102 weather

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102 weather

  1. 1. Atmospheric Circulation and Weather Systems
  2. 2. Take-Away Points 1. Weather is driven by unequal solar heating and cooling 2. Air motions are affected by the Coriolis Effect and “centrifugal” force 3. High and Low Pressure Systems 4. Air flows parallel to pressure contours (Geostrophic winds) 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts 6. Weather is inherently chaotic and that limits our ability to forecast it
  3. 3. The Seasons
  4. 4. Heat Lag 1. Weather is driven by unequal solar heating and cooling
  5. 5. Heat Lag
  6. 6. Atmospheric Circulation 1. Weather is driven by unequal solar heating and cooling
  7. 7. Atmospheric Circulation 1. Weather is driven by unequal solar heating and cooling
  8. 8. Asymmetric Earth 1. Weather is driven by unequal solar heating and cooling
  9. 9. Asymmetric Earth 1. Weather is driven by unequal solar heating and cooling
  10. 10. Atmospheric Circulation 1. Weather is driven by unequal solar heating and cooling
  11. 11. Zonal and Meridional Flow 1. Weather is driven by unequal solar heating and cooling
  12. 12. Semi-Permanent Features, January 1. Weather is driven by unequal solar heating and cooling
  13. 13. Semi-Permanent Features, July 1. Weather is driven by unequal solar heating and cooling
  14. 14. Rotation Effects 2. Air motions are affected by the Coriolis Effect and “centrifugal” force
  15. 15. The Coriolis Effect • Due to moving on a rotating earth • Things on equator are moving faster than points near poles • Affects: – Winds – Ocean Currents – Tides 2. Air motions are affected by the Coriolis Effect and “centrifugal” force
  16. 16. The Coriolis Effect • Things moving toward the equator are deflected west • Things moving poleward are deflected east • Deflected to Right in Northern Hemisphere • Deflected to Left in Southern Hemisphere 2. Air motions are affected by the Coriolis Effect and “centrifugal” force
  17. 17. The Coriolis Effect 2. Air motions are affected by the Coriolis Effect and “centrifugal” force
  18. 18. The Coriolis Effect 2. Air motions are affected by the Coriolis Effect and “centrifugal” force
  19. 19. The Coriolis Effect 2. Air motions are affected by the Coriolis Effect and “centrifugal” force
  20. 20. Inertial Circles 2. Air motions are affected by the Coriolis Effect and “centrifugal” force
  21. 21. “Centrifugal” Force ? 2. Air motions are affected by the Coriolis Effect and “centrifugal” force
  22. 22. Or No Force? 2. Air motions are affected by the Coriolis Effect and “centrifugal” force
  23. 23. “Centrifugal” Force Does Not Exist • When anything turns, the only forces that act are in the direction of the turn • These forces are called centripetal (centerseeking) force • “Centrifugal” force is an illusion • “Centrifugal” force is due to inertia and centripetal force opposing each other 2. Air motions are affected by the Coriolis Effect and “centrifugal” force
  24. 24. High Pressure Systems 3. High and Low Pressure Systems
  25. 25. High Pressure Systems • • • • • • Air flows out from center Spin clockwise in Northern Hemisphere No air mixing Stable, fair weather Sinking Air, few clouds Long duration can result in inversions, pollution • Winter: often extreme cold – Cold Air is Dense – Clear Skies and Radiational Cooling 3. High and Low Pressure Systems
  26. 26. Low Pressure Systems 3. High and Low Pressure Systems
  27. 27. Why Counterclockwise? 3. High and Low Pressure Systems
  28. 28. Low Pressure Systems • Air flows in toward center • Spin counter-clockwise in Northern Hemisphere • Mixes air of different properties • Associated with fronts • Stormy, sometimes violent weather • Passage often results in sharp change in weather conditions 3. High and Low Pressure Systems
  29. 29. Geostrophic Winds • As air flows in or out of pressure cells, Coriolis Effect deflects it • At surface, friction limits the deflection. – Winds blow about 45 degree angles to isobars • Aloft, friction not a factor – Deflection continues until limited by pressure gradient (winds can’t go against pressure) – Winds blow parallel to contours – This is called geostrophic flow 4. Air flows parallel to pressure contours (Geostrophic winds)
  30. 30. Geostrophic Flow
  31. 31. Geostrophic Flow
  32. 32. Geostrophic Flow 4. Air flows parallel to pressure contours (Geostrophic winds)
  33. 33. 1905 Weather Map of US
  34. 34. First U.S. Weather Map With Fronts
  35. 35. Fronts and Low Pressure Systems 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  36. 36. Fronts 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  37. 37. Warm Fronts 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  38. 38. Warm Fronts • • • • Gradual Onset Warm Air over Cool Air Little Turbulence Weather Rarely Violent 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  39. 39. Cold Fronts 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  40. 40. Cold Fronts • • • • • • Abrupt Onset Cold Air Lifting Warm Air Considerable Turbulence Weather Sometimes Violent Thunderstorms Common Can Spawn Tornadoes 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  41. 41. Old Low Pressure Systems 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  42. 42. Occluded Fronts 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  43. 43. Occluded Fronts • Two fronts merge • Any two types of front can occlude • Most common: Cold Front overtakes Warm Front • Starts off like a warm front, finishes like a cold front 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  44. 44. Weather Prediction 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  45. 45. Weather Prediction 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  46. 46. Weather Prediction 5. Air masses meet along sharp boundaries or fronts
  47. 47. Chaos x
  48. 48. Chaos Theory Does Not Mean: • • • • • Cloned Dinosaurs will run amok Systems do not follow physical laws Systems behave with wild unpredictability Systems do not have limits Phenomena cannot be predicted 6. Weather is inherently chaotic and that limits our ability to forecast it
  49. 49. Chaos Theory Does Mean: • Small differences compound over time • There are limits to how accurately phenomena can be predicted • Examples: – Weather – The Planets – Traffic 6. Weather is inherently chaotic and that limits our ability to forecast it

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