MotionPath property=“baseColor”> <interpolator> <HSBInterpolator /> </interpolator> <KeyFrame time=“0” value=“200” /> <KeyFrame time=“150” value=“250” > <easer> <Sine easeInFraction=“.3” /> </easer> </KeyFrame> <KeyFrame time=“300” value=“400” /> </MotionPath> </Animate> More complex, powerful than Flex 3
  • 31. Effects and Animation
    • Animate different types of transforms with AnimateTransform
    • 3D animations with AnimateTransformMove, AnimateTransformRotate, AnimateTransformScale
      • Subclasses of AnimateTransform
    • Move, Zoom, Rotate animations
    • AnimateShaderTransition
  • 32. Effects and Animation: Auto-Reversing
    • When animations are interrupted, you frequently transition back to the previous state
    • Snap-to-end isn’t always what you want
      • This often produces the “flicker” effect between states
    • Simple solution:
      • <Transition autoReverse=“true”>
    • Limitations
      • Still need to define both transitions
      • Only works when A->B is interrupted by B->A
  • 33. Containers and Layout
    • Separating Containers from Layout to make both more powerful
  • 34. Containers: what’s broken?
    • mx.core.Container is the root container in Flex 3
    • Extends from UIComponent; complex component lifecycle
    • Too many capabilities we don’t need
      • scrollbar policies - always turning scroll-bars off
    • Rigid layout rules tightly-bound with container’s business logic
    • Can’t support our new GraphicElements
    • No built-in support for transforms and 3D effects
  • 35. Containers: Fix it!
    • Group
      • Lowest level container in Spark framework
      • Supports both UIComponents and GraphicElements
      • Only the bare essentials:
        • Layout (through delegates)
        • Containment
        • Basic Flash player features (transforms, etc.)
    • Introducing “DataGroup:
      • The basis of any “List” based container
      • Anything that uses ItemRenderers
      • Ely: “Repeater done Right”
    • In Spark, everything displayable resides in a Group
  • 36. MXML Graphics: Elements vs. Children
    • Use the Container Child List
    • addChild(), removeChild(), etc.
    • All children are UIComponents
    Use the Group Elements list addElement(), removeElement(), etc. All elements are UIComponents or GraphicElements Flex 3 / Halo Flex 4 / Spark
  • 37. Layout: what’s broken?
    • Layout is intimately tied to containment
    • Layout code and container code are tightly coupled
      • Very difficult to make lists that CONTAIN objects in the same way DISPLAY them differently
      • Example: any ordered container (list) has a single layout available in Flex 3
    • DataProviders offered some of the solution; decouple data from visualization
    • Flex 4 abstracts the view a step farther with Layout classes
  • 38. Layout: Fix it!
    • All layout classes extend LayoutBase
      • VerticalLayout, HorizontalLayout, TileLayout, BasicLayout (Canvas)
    • Basis of layout for all containers, lists, skins, etc.
    • The goal: clean layout, easy extension, consistent behavior
    • Big difference: layouts can support transforms
    • Example: Ryan Campbell’s layout demo
      • http://www.bobjim.com/2009/06/16/heres-5-3d-layouts-for-flex-4/
  • 39. Components
    • Custom and otherwise
  • 40. Flex Component Lifecycle
    • Every component goes through defined phases of its life
    • Leverages invalidation for performance
      • Defer code execution until a specific time
      • Avoids duplicate processing
    • Understanding the lifecycle is very important
    Image courtesy of Ted Patrick
  • 41. Flex 3 Component Lifecycle Construction Configuration Addition Initialization Invalidation Validation Interaction Removal Garbage Collection Birth Life Death
  • 42. Components: what’s broken?
    • In Halo, components were rigid
    • Hard to extend
    • “ Monkey patching” to make small changes to component view
    • Example: HTML text in the panel title bar
  • 43. Components: Fix it!
    • Separate data, logic and behavior from visuals, states, animation and layout
    • Create component-logic with no assumption about appearance
    • Create component-view without digging into the logic
  • 44. MVC in Button Component label:String, selected:Boolean text field, icon, background mouse handlers, selection logic M V C
  • 45. Halo Component Skin (background) M V C V
  • 46. Spark Component Skin (entire view) M C V
  • 47. Example: Button with Two icons
    • Halo
      • Extend viewIconForPhase and duplicate logic for new icon ~100 lines
      • Extend layoutContents to position/size new icon and position/size existing components so nothing overlaps
      • Requires ActionScript knowledge and understanding of Button component
    • Spark
      • Copy MXML from default Button Skin
      • Add two tags to create two icons
      • Adjust position/size of icons and label
      • All MXML!
  • 48. Skin-Component Relationship Component Skin (entire view) M C V
  • 49. Skin Parts
    • Component specifies optional/required skin parts as metadata
      • [SkinPart(required=”true”)]
      • public var labelElement:SimpleText;
    • Skin implements skin parts
    • Exception thrown if required part is not found
  • 50. Skin States
    • Defined in the component using metadata
      • [SkinState(“up”)]
      • [SkinState(“down”)]
    • Current state is passed to the skin from the component
    • All states are required. An exception will be thrown if a state is not implemented in the skin
  • 51. Data
    • Data can be pushed to a skin part from the component (recommended)
    • or, data can be pulled from the component by the skin using data-binding
      • [HostComponent(&quot;spark.components.Button&quot;)]
    • Pulling can be error-prone and costly
    • Pushing promotes encapsulation
  • 52. Styles
    • Colorize
      • baseColor
      • color
      • contentBackgroundColor
      • symbolColor
      • rollOverColor
      • selectionColor
      • focusColor
    • Skins specify which elements are affected by which styles
    • Styles are limited because skinning is so easy.
  • 53. Components: Conclusion
    • Not all components have been built as Spark components
    • But, Spark extends Halo so both coexist
    Flex 3 Component Model (Halo) Flex 4 Component Model (Spark)
    • SkinnableComponent extends UIComponent
    • Flex Team working on more Spark components
  • 54. Any questions?
    • RJ Owen
    • [email_address]
    • twitter: rjowen
    Andy McIntosh [email_address] twitter: andymcintosh www.effectiveui.com [email_address] .com
  • 55. Bibliography and More Reading
    • Ely Greenfield’s “Flex 4 Migration” talk from Adobe Max, 2008
    • Mrinal Wadhwa’s talk on Component LifeCycle
      • http://weblog.mrinalwadhwa.com/2009/06/21/flex-4-component-lifecycle/
    • Ryan Campbell’s blog post on Layout in Flex 4
      • http://www.bobjim.com/2009/06/16/heres-5-3d-layouts-for-flex-4/
  • 56. page heading
    • samples!
    • some text (line 2 indented)
    • goes in a list
    • this is what it
    • looks like
    Some text goes into a paragraph, this is what it looks like. Some text goes into a paragraph, this is what it looks like. Some text goes into a paragraph, this is what it looks like. Some text goes into a paragraph, this is what it looks like. list heading object Some text goes into a paragraph, this is what it looks like. 3