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Latest presentation wind 2010 eng luk

  1. 1. Fundamentals of the New Technology April 2010 ARTER TECHNOLOGY: New Generation Wind Turbine
  2. 2. What Is Arter Technology? Company Profile 1 Arter Technology is a technological research and implementation unit of Arter Group. The company is registered in Guernsey and has international presence. It is owned by Arter Group (majority shareholder) and a number of Russian individuals with a broad academic background and relevant experience in design and development of large- scale technologically advanced projects for the military airspace industry in the Soviet times. The company’s headquarter is located at: St. Petersburg, 197375, Russia, Repishchev Street, house 14, letter P +79212943000; Currently the company is developing the following projects: ARTER TECHNOLOGY New Generation Wind Turbine Cellulosic Bioethanol Production Heavy Oil Extraction Technologies Innovative Сomposite Cylinder for LPG • Exploits great intellectual potential and the results achieved in the military airspace industry • Explores ways of commercializing the know- how • Supports and develops Russian intellectual potential • Arter Technology invests exclusively in innovative technologies aimed at economic and environmental problems with potential for world-wide implementation Fundamentally new wind turbine system that surpasses all existing analogues New approach in manufacturing cellullosic bioethanol with the use of mechanochemical treatment Combines all advantages and outstanding features of composite materials and stainless steel Designing new heavy oil pump, acoustic transmitter and vibrator with exceptional quality characteristics ARTER TECHNOLOGY
  3. 3. Current development 2 • Exceptional growth demonstrated in the previous years will remain sustainable due to: – Pressing need for energy world-wide; – Growing concerns about global warming and a drive for the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHGs) emission – Volatile prices for fossil fuel & oil and the depletion of its resources – National energy security primarily in the countries with limited or no resources of fossil fuel including USA, Europe, China and India – Relative cost of other alternative sources of energy ARTER TECHNOLOGY Source: GWEC Conventional Wind Industry – What is Next? Current development
  4. 4. Conventional Wind Industry – What is Next? Problems faced by the conventional wind turbines industry 3 Last year’s global wind power installations reached a record of 37+ GW. Wind power is projected to expand from 51,4 bln. USD in 2008 to 139,1 bln. USD in 2018. Despite exceptional growth, the industry is still marked with significant challenges. We believe that all these challenges could be met with our new generation wind turbine. CONVENTIONAL WIND INDUSTRY CHALLENGES Global Shortage of Wind Turbines -Legally binding targets in EU of 20% in Renewables by 2020; -A massive target set by China of expansion of wind power up to 100,000 MW by 2020; -Increasing involvement of the new players from outside the industry; - Enlargement of individual wind farms in size combined with increase in realization in international markets. As the result the sector has outstripped the available supply and created demand for larger investments in manufacturing facilities, long term equipment purchase arrangements and further expansion for components & equipment production. Significant Price Increase Limitations on Power Output Increase Shortage of Attractive Wind Sites Environmental Impact - Rising raw material prices coupled with massive wind power opportunities have caused turbine prices to go up; - In some markets, turbine prices have risen by up to 45% in the last few years; - It is expected that the prices will continue to rise - Wind turbine power output depends on its size; - As the size of turbines grows, manufacturers experience problems with logistics and installation -Some countries, particularly Germany and Spain experience a shortage of attractive sites; - Access to infrastructure, especia lly the grid system, is often not available to project developers -Safety zones exceed 3 km in radius - Increased size of the conventional wind turbine creates further environmental problems and damage to ecosystem ARTER TECHNOLOGY
  5. 5. New Generation Wind Turbine Fundamentals 4 A conceptually new Shrouded Wind Turbine (SWT) was created by a team of the leading Russian aerospace professionals, who are currently employed by Arter Group. Being a thermodynamical unit, SWT fully presents a new generation of modern wind turbines. It is fundamentally different from existing wind machines both in design and operating characteristics. Next Move ARTER TECHNOLOGY • New generation wind turbine based on advanced research by leading Russian rocket scientists and engineers: • allows more efficient utilization of wind power in comparison to the traditional one; • solves or reduces all major problems characteristic of the conventional wind turbine.
  6. 6. New Generation Wind Turbine New Generation vs Conventional 5 1 2 3 4 5 7 6 The conventional 1M+ wind turbine consists of approximately 5,000 components. It comprises a rotor that captures the force of the wind, and an energy conversion system, which uses a gearbox in combination with a generator to transform the mechanical power into electricity. The rotor has to be turned against the wind using a yaw mechanism. The parts of a regular wind turbine are : (1) Nacelle; (2) Heat Exchanger; (3) Generator; (4) Control Panel; (5) Main Frame; (6) Impact Noise Insulation; (7) Hydraulic Parking Brake; (8) Gearbox; (9) Impact Noise Insulation; (10, 11) Yaw Drive; (12) Rotor Shaft; (13) Oil Cooler; (14) Pitch Drive; (16) Nose Cone Source: HSBC Report The new generation SWT consists of a turbine with a generator block inside the ducts. The construction of the SWT is by far less complex and more reliable due to fewer rotating parts than that of the conventional turbine. Unlike the conventional wind turbine the SWT does not undergo heavy dynamic load. The components of the SWT include: (1) Outer duct; (2) Central duct; (3) Rotor duct; (4) Central bypass; (5) Turbine; (6) Generator; (7) Yaw shaft. ARTER TECHNOLOGY
  7. 7. New Generation Wind Turbine Physics 6 A wind turbine converts the wind kinetic energy into mechanical energy. Mechanical energy is then converted into electricity. The power in the wind is proportional to the cube of the wind speed. A 4-fold higher wind speed means over 64-fold more energy content in the wind. Shrouded Wind Turbine enables to raise wind speed 4-fold in comparison with Conventional wind turbines. The new wind turbine is based on the well-known “de Laval nozzle”. SWT, which is also referred to as Diffuser-Augmented Wind Turbine, is capable of raising wind speed by factor of “f-coefficient “ compared to a conventional wind turbine. A higher wind speed means over f3 more energy content in the wind. This feature enables SWT to utilize wind energy to the utmost. de Laval nozzle V0 V1 turbine V0 V0 V1*f turbine Characteristics of wind turbines with various diameters ARTER TECHNOLOGY where f coefficient could be between 2 and 15 times 25 50 100 150 200 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 Wind speed Calculated characteristics of SWT-100 kW with diameter 10.5 m together with valved inductor-type generator Characteristics of conventional wind turbine with installed capacity of 100 kW (blades diameter – 21 m) Characteristics of conventional wind turbine with blades diameter 11 m. Capacity
  8. 8. Thermodynamical concept in SWT Validation of the concept 16 ARTER TECHNOLOGY The air is gas. All bodies, plasmas and fluids have the inner energy. Gas also has the inner energy. The question is what quantity of the inner energy of the gas can be utilized? The classical formula of determining the efficiency of the wind turbine is based on the quantity of utilized kinetic energy. Unlike the conventional wind turbines the system executed under the SWT principle allows to exploit not only kinetic energy of the air (i.e. gas) but some part of the inner energy as well. That part of the inner energy is converted into kinetic energy in the nozzle cross-sections. At that the temperature drops (i.e. differs) from 0,2 Сº to 2 Сº (the fact confirmed by expertise of Garrad Hassan) under the law of energy conservation, and the kinetic energy in the turbine zone is increased up to 10 times. This is the process allowing to increase the overall efficiency of the system, and the use of the diffuser augmented wind turbine instead of the propeller type wind machines automatically eliminates the problem of noise and infrasound. Conventional wind turbines can not use the inner energy of the flow! Why we treat the SWT system as thermodynamical? Because the inner energy inside the turbine loses its temperature and gains the velocity.
  9. 9. The closest prototype to Arter’s Shroud Wind Turbine Comparison 16 ARTER TECHNOLOGY Presently there are about 10 companies worldwide who are engaged into resolving the dilemma of the wind turbines of closed type. In our opinion the most interesting design has been worked out by the company FloDesign (Massachusetts Institute of Technology – MIT, USA). With the apparent resemblance and akin scientific approach applied for resolving the task of designing the wind turbine of closed type, the development of FloDesign is fundamentally different from Arter’s SWT. There are two most important differences: (1) in the method of acceleration of the air flow; (2) in the mode of convertion of the mechanical energy into electrical energy. Nowadays Arter’s design stands at more advanced stage of development than the same of FloDesign. FloDesign Arter Technology (design and existing prototype)
  10. 10. Shortage of Supply 7 Explosive growth in the demand for wind power has created a global waiting list for wind turbines. Wind industry equipment is sold out by 2010-2011. Availability of wind turbines has become a major concern to the wind energy industry. A shortage of turbine supply is primarily caused by the shortage of the key components: gearboxes and bearings; hub, bedplate and gearbox housing; carbon fibre, and also movement of multiple players on 2 MW segment and above. SWTs do not contain these components, neither it suggests super big diameters for single unit size. Current industry growth is not likely to even the demand-supply balance in the conventional wind industry. This situation presents an excellent window of opportunity for SWT technology. • New SWT will help to avoid the current capacity bottleneck ARTER TECHNOLOGY SWT: New Solution for the Wind Industry
  11. 11. SWT: New Solution for the Wind Industry Shortage of Supply 8 Simplicity. SWT does not have as many components as a conventional wind turbine, and most of the components are in a static position and do not undergo static or dynamic loads. Rotating parts include slow motion turbine and slow moving generators with a rotation speed of 100 – 500 rpm. There are many companies in the world that could supply components for the SWT. Possible Automated Line Manufacturing. Since SWT is technologically simple, it could be mass produced on an assembly line, thus increasing the quality and quantity of manufacturing. The assembly period of 1 SWT is two days only. Absence of blades. The turbine does not have rotor blades – one of the toughest and most complicated parts of the conventional turbine. Therefore, there are no transportation or safety problems associated with the conventional turbines’ usage of rotor blades. Estimated Characteristics of the new SWT Power Output (kW) 50 100 200 500 Weight (tons) 3-5 8-10 12-15 17-20 Diameter (m) 7-8 9-11 14-15 17-19 ARTER TECHNOLOGY
  12. 12. Significant Price Increase 9 Severe demand and supply constraints have led to the conventional wind turbine’s significant price increases of up to 45% in certain markets. It is also expected that the price for the conventional wind turbine will continue to rise by approximately 10% annually. Currently it stands at approximately € 1,500 per kW capacity for onshore installations and € 3,000 per kW for offshore. Main technological constraints for significant reduction of costs are : Shortage of raw materials and price increases. A conventional wind turbine on average consists of 82% steel (the remainder are expensive composite materials). Below is the chart showing steel prices dynamics over the last 6 years. High proportion of manual labor. Large turbines have not become a mass production product. Complexity of the technology and spare parts requires qualified manual labor. The construction is largely manual with no real production lines in place. As the labor cost increases, so does the cost of turbines. SWT is made of considerably fewer costly raw materials, especially steel and composite materials. The SWT components are interchangeable and can be manufactured of various materials, which reduces dependence on possible growth in prices for particular products. ARTER TECHNOLOGY SWT: New Solution for the Wind Industry
  13. 13. Limitations of Power Output Increase 10 The new SWT can provide a better solution for the existing problem of power output increase. For the last decades wind turbine manufactures have concentrated on extending power output by increasing the size of the turbine. This strategy posed a serious problem, as an increase in size has its technological limits. They are: Weight. The world’s largest wind turbine is now the Enercon E-126. The tower is 138 meters high (453 feet) and its walls are 45 centimeters (18 inches) thick, the diameter of the rotor is 126 meters (413 feet), the diameter at the tower base is 14.5 meters, the thickness of the tower walls is 45 cm. This new turbine is officially rated at 6 megawatts too, but will most likely produce 7+ megawatts Material: necessity to use the metallic material for a significant part of its rotor blade design. A total of 110 m³ of concrete were used to build the tower and 64 fifty-six centimeter thick piles had to be rammed into the ground to support the foundation. Another 1500 m³ concrete and 180 t of reinforcing steel were used in the foundation. In order to compensate for the ecological effects, extensive measures are to be taken to create buffer zones. Size. Increasing size of the spare parts requires individual production and transportation. The largest turbines require a significant amount of manual labor, thus making the production costly. The blades of the turbines – the largest solid part – become a major transportation obstacle. Wind Speed Limit. Conventional wind turbines have a wind speed limit of approximately 25m/s, after which they are forcedly stopped. Evolution of Wind Turbine Sizes The Largest Existing Wind Turbine Enercon E-126 ARTER TECHNOLOGY SWT: New Solution for the Wind Industry
  14. 14. Limitations of Power Output Increase 11 SWT solves the existing problems of conventional turbines related to power outage increase. Weight. The new SWT weighs much less than conventional turbines. On average, a conventional wind turbine weighs about 130 tons per MW and is composed of 82% of steel components. SWT with the capacity of 1MW weighs less than 100 tons. Each element of SWT can perform two or more functions. Size. Conceptually, we envisage creating SWT complexes that will include smaller turbines in a larger cluster. They will not contain any solid bulky components similar to rotor blades. Therefore, in theory there are no real technological limitations to the power output. Wind Speed Limit. The new SWT does not have a wind speed limit and could operate at a wind speed up to 60 m/s, thus significantly increasing potential energy output. 6MW and 1,5MW Turbine Complexes ARTER TECHNOLOGY SWT: New Solution for the Wind Industry
  15. 15. Shortage of attractive on-shore wind sites and problems with offshore installations 12 Some countries experience a serious shortage of attractive wind sites, particularly countries using wind energy. For example, in 2005 both German and Spanish markets shrank due to lack of remaining windy sites in Germany and the problem with offshore installations and red tape over installations in Spain coupled with uncertainty about continued governmental support. Onshore installations currently encounter serious problems, primarily related to the costs of the construction (€3,000 per kW of output). A large percentage of these costs is associated with the grid system construction, onshore installation, maintenance and support. Due to major environmental and technological issues conventional wind turbines are not recommended for installation near inhabited areas. Unique features of SWT allow its installation both in populated and remote areas, including protected forests and areas, parklands (Please see some of the potential installation solutions below). Moreover, the systems could be installed within buildings (on mechanical floors). Thus, SWT could become essential in realizing plans to improve ecological situation in big cities (for example, Climate Change Action Plan as adopted by the Mayor of London). ARTER TECHNOLOGY SWT: New Solution for the Wind Industry
  16. 16. Environmental Impact 13 One of the fastest growing concerns about conventional wind turbines is their damaging environmental impact. Visual Impact. Conventional wind turbines are tall bulky structures that are visible from a distance with their revolving parts, and their sight may annoy and disturb people. Moreover, they affect landscape. Most countries with a wind power industry adopted bans on installation of turbines in certain areas, such as national parks or nature reserves. We believe that the new SWT due to its considerably smaller size, absence of open moving components and ability to be installed without high tower will create a lesser impact. Noise. An independent UK study* into the impact on health of noise from wind turbines concludes that they can have an adverse impact on the quality of life and/or the health of families living nearby. Many families experience distress as a result of the noise from commercial wind turbines, and some have been forced to leave their homes. The sound from the wind turbines can be heard from a distance of up to 400-500 meters. In Great Britain, Germany, the Netherlands and Denmark there are legal limits on sound levels and distance to the nearest dwellings. The level of noise produced by the new SWT is almost negligible. Infrasound. The SWT does not produce any infrasound, the fact which is confirmed during testing procedures of our prototype. No Impact on Radio Signal, or Cell Phone. Conventional Wind turbines cause considerable radio frequency interference (RFI), which impacts communication on cellular phones as well. For this reason, their location should be remote from any retranslators of radio signal. Moreover, turbines could create disturbance for office buildings if they are located in close vicinity. No impact on radar systems. The existing conventional wind turbines pose a serious threat to national security. The turbines create a large area of non-monitored space on radar screens thus enabling potential missiles and other flying objects to enter it unnoticed. The SWT eliminates this possibility altogether. Safety for Birds and Animals. Without open moving parts, SWT does not cause problems for birds and other living beings. * Noise radiation from wind turbines installed near homes: Effects on health, by Barbara J Frey, BA, MA and Peter J Hadden, BSc, FRICS, February 2007. ARTER TECHNOLOGY SWT: New Solution for Wind Industry
  17. 17. Project Development: Current Stage Prototype Characteristics 14 Power Output 25 kW at the wind speed of 14 m/s Kick-in Wind Speed 2,5 m/s Tower Height 25 m Weight (tower excluding) 1000 kg Turbine Rotation Speed 60-600 r/min Types and number of accumulators 12 (190 А/h) Transformer Power 25 kW Voltage Outage 220/380 V.; 50 Hz.; 1/3 phase Arter Technology has designed and developed the first prototype of SWT The prototype has undergone a series of tests and confirmed all expected characteristics of the SWT Preliminary calculations were experimentally proven Arter Technology has launched a patent registration process according to the PCT. Experimental Model Characteristics ARTER TECHNOLOGY
  18. 18. Project Development: compatible generator Characteristics of valved Inductor-type Generator for SWT with capacity 100 kW 15 As part of the R&D work, Arter Technology has developed a new low reverse rotor-inductor generator with the power output of 100kW, which allows connecting windwheel of the SWT directly to the generator without multiplying gear. Main advantages: ARTER TECHNOLOGY The ability of generator to pick up maximum power from the wind turbine, depending on the wind velocity High technological effectiveness and reliability of the rotor construction on account of absence of windings and contacting rings High technological effectiveness and reliability of the stator construction on account of simple construction of the stator windings, which can be manufactured separately and get fixed during the final assembly of the stator; High maintainability on account of the whole generator design simplicity and high operating capability in complicated environmental conditions (high temperatures, low pressures, aggressive atmosphere, etc.) High efficiency parameters and reliability during operation; Simple voltage regulation and capability of the generator to generate maximum power from the wind flow A complex of coupled generators Main generator technical data Nominal rated power, kW 100 Nominal rectified voltage, V at the working frequency of rotor rotation 380…460 Number of phases 6 Voltage frequency of the generator is not restricted Working speed rotation of rotor, r.p.m. at nominal rectified voltage 80 to 600 Nominal speed rotation of rotor, r.m.p. at 300 kV capacity 200 to 250 Runway speed, r.m.p. max. 600 Working generator temperature, Сº max. 150 Working condition (continuous) S1 Pulsation of nominal rectified voltage, V max. 50 Average sound level, dBA 85 Efficiency, % 94 and above Ail cooling Assembly mode – by means of two cylindrical shaft ends and framing; dimensional position of generator - horizontal Generator size: casing diameter max. 1750 mm, longitude size max. 550 mm Generator mass, kg max. 2400
  19. 19. SWT Economics Sale of both turbines and electricity is possible 16 Based on our calculations, SWT is an extremely cost efficient renewable source of energy. Our calculations show that considering the low cost of production, availability of inexpensive construction materials and their interchangeability, possibility for conveyer chain assembly and further on installation in the close vicinity of the consumers, the actual costs of electricity production will be $20- 25 per 1MW/hour – less than half of that of a conventional wind turbine. The production of wind turbines makes sense both for sale to the third parties and as a means of electricity production and sale. A wind turbine price for a consumer th.USD 130 Annual consumer electricity consumption kW-hour per year 328500 Annual consumer maintenance expenses th.USD 3 A wind turbine operating lifetime years 35-40 Electricity prime cost (as a consumer regards) th.USD 7,3 Electricity incremental cost USD/100kW- hour 2,23 Electricity prime cost 20 79 53 120 71 53 120 0 50 100 150 New wind turbine Wind Offshore Wind Onshore Fuel Cells Biomass Geothermal Tide/wave Electricity pric, EUR/1MW-hour - HSBC Estimate ARTER TECHNOLOGY
  20. 20. 17 SUMMARY Advantages and disadvantages of SWT. Next Step. ARTER TECHNOLOGY As the market transitions to low-carbon fuel and electricity sources, conservation and efficiency efforts and the deployment of a smart, 21st century grid, clean energy offers one of the greatest opportunities for both local and global economies to compete and thrive. Arter Technology has discovered a fundamentally new principle of wind turbines operation that allows to solve all major problems and bottlenecks faced by the currently used turbines and gives an opportunity of further qualitative improvement of the electricity generation process from wind energy. Advantages of the new technology: • allows to develop wind energy technology in a completely new direction that shows exceptionally attractive prospects; • SWT provides cost-effective wind energy solution for all consumer’s segments, including small and medium size, and gives new meaning to the portable wind energy generators; •unlike conventional turbines, SWT has almost negligible environmental impact – the issue that causes mounting concern to the industry; • allows to use wind generators in cities, which is impossible in case of conventional wind turbines; Disadvantages of the new technology: • unexplored technological difficulties which may associate with the increase of the single turbine unit up to larger sizes (1MW+); • absence of a proven successful usage track record. Current status of the Project: • engagement in multiple expertise of SWT, wherein the concept prove is obtained from major independent renewable energy Consultant • completion of design drawings for 100 kW SWT (generator is ready, turbine is in progress) and development of the first industrial samples, both for testing purposes and existing commercial orders • field testing of 100 kW system to be done by the Consultant upon completion of the whole unit NEXT STEP Arter Technology invites partners and investors to participate in the development of this highly promising project with the aim of launching a global production of turbines in the shortest period of time. We know that the country that harnesses the power of clean, renewable energy will lead the XXI century. CONTACT DETAILS +7(921)2943000, +7(911) 2194945
  21. 21. Annex 1 (comparative characteristics of 100 kW wind turbines) 18 ARTER TECHNOLOGY Characteristic of wind turbine NorthWind 100, Nornthern FL 100, Fuhrlander CWT 100, ARTER Technology I Type IEC WTGS Class S No data Closed turbine 2 Installed capacity 100 kW 100 к W 100 kW 3 Operating life 30 years No data 30 years 4 Maximum diameter 21m 21 m 9,5 m 5 Rotor blades spinning axis Horizontally Horizontally Horizontally 6 Number of rotor blades 3 3 32 7 Blade-swept area 346 m2 346 m2 71 m2 8 Wind flux operating factor 14% 20% 71% 9 Operation speed of rotation 45 - 69 r/min 32 -48 r/min 100-300r/min 10 Nominal speed of rotation 57 r/min 40 r/min 200 r/min 11 Blades material Composite No data Metal/composite 12 Tower height 25 - 32 m. 35 m 9,5 m 13 Tower type Tube Tube Cone platform 14 Tower material Steel No data Steel/concrete 15 Anticorrosion protection «Sea» No data «Sea» 16 Ice load 30 mm No data 10 mm 17 Adjustment for wind «For wind», with the use of machine «For wind», with the use of machine «Autiofeathering», without the use of machine 18 Generator type Asynchronous Asynchronous Rotor-inductor 19 Generator rotation speed 45 - 69 r/min. 1200- 1800 r/min 100-300 r/min 20 Voltage output 480VAC, 3 phases, 50/60Hz 480VAC, 3 phases, 60 Hz 480VAC, 3 phases, 50/60 Hz 21 Voltage quality +10/-15%W,+/-2Hz No data +10/-15%W,+/-0,5Hz 22 Voltage regulation Inverter/transformer No data Regulator/Inverter
  22. 22. 19 Annex 1 (continued) ARTER TECHNOLOGY 23 Operation Controlling system No data Controlling system 24 Temperature range -40 / +50 С No data - 40 / +50 С 25 Wind operation speed 15 m/s 13 m/s 15 m/s 26 Breakaway speed 4 m/s 2,5 m/s 1.8 m/s 27 Halting speed 25 m/s 25 m/s 40 m/s 28 Drilling speed 60 m/s 67 m/s 60 m/s 29 Characteristic properties Direct-drive Reducing gear 1: 37,5 Direct-drive, closed turbine. 30 Noise level value No data 95 dB(A) 55 dB (A) 31 Brakes Mechanical and electrodynamic Mechanical and electrodynamic Mechanical and electrodynamic 32 Weight of power-generating unit 7500 kg 9000 kg 8000 kg 33 Tower weight 6500 kg 18000 kg Platform weight 10000 kg 34 Possibility of installation in inhabited areas No No Yes 35 Possibility of installation on residential and industrial facilities No No Yes 36 Possibility of installation within preserved and park areas No No Yes 37 Possibility of installation without the tower No No Yes 38 Possibility of turnkey operation No No Yes 39 Possibility of operation at a wind speed more than 25 m/s No No Yes 40 Emission of infrasound Yes Yes No 41 Impact on radio signal Yes Yes No 42 Impact on radar systems Yes Yes No 43 Significant dynamic loads Yes Yes No 44 Presence of open moving components Yes Yes No 45 Visual noise Yes Yes No
  23. 23. 20 ARTER TECHNOLOGY Annex 2 Comparative analysis of 50 MW Wind farms № Characteristic of the wind system Name of basic wind system SIEMENS SWT-2.3-93 SEWIND W2000 CWT 500 – ARTER 1 Type of system 3-blade horizontal axis turbine 3-blade horizontal axis turbine Shrouded turbine 2 Installed capacity of the unit 2300 kW 2000 kW 500 kW 3 Quantity of the units and total installed capacity on a tower 1/2300 kW 1/2000 kW 4 х 500 =2000 kW 4 Quantity of towers per wind farm 22 25 25 5 Placement by raw 4:5:4:5:4 5:5:5:5:5 5:5:5:5:5 6 Min.possible distance between towers 930 m 870 m 300 m 7 Main land allotment area 13,84 km² 12,11 km² 2,56 km² 8 Safety exclusion zone 1,5 km 1,5 km 0,150 km 9 Safety exclusion zone area 31.3 km² 29,9 km² 1,1 km² 10 Total land allotment area 45,14 km² 42,01 km² 3,66 km² 11 Total wind farm capacity 50,6 MW 50 MW 50 MW 12 Installed capacity (MW) per 1,12 1,19 13,66 13 Internal transmission lines length 19,53 km 17.4 km 6,0 km 14 Unit power per running kilometer of internal transmission lines 2,59 2,87 8,33 15 Diameter of power generating unit 93 m 87 m 24 m Overall size of the package (4 units) is 75 x 75m 16 Blade rotation axis Horizontal Horizontal Horizontal 17 Quantity of blades 3 3 No regulation
  24. 24. 21 ARTER TECHNOLOGY Annex 2 (continued) Comparative analysis of 50 MW Wind farms 18 Swept area 6800 m² 5942 m² of one unit - 452 m² total - 1808 m² active - 5625 m² 19 Wind flow utilization factor No data 14 – 21% Estimated 40 - 60% 20 Operating speed of turbine rotation 5 - 16 rpm 8 - 17 rpm 50 -300 rpm 21 Nominal rotation speed 15 rpm 15,35 rpm 120 rpm 22 Blades material Composite No data Stainless steel 23 Tower / base height 60 - 80 м. 70 - 80 м No limit. 60 m recommended 24 Tower type Tubular Tubular Any type. Tubular polyhedral recommended 25 Tower material Steel No data Steel / concrete (no restraints) 26 Anticorrosion protection «Marine» No data «Marine» 27 Adjustment into the wind «Into the wind», with the use of machine «Into the wind», with the use of machine «Auto-feathering», without the use of machine 28 Generator type Asynchronous 690 V with built-in radiator Double-fid induction Generator 690 V Rotor-inductor type generator 29 Transmission 3-range, 1 : 91, concentric with cooling-down through separate oil cooler (oil volume 400l) 1 : 118 Without gearbox 30 Operating wind speed 13 - 14 m/s 11,4 m/s 11,5 m/s 31 Breakaway speed 4 m/s 3 m/s 2,5 m/s 32 Shutdown speed 25 m/s 25 m/s 50 m/s 33 Storm speed 55 m/s 59,5 m/s 60 m/s 34 Power generating unit weight 142,0 t 123,5 t Approx. 140 t
  25. 25. 22 ARTER TECHNOLOGY Annex 2 (continued) Comparative analysis of 50 MW Wind farms 35 Tower weight Depends on place of allocation 155/188 t Depends on place of allocation 36 Possibility of installation in inhabited areas No No Yes 37 Possibility of installation within preserved and park areas No No Yes 38 Possibility of «package» installation No No Yes 39 Possibility of operation at a wind speed above 25 m/s No No Yes 40 Infrasound radiation Yes Yes No 41 Radio jamming Yes Yes No 42 Radio wave shielding Yes Yes No 43 Significant dynamic loads Yes Yes No 44 Presence of open moving components Yes Yes No 45 Visual noise Yes Yes No 46 Qty of energy generated per year No data 60 900 – 91 350 MW х hr 120 000 – 180 000 MW х hr 47 Qty of energy generated per year per square kilometer No data 1450 - 2175 MW х hr/km² 32 800 – 49 000 MW х hr/km² 48 Operational in-house energy consumption (per 1 power generating unit) 10 -30 kW 10 – 30 kW 1 – 2 kW 49 In-house energy consumption per year (loss per one power generating unit) 87 000 - 261 000 kW/hr 87 000 – 261 000 kW/hr 8 700 – 17 400 kW/hr 50 % in-house loss No data 6 -12 0,25 – 0, 36
  26. 26. 23 ARTER TECHNOLOGY Annex 2 (continued) Comparative analysis of 50 MW Wind farms Operating expenses 1 Blades replacement 1 – 3 times during operation period 1 – 3 times duringoperation period Not required 2 Change of oil in gearbox 300 liters every two years No data No gearbox 3 Change of oil in transformer 400 liters every two years No data Not required 4 Blade feathering mechanism maintenance Annually No data Not required 5 Gearbox maintenance Annually No data No gearbox 6 Transformer maintenance Annually No data Not required 7 Into the wind rotating mechanism maintenance Annually No data Not required 8 Main shaft maintenance Annually No data Change of oil: 2 liters triennially 9 Blades Cceaning from dirt Annually Annually Not required 10 Works relating to abrasive wear of blades coating Once every 3 – 4 years Once every 3 – 4 years Not required Other comparative data 1 Utilization of worked-out blades There is a problem There is a problem Remelting as scrap metal 2 Possibility of modernization and renovation Limit +3% Limit +4% Expected possibility +30% 3 Possibility of landscape mimicry (camouflaging) No No Yes 4 Possibility of being an architectural dominance No No Yes 5 Changeability of external appearance No No Yes 6 Possibility of dual use No No Yes
  27. 27. 24 ARTER TECHNOLOGY Annex 2 (continued) Comparative analysis of 50 MW Wind farms 7 Possibility of reduction of operational expenses 10% 15% 90% 8 Manufacturing process flexibility 5% 10% 95% 9 Flexibility in materials application 5% 10% 99% 10 Flexibility in application of generation systems No No Yes 11 Possibility of installation and operation in severe terrain conditions No No Yes 12 Possibility of installation and operation in the areas of higher wind load No No Yes 13 Adjustment to climatic zones (temperature deviation from normal temperature) +/- 10 ºС +/- 5 ºС +/- 20 ºС 14 Adaptability to air density +/- 10% +/-10 % +/- 40 % 15 Adaptability to turbulent air flows No No 90% 16 Maximum projected capacity for one tower 7000 kW 6000 kW 20 000 kW