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Phylogeny and biogeography of Oxalis: preliminary results based on plastid loci.

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Presentation at Botany2009 by Eve Emshwiller, Andrew Gardner, Kenneth C. Oberlander, Magdalena Vaio, Christoph Heibl, Leanne Dreyer

Presentation at Botany2009 by Eve Emshwiller, Andrew Gardner, Kenneth C. Oberlander, Magdalena Vaio, Christoph Heibl, Leanne Dreyer

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  • 1. Phylogeny and biogeography of Oxalis : preliminary results based on plastid loci. Eve Emshwiller, Andrew Gardner, Kenneth C. Oberlander, Magdalena Vaio, Christoph Heibl, Leanne Dreyer [email_address] 29 July 2009
  • 2. 500 to 800 species in genus Oxalis most of them in South America and southern Africa
  • 3. southern African Oxalis bulbs
    • O. hirta bulb ( photo: K.C. Oberlander )
    • O. pes-caprae ( photo: K.C. Oberlander )
    Léanne Dreyer and Kenneth C. Oberlander U. Stellenbosch, South Africa http://academic.sun.ac.za/botzoo/dreyer/oxalis.htm
  • 4. New World bulb-bearing taxa Section Ionoxalis
    • O. tetraphylla (sold as O. deppei )
    • Andy Gardner UW-Madison
  • 5. Bulb anatomy differs among African and American bulb-bearing taxa
    • tunicate bulbs in southern Africa
    • imbricate bulbs in the Americas
    Kenneth Oberlander, unpublished figure
  • 6. Section Pseudobulbosae
    • O. triangularis ssp. papilionacea (sold as O. regnellii )
    • Estelita-Teixiera 1982
    Lourteig 2000
  • 7. rhizome scales, bulb scales, petiole bases
    • O. acetosella
    • petiole base of O. tuberosa
    Estelita-Teixiera 1982 Lourteig 2000
  • 8. Questions
    • 1. Genus-level “skeleton” phylogeny
    • backbone and basal relationships
    • relationships among sections and major groups
      • test taxonomy of Lourteig, 1994, 2000
    • 2. Focus on bulbs and bulb-like structures
    • origins of bulbs
    • evolutionary transitions among bulb scales, rhizome scales, petiole bases
  • 9. Sloanea australis AF299244.1 Dapania pentandra DAPEN Sarcotheca laxa SARLAX Sarcotheca monophylla SARMON Averrhoa carambola AVCAR Averrhoa bilimbi AVBIL Biophytum abyssinicum BIOAB Biophytum sp EE1161 O dombeii EE815 O alstonii ALS O psoraleoides EE781 O barrelieri MO454LLFSGW17364TL O grisea Wood17612 O arbuscula HEIBL 05 050 O caesia HEIBL 02 012 O niederleinii MV O bisfracta O conorrhiza O corniculata O dillenii O stricta MO669 O calachaccensis O acetosella MO665 O acetosella ACETOS O articulata f crassipes CRAS2 O articulata ssp rubra RUBRA O monticola MV O floribunda MV O ostenii MV O purpurascens MO51 O dentata MO49 O caprina MO7 O imbricata MO345 O commutata MO17 O orbicularis MO366 O melanosticta MO33 O pulchella MO23 O flava MO25 O hirta MO77 O monophylla MO9 O oculifera MO295 O incarnata MO346 O engleriana MO195 O smithiana MO322 O tenella MO70 O polyphylla MO47 O capillacea MO36 O bifida MO19 O tomentosa MO62 O fibrosa MO332 O eckloniana MO39 O incarnata EE149 O pes caprae EE608 O adenophylla ADEPH1 O brasiliensis BRAS2 O bipartita MV O sellowiana MV O kurtziana MV O perdicaria MO647 MV O debilis EE171 O triangularis ssp papilionacea REG O eriolepis EE155 O oreocharis EE583 O pinguiculacea Wood22147 O argentina EE235 O punensis EE559 O hispidula EE281 O decaphylla O latifolia EE439 O argentina O tetraphylla O caerulea O nelsonii O alpina O decaphylla O hernandesii O hernandesii O jacquiniana O macrocarpa O violacea O discolor O laxa ssp hispidissima EE1111 O laxa ssp hispidissima EE744 O micrantha EE1254 O valdiviensis MO646 O hypsophila MO456 O pachyrrhiza EE387 O megalorrhiza EE1113 O megalorrhiza EE773 O arborea MO460 O sp Mexico O pachyrhiza HEIBL O megalorrhiza HEIBL O ornithopus HEIBL O gigantea HEIBL O atacamensis HEIBL O ortgiesii ORT1 O boliviana EE921 O rigidicaulis AAV5415 O yungasensis EE1079 O virgata EE292 O spiralis EE590 O phaeotricha EE497 O ptychoclada EE916 O teneriensis EE605 O urubambensis EE926 O sp EE971 O sp EE979 O sp nov Comas EE592 O cuzcensis EE982 O nubigena EE701 O oregana OLMSTEAD 2003 33 tunicate bulbs of southern Africa imbricate bulbs of the Americas DNA sequence data of 6 chloroplast regions: trnL-trnL-trnF trnT-trnL trnS-trnG psbA-trnH psbJ-petA trnS-trnT Sect. Articulatae O. tuberosa alliance Sects. Carnosae & Giganteae Sect. Alpinae Sect. Oxalis Sect. Corniculatae Sect. Caesiae Subgenus Thamnoxys * * * * * 1 of 20000 MPTs * indicate nodes that collapse in strict consensus Numbers below branches are parsimony bootstrap Oxalidales and Oxalidaceae outgroups 97 65 63 55 98 53 59 90 100 97 79 94 99 94 94 96 69 91 99 52 61 95 90 71 61 93 65 50 93 67 69 100 79 100 56 60 93 53 66 89 93 96 88 83 79 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
  • 10. Sloanea australis AF299244.1 Dapania pentandra DAPEN Sarcotheca laxa SARLAX Sarcotheca monophylla SARMON Averrhoa carambola AVCAR Averrhoa bilimbi AVBIL Biophytum abyssinicum BIOAB Biophytum sp EE1161 O dombeii EE815 O alstonii ALS O psoraleoides EE781 O barrelieri MO454LLFSGW17364TL O grisea Wood17612 O arbuscula HEIBL 05 050 O caesia HEIBL 02 012 O niederleinii MV O bisfracta O conorrhiza O corniculata O dillenii O stricta MO669 O calachaccensis O acetosella MO665 O acetosella ACETOS O articulata f crassipes CRAS2 O articulata ssp rubra RUBRA O monticola MV O floribunda MV O ostenii MV O purpurascens MO51 O dentata MO49 O caprina MO7 O imbricata MO345 O commutata MO17 O orbicularis MO366 O melanosticta MO33 O pulchella MO23 O flava MO25 O hirta MO77 O monophylla MO9 O oculifera MO295 O incarnata MO346 O engleriana MO195 O smithiana MO322 O tenella MO70 O polyphylla MO47 O capillacea MO36 O bifida MO19 O tomentosa MO62 O fibrosa MO332 O eckloniana MO39 O incarnata EE149 O pes caprae EE608 O adenophylla ADEPH1 O brasiliensis BRAS2 O bipartita MV O sellowiana MV O kurtziana MV O perdicaria MO647 MV O debilis EE171 O triangularis ssp papilionacea REG O eriolepis EE155 O oreocharis EE583 O pinguiculacea Wood22147 O argentina EE235 O punensis EE559 O hispidula EE281 O decaphylla O latifolia EE439 O argentina O tetraphylla O caerulea O nelsonii O alpina O decaphylla O hernandesii O hernandesii O jacquiniana O macrocarpa O violacea O discolor O laxa ssp hispidissima EE1111 O laxa ssp hispidissima EE744 O micrantha EE1254 O valdiviensis MO646 O hypsophila MO456 O pachyrrhiza EE387 O megalorrhiza EE1113 O megalorrhiza EE773 O arborea MO460 O sp Mexico O pachyrhiza HEIBL O megalorrhiza HEIBL O ornithopus HEIBL O gigantea HEIBL O atacamensis HEIBL O ortgiesii ORT1 O boliviana EE921 O rigidicaulis AAV5415 O yungasensis EE1079 O virgata EE292 O spiralis EE590 O phaeotricha EE497 O ptychoclada EE916 O teneriensis EE605 O urubambensis EE926 O sp EE971 O sp EE979 O sp nov Comas EE592 O cuzcensis EE982 O nubigena EE701 O oregana OLMSTEAD 2003 33 x = 6 x = 5 tunicate bulbs of southern Africa imbricate bulbs of the Americas DNA sequence data of 6 chloroplast regions: trnL-trnL-trnF trnT-trnL trnS-trnG psbA-trnH psbJ-petA trnS-trnT Sect. Articulatae O. tuberosa alliance Sects. Carnosae & Giganteae Sect. Alpinae Sect. Oxalis Sect. Corniculatae Sect. Caesiae Subgenus Thamnoxys 63 55 98 53 59 x = 6 (& 5, others) 90 71 61 93 65 50 93 97 65 67 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 of 20000 MPTs * indicate nodes that collapse in strict consensus Numbers below branches are parsimony bootstrap 69 97 79 94 94 99 96 69 94 91 90 99 100 79 100 56 52 100 60 93 53 66 61 95 89 93 96 88 83 79 Oxalidales and Oxalidaceae outgroups
  • 11. Subgenus Thamnoxys
    • O. psoraleoides
    Lourteig 2000 Lourteig 2000 Lourteig 2000
  • 12. Section Corniculatae
    • O. bisfracta
    Lourteig 2000
  • 13. Sloanea australis AF299244.1 Dapania pentandra DAPEN Sarcotheca laxa SARLAX Sarcotheca monophylla SARMON Averrhoa carambola AVCAR Averrhoa bilimbi AVBIL Biophytum abyssinicum BIOAB Biophytum sp EE1161 O dombeii EE815 O alstonii ALS O psoraleoides EE781 O barrelieri MO454LLFSGW17364TL O grisea Wood17612 O arbuscula HEIBL 05 050 O caesia HEIBL 02 012 O niederleinii MV O bisfracta O conorrhiza O corniculata O dillenii O stricta MO669 O calachaccensis O acetosella MO665 O acetosella ACETOS O articulata f crassipes CRAS2 O articulata ssp rubra RUBRA O monticola MV O floribunda MV O ostenii MV O purpurascens MO51 O dentata MO49 O caprina MO7 O imbricata MO345 O commutata MO17 O orbicularis MO366 O melanosticta MO33 O pulchella MO23 O flava MO25 O hirta MO77 O monophylla MO9 O oculifera MO295 O incarnata MO346 O engleriana MO195 O smithiana MO322 O tenella MO70 O polyphylla MO47 O capillacea MO36 O bifida MO19 O tomentosa MO62 O fibrosa MO332 O eckloniana MO39 O incarnata EE149 O pes caprae EE608 O adenophylla ADEPH1 O brasiliensis BRAS2 O bipartita MV O sellowiana MV O kurtziana MV O perdicaria MO647 MV O debilis EE171 O triangularis ssp papilionacea REG O eriolepis EE155 O oreocharis EE583 O pinguiculacea Wood22147 O argentina EE235 O punensis EE559 O hispidula EE281 O decaphylla O latifolia EE439 O argentina O tetraphylla O caerulea O nelsonii O alpina O decaphylla O hernandesii O hernandesii O jacquiniana O macrocarpa O violacea O discolor O laxa ssp hispidissima EE1111 O laxa ssp hispidissima EE744 O micrantha EE1254 O valdiviensis MO646 O hypsophila MO456 O pachyrrhiza EE387 O megalorrhiza EE1113 O megalorrhiza EE773 O arborea MO460 O sp Mexico O pachyrhiza HEIBL O megalorrhiza HEIBL O ornithopus HEIBL O gigantea HEIBL O atacamensis HEIBL O ortgiesii ORT1 O boliviana EE921 O rigidicaulis AAV5415 O yungasensis EE1079 O virgata EE292 O spiralis EE590 O phaeotricha EE497 O ptychoclada EE916 O teneriensis EE605 O urubambensis EE926 O sp EE971 O sp EE979 O sp nov Comas EE592 O cuzcensis EE982 O nubigena EE701 O oregana OLMSTEAD 2003 33 x = 6 x = 5 tunicate bulbs of southern Africa imbricate bulbs of the Americas DNA sequence data of 6 chloroplast regions: trnL-trnL-trnF trnT-trnL trnS-trnG psbA-trnH psbJ-petA trnS-trnT Sect. Articulatae O. tuberosa alliance Sects. Carnosae & Giganteae Sect. Alpinae Sect. Oxalis Sect. Corniculatae Sect. Caesiae Subgenus Thamnoxys 63 55 98 53 59 x = 6 (& 5, others) 90 71 61 93 65 50 93 97 65 67 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 of 20000 MPTs * indicate nodes that collapse in strict consensus Numbers below branches are parsimony bootstrap 69 97 79 94 94 99 96 69 94 91 90 99 100 79 100 56 52 100 60 93 53 66 61 95 89 93 96 88 83 79 Oxalidales and Oxalidaceae outgroups
  • 14. x = 11 Sloanea australis AF299244.1 Dapania pentandra DAPEN Sarcotheca laxa SARLAX Sarcotheca monophylla SARMON Averrhoa carambola AVCAR Averrhoa bilimbi AVBIL Biophytum abyssinicum BIOAB Biophytum sp EE1161 O dombeii EE815 O alstonii ALS O psoraleoides EE781 O barrelieri MO454LLFSGW17364TL O grisea Wood17612 O arbuscula HEIBL 05 050 O caesia HEIBL 02 012 O niederleinii MV O bisfracta O conorrhiza O corniculata O dillenii O stricta MO669 O calachaccensis O acetosella MO665 O acetosella ACETOS O articulata f crassipes CRAS2 O articulata ssp rubra RUBRA O monticola MV O floribunda MV O ostenii MV O purpurascens MO51 O dentata MO49 O caprina MO7 O imbricata MO345 O commutata MO17 O orbicularis MO366 O melanosticta MO33 O pulchella MO23 O flava MO25 O hirta MO77 O monophylla MO9 O oculifera MO295 O incarnata MO346 O engleriana MO195 O smithiana MO322 O tenella MO70 O polyphylla MO47 O capillacea MO36 O bifida MO19 O tomentosa MO62 O fibrosa MO332 O eckloniana MO39 O incarnata EE149 O pes caprae EE608 O adenophylla ADEPH1 O brasiliensis BRAS2 O bipartita MV O sellowiana MV O kurtziana MV O perdicaria MO647 MV O debilis EE171 O triangularis ssp papilionacea REG O eriolepis EE155 O oreocharis EE583 O pinguiculacea Wood22147 O argentina EE235 O punensis EE559 O hispidula EE281 O decaphylla O latifolia EE439 O argentina O tetraphylla O caerulea O nelsonii O alpina O decaphylla O hernandesii O hernandesii O jacquiniana O macrocarpa O violacea O discolor O laxa ssp hispidissima EE1111 O laxa ssp hispidissima EE744 O micrantha EE1254 O valdiviensis MO646 O hypsophila MO456 O pachyrrhiza EE387 O megalorrhiza EE1113 O megalorrhiza EE773 O arborea MO460 O sp Mexico O pachyrhiza HEIBL O megalorrhiza HEIBL O ornithopus HEIBL O gigantea HEIBL O atacamensis HEIBL O ortgiesii ORT1 O boliviana EE921 O rigidicaulis AAV5415 O yungasensis EE1079 O virgata EE292 O spiralis EE590 O phaeotricha EE497 O ptychoclada EE916 O teneriensis EE605 O urubambensis EE926 O sp EE971 O sp EE979 O sp nov Comas EE592 O cuzcensis EE982 O nubigena EE701 O oregana OLMSTEAD 2003 33 tunicate bulbs of southern Africa imbricate bulbs of the Americas DNA sequence data of 6 chloroplast regions: trnL-trnL-trnF trnT-trnL trnS-trnG psbA-trnH psbJ-petA trnS-trnT Sect. Articulatae O. tuberosa alliance Sects. Carnosae & Giganteae Sect. Alpinae Sect. Oxalis Sect. Corniculatae Sect. Caesiae Subgenus Thamnoxys 63 55 98 53 59 90 71 61 93 65 50 93 97 65 67 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 of 20000 MPTs * indicate nodes that collapse in strict consensus Numbers below branches are parsimony bootstrap 69 97 79 94 94 99 96 69 94 91 90 99 100 79 100 56 52 100 60 93 53 66 61 95 89 93 96 88 83 79 Oxalidales and Oxalidaceae outgroups
  • 15. Sloanea australis AF299244.1 Dapania pentandra DAPEN Sarcotheca laxa SARLAX Sarcotheca monophylla SARMON Averrhoa carambola AVCAR Averrhoa bilimbi AVBIL Biophytum abyssinicum BIOAB Biophytum sp EE1161 O dombeii EE815 O alstonii ALS O psoraleoides EE781 O barrelieri MO454LLFSGW17364TL O grisea Wood17612 O arbuscula HEIBL 05 050 O caesia HEIBL 02 012 O niederleinii MV O bisfracta O conorrhiza O corniculata O dillenii O stricta MO669 O calachaccensis O acetosella MO665 O acetosella ACETOS O articulata f crassipes CRAS2 O articulata ssp rubra RUBRA O monticola MV O floribunda MV O ostenii MV O purpurascens MO51 O dentata MO49 O caprina MO7 O imbricata MO345 O commutata MO17 O orbicularis MO366 O melanosticta MO33 O pulchella MO23 O flava MO25 O hirta MO77 O monophylla MO9 O oculifera MO295 O incarnata MO346 O engleriana MO195 O smithiana MO322 O tenella MO70 O polyphylla MO47 O capillacea MO36 O bifida MO19 O tomentosa MO62 O fibrosa MO332 O eckloniana MO39 O incarnata EE149 O pes caprae EE608 O adenophylla ADEPH1 O brasiliensis BRAS2 O bipartita MV O sellowiana MV O kurtziana MV O perdicaria MO647 MV O debilis EE171 O triangularis ssp papilionacea REG O eriolepis EE155 O oreocharis EE583 O pinguiculacea Wood22147 O argentina EE235 O punensis EE559 O hispidula EE281 O decaphylla O latifolia EE439 O argentina O tetraphylla O caerulea O nelsonii O alpina O decaphylla O hernandesii O hernandesii O jacquiniana O macrocarpa O violacea O discolor O laxa ssp hispidissima EE1111 O laxa ssp hispidissima EE744 O micrantha EE1254 O valdiviensis MO646 O hypsophila MO456 O pachyrrhiza EE387 O megalorrhiza EE1113 O megalorrhiza EE773 O arborea MO460 O sp Mexico O pachyrhiza HEIBL O megalorrhiza HEIBL O ornithopus HEIBL O gigantea HEIBL O atacamensis HEIBL O ortgiesii ORT1 O boliviana EE921 O rigidicaulis AAV5415 O yungasensis EE1079 O virgata EE292 O spiralis EE590 O phaeotricha EE497 O ptychoclada EE916 O teneriensis EE605 O urubambensis EE926 O sp EE971 O sp EE979 O sp nov Comas EE592 O cuzcensis EE982 O nubigena EE701 O oregana OLMSTEAD 2003 33 x = 7 x = 8 x = 9 x = 9 x = 7 x = 7 x = 7 x = 11 tunicate bulbs of southern Africa imbricate bulbs of the Americas DNA sequence data of 6 chloroplast regions: trnL-trnL-trnF trnT-trnL trnS-trnG psbA-trnH psbJ-petA trnS-trnT Sect. Articulatae O. tuberosa alliance Sects. Carnosae & Giganteae Sect. Alpinae Sect. Oxalis Sect. Corniculatae Sect. Caesiae Subgenus Thamnoxys 63 55 98 53 59 90 71 61 93 65 50 93 97 65 67 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 of 20000 MPTs * indicate nodes that collapse in strict consensus Numbers below branches are parsimony bootstrap 69 97 79 94 94 99 96 69 94 91 90 99 100 79 100 56 52 100 60 93 53 66 61 95 89 93 96 88 83 79 Oxalidales and Oxalidaceae outgroups
  • 16. rhizome scales, bulb scales, petiole bases
    • O. acetosella
    • petiole base of O. tuberosa
    Estelita-Teixiera 1982 Lourteig 2000
  • 17. Sloanea australis AF299244.1 Dapania pentandra DAPEN Sarcotheca laxa SARLAX Sarcotheca monophylla SARMON Averrhoa carambola AVCAR Averrhoa bilimbi AVBIL Biophytum abyssinicum BIOAB Biophytum sp EE1161 O dombeii EE815 O alstonii ALS O psoraleoides EE781 O barrelieri MO454LLFSGW17364TL O grisea Wood17612 O arbuscula HEIBL 05 050 O caesia HEIBL 02 012 O niederleinii MV O bisfracta O conorrhiza O corniculata O dillenii O stricta MO669 O calachaccensis O acetosella MO665 O acetosella ACETOS O articulata f crassipes CRAS2 O articulata ssp rubra RUBRA O monticola MV O floribunda MV O ostenii MV O purpurascens MO51 O dentata MO49 O caprina MO7 O imbricata MO345 O commutata MO17 O orbicularis MO366 O melanosticta MO33 O pulchella MO23 O flava MO25 O hirta MO77 O monophylla MO9 O oculifera MO295 O incarnata MO346 O engleriana MO195 O smithiana MO322 O tenella MO70 O polyphylla MO47 O capillacea MO36 O bifida MO19 O tomentosa MO62 O fibrosa MO332 O eckloniana MO39 O incarnata EE149 O pes caprae EE608 O adenophylla ADEPH1 O brasiliensis BRAS2 O bipartita MV O sellowiana MV O kurtziana MV O perdicaria MO647 MV O debilis EE171 O triangularis ssp papilionacea REG O eriolepis EE155 O oreocharis EE583 O pinguiculacea Wood22147 O argentina EE235 O punensis EE559 O hispidula EE281 O decaphylla O latifolia EE439 O argentina O tetraphylla O caerulea O nelsonii O alpina O decaphylla O hernandesii O hernandesii O jacquiniana O macrocarpa O violacea O discolor O laxa ssp hispidissima EE1111 O laxa ssp hispidissima EE744 O micrantha EE1254 O valdiviensis MO646 O hypsophila MO456 O pachyrrhiza EE387 O megalorrhiza EE1113 O megalorrhiza EE773 O arborea MO460 O sp Mexico O pachyrhiza HEIBL O megalorrhiza HEIBL O ornithopus HEIBL O gigantea HEIBL O atacamensis HEIBL O ortgiesii ORT1 O boliviana EE921 O rigidicaulis AAV5415 O yungasensis EE1079 O virgata EE292 O spiralis EE590 O phaeotricha EE497 O ptychoclada EE916 O teneriensis EE605 O urubambensis EE926 O sp EE971 O sp EE979 O sp nov Comas EE592 O cuzcensis EE982 O nubigena EE701 O oregana OLMSTEAD 2003 33 x = 8 x = 9 x = 9 x = 7 tunicate bulbs of southern Africa imbricate bulbs of the Americas DNA sequence data of 6 chloroplast regions: trnL-trnL-trnF trnT-trnL trnS-trnG psbA-trnH psbJ-petA trnS-trnT Sect. Articulatae O. tuberosa alliance Sects. Carnosae & Giganteae Sect. Alpinae Sect. Oxalis Sect. Corniculatae Sect. Caesiae Subgenus Thamnoxys 63 55 98 53 59 90 71 61 93 65 50 93 97 65 67 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 of 20000 MPTs * indicate nodes that collapse in strict consensus Numbers below branches are parsimony bootstrap 69 97 79 94 94 99 96 69 94 91 90 99 100 79 100 56 52 100 60 93 53 66 61 95 89 93 96 88 83 79 Oxalidales and Oxalidaceae outgroups
  • 18.
    • Eastern Andean slopes
    • Western Andean slopes
    O. tuberosa alliance Sect. Carnosae Sect. Alpinae
  • 19. Section Alpinae
    • O. mira
    • O. micrantha
  • 20. Section Carnosae
    • O. megalorrhiza
    • O.pachyrrhiza
    Picture of Christoph Christoph Heibl, U. Munich
  • 21.
    • O. spiralis
    O. tuberosa alliance
    • O. tuberosa
    relatives of Andean tuber crop “oca” Eve Emshwiller UW-Madison
  • 22. Near outgroups of O. tuberosa alliance: “O. andina clade” and Sect. Ortgieseae
    • O. sp. aff. andina
    • O. rusbyi
    O. ortgiesii O. andina
  • 23.
    • Eastern Andean slopes
    • Western Andean slopes
    O. tuberosa alliance Sect. Carnosae Sect. Alpinae
  • 24. Sloanea australis AF299244.1 Dapania pentandra DAPEN Sarcotheca laxa SARLAX Sarcotheca monophylla SARMON Averrhoa carambola AVCAR Averrhoa bilimbi AVBIL Biophytum abyssinicum BIOAB Biophytum sp EE1161 O dombeii EE815 O alstonii ALS O psoraleoides EE781 O barrelieri MO454LLFSGW17364TL O grisea Wood17612 O arbuscula HEIBL 05 050 O caesia HEIBL 02 012 O niederleinii MV O bisfracta O conorrhiza O corniculata O dillenii O stricta MO669 O calachaccensis O acetosella MO665 O acetosella ACETOS O articulata f crassipes CRAS2 O articulata ssp rubra RUBRA O monticola MV O floribunda MV O ostenii MV O purpurascens MO51 O dentata MO49 O caprina MO7 O imbricata MO345 O commutata MO17 O orbicularis MO366 O melanosticta MO33 O pulchella MO23 O flava MO25 O hirta MO77 O monophylla MO9 O oculifera MO295 O incarnata MO346 O engleriana MO195 O smithiana MO322 O tenella MO70 O polyphylla MO47 O capillacea MO36 O bifida MO19 O tomentosa MO62 O fibrosa MO332 O eckloniana MO39 O incarnata EE149 O pes caprae EE608 O adenophylla ADEPH1 O brasiliensis BRAS2 O bipartita MV O sellowiana MV O kurtziana MV O perdicaria MO647 MV O debilis EE171 O triangularis ssp papilionacea REG O eriolepis EE155 O oreocharis EE583 O pinguiculacea Wood22147 O argentina EE235 O punensis EE559 O hispidula EE281 O decaphylla O latifolia EE439 O argentina O tetraphylla O caerulea O nelsonii O alpina O decaphylla O hernandesii O hernandesii O jacquiniana O macrocarpa O violacea O discolor O laxa ssp hispidissima EE1111 O laxa ssp hispidissima EE744 O micrantha EE1254 O valdiviensis MO646 O hypsophila MO456 O pachyrrhiza EE387 O megalorrhiza EE1113 O megalorrhiza EE773 O arborea MO460 O sp Mexico O pachyrhiza HEIBL O megalorrhiza HEIBL O ornithopus HEIBL O gigantea HEIBL O atacamensis HEIBL O ortgiesii ORT1 O boliviana EE921 O rigidicaulis AAV5415 O yungasensis EE1079 O virgata EE292 O spiralis EE590 O phaeotricha EE497 O ptychoclada EE916 O teneriensis EE605 O urubambensis EE926 O sp EE971 O sp EE979 O sp nov Comas EE592 O cuzcensis EE982 O nubigena EE701 O oregana OLMSTEAD 2003 33 x = 7 x = 7 x = 7 tunicate bulbs of southern Africa imbricate bulbs of the Americas DNA sequence data of 6 chloroplast regions: trnL-trnL-trnF trnT-trnL trnS-trnG psbA-trnH psbJ-petA trnS-trnT Sect. Articulatae O. tuberosa alliance Sects. Carnosae & Giganteae Sect. Alpinae Sect. Oxalis Sect. Corniculatae Sect. Caesiae Subgenus Thamnoxys 63 55 98 53 59 90 71 61 93 65 50 93 97 65 67 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 of 20000 MPTs * indicate nodes that collapse in strict consensus Numbers below branches are parsimony bootstrap 69 97 79 94 94 99 96 69 94 91 90 99 100 79 100 56 52 100 60 93 53 66 61 95 89 93 96 88 83 79 Oxalidales and Oxalidaceae outgroups Sects. Palmatifoliae & Pseudobulbosae
  • 25. Section Palmatifoliae
    • Oxalis adenophylla
    • O. enneaphylla
    http://www.srgc.org.uk/bulblog/log2004/080604/Oxalis%20adenophylla.jpg CT scan of O. adenophylla bulb by Andrew G. Gardner
  • 26. Section Articulatae
    • Magdalena Vaio
    • U. de la República, Uruguay &
    • U.F. Pernambuco, Brazil
    • O. articulata f. rubra
    www.anbg.gov.au/photo/apii/id/dig/3364 Lourteig 2000
  • 27. Characters shared by “bulb clade”
    • Corolla colors: pink, violet, white
    • Orange calli (= oxalate deposits )
  • 28. BAPU: Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay
  • 29. Sloanea australis AF299244.1 Dapania pentandra DAPEN Sarcotheca laxa SARLAX Sarcotheca monophylla SARMON Averrhoa carambola AVCAR Averrhoa bilimbi AVBIL Biophytum abyssinicum BIOAB Biophytum sp EE1161 O dombeii EE815 O alstonii ALS O psoraleoides EE781 O barrelieri MO454LLFSGW17364TL O grisea Wood17612 O arbuscula HEIBL 05 050 O caesia HEIBL 02 012 O niederleinii MV O bisfracta O conorrhiza O corniculata O dillenii O stricta MO669 O calachaccensis O acetosella MO665 O acetosella ACETOS O articulata f crassipes CRAS2 O articulata ssp rubra RUBRA O monticola MV O floribunda MV O ostenii MV O purpurascens MO51 O dentata MO49 O caprina MO7 O imbricata MO345 O commutata MO17 O orbicularis MO366 O melanosticta MO33 O pulchella MO23 O flava MO25 O hirta MO77 O monophylla MO9 O oculifera MO295 O incarnata MO346 O engleriana MO195 O smithiana MO322 O tenella MO70 O polyphylla MO47 O capillacea MO36 O bifida MO19 O tomentosa MO62 O fibrosa MO332 O eckloniana MO39 O incarnata EE149 O pes caprae EE608 O adenophylla ADEPH1 O brasiliensis BRAS2 O bipartita MV O sellowiana MV O kurtziana MV O perdicaria MO647 MV O debilis EE171 O triangularis ssp papilionacea REG O eriolepis EE155 O oreocharis EE583 O pinguiculacea Wood22147 O argentina EE235 O punensis EE559 O hispidula EE281 O decaphylla O latifolia EE439 O argentina O tetraphylla O caerulea O nelsonii O alpina O decaphylla O hernandesii O hernandesii O jacquiniana O macrocarpa O violacea O discolor O laxa ssp hispidissima EE1111 O laxa ssp hispidissima EE744 O micrantha EE1254 O valdiviensis MO646 O hypsophila MO456 O pachyrrhiza EE387 O megalorrhiza EE1113 O megalorrhiza EE773 O arborea MO460 O sp Mexico O pachyrhiza HEIBL O megalorrhiza HEIBL O ornithopus HEIBL O gigantea HEIBL O atacamensis HEIBL O ortgiesii ORT1 O boliviana EE921 O rigidicaulis AAV5415 O yungasensis EE1079 O virgata EE292 O spiralis EE590 O phaeotricha EE497 O ptychoclada EE916 O teneriensis EE605 O urubambensis EE926 O sp EE971 O sp EE979 O sp nov Comas EE592 O cuzcensis EE982 O nubigena EE701 O oregana OLMSTEAD 2003 33 x = 7 x = 8 x = 9 x = 9 x = 7 x = 7 x = 7 x = 11 x = 6 x = 5 tunicate bulbs of southern Africa imbricate bulbs of the Americas DNA sequence data of 6 chloroplast regions: trnL-trnL-trnF trnT-trnL trnS-trnG psbA-trnH psbJ-petA trnS-trnT Sect. Articulatae O. tuberosa alliance Sects. Carnosae & Giganteae Sect. Alpinae Sect. Oxalis Sect. Corniculatae Sect. Caesiae Subgenus Thamnoxys 63 55 98 53 59 x = 6 (& 5, others) 90 71 61 93 65 50 93 97 65 67 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 1 of 20000 MPTs * indicate nodes that collapse in strict consensus Numbers below branches are parsimony bootstrap 69 97 79 94 94 99 96 69 94 91 90 99 100 79 100 56 52 100 60 93 53 66 61 95 89 93 96 88 83 79 Oxalidales and Oxalidaceae outgroups
  • 30. Thank you!
    • Supported by start-up funds from UW-Madison.
    • Barbara Gravendeel (Leiden Herbarium) for outgroup samples.
    • Undergraduates who helped generate data: Anna Becker, Anna Dierking, Emily Hatas, Emily Houtler, Joslyn Mink, Brittany Nanzig, Brian Pellatt, Jean Shin, Mary Sagstetter, Tim Smith .