Tester Motivation - the
results of a 600 tester
survey
Stuart Reid
Testing Solutions Group
London, UK
www.testing-solution...
Scope
• Introduction to Motivation
• Outline of the Motivation Survey
• Survey analysis and results
– What factors correla...
Defining Motivation
• a reason or reasons for acting or behaving
in a particular way - Oxford Dictionaries
• internal and ...
Motivation 101
4
Investigation Approach
• Questionnaire
– Paper-based
– SurveyMonkey
• 40 Questions
– Demographic
– Motivation-related (Lik...
Respondents by Region
6
Industry Sectors
Finance, Insurance
Communications
IT
Utilities
Health Care
Government
Services
Transportation
Media
Non-p...
Organization Types
IT Organization
Self-employed
Consultant
Self-employed
Contractor
Testing
Services
IT Department
within...
Company Size
9
Life Cycles
10
Testing Roles
11
Specified Variety - Test Analyst
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Exploratory
Test Design
Execution
Automation
Reviewing
Management...
Different Jobs…
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
Exploratory
Test
Design
Execution
Automation
Reviewing
Management
Improve-
ment
En...
Motivation Theories
• Hierarchy of Needs – Maslow, 1943
• Motivation-Hygiene Theory – Herzberg, 1959
• Theory X & Theory Y...
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
strongly
disagree
disagree neither
agree nor
disagree
agree strongly
agree
Perceived Motivation
“...
Perceived Motivation - Roles
120117
109
10310199
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
Head of
Testing
Test
Consultant
Test ManagerTes...
Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient
r = +0.70 or higher
Very strong positive relationship
r = 0.85r = 1
0
20
40
60
80
100
12...
Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient
r = +0.30 to +0.39
Moderate positive relationship
r = 0.35r = 0.55
r = +0.40 to +0.69
St...
Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient
r = 0 to +0.19
Negligible positive relationship
r = 0.10r = 0.25
r = +0.20 to +0.29
Weak...
Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient
20
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
r = -0.71 (Very) st...
• Skill Variety (V)
– range of different skills used
• Task Identity (I)
– degree of completing a whole job
• Task Signifi...
Feedback
22
(WORK ITSELF)
(COLLEAGUES)
(SUPERVISOR)
Variety
23
(# TASKS)
(# PROJECTS)
Significance
24
(# AFFECT
COLLEAGUES)
(AFFECT PROJECT)
Identity
25
(PROJECTS TO
COMPLETION)
(TASKS TO
COMPLETION)
Autonomy
26
(NEXT TASK)
(WORKING HOURS)
(WHO WITH)
(HOW TO DO)
It works!
MPS & Perceived Motivation
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
r = 0.40
Strong positive relationship
27
MPS – Different Roles
28
144
117114
101
91
85
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
Head of TestingTest
Consultant
Test ManagerTes...
Daniel Pink’s MAP
• Daniel Pink’s Motivation 3.0
Mastery
PurposeAutonomy
29
Mastery
30
(CHALLENGE)
(MASTERED SKILLS)
(IN THE FLOW)
Purpose
31
(WIDER
COMMUNITY)
(PROFITS)
Environment
32
Multiple Motivation Factors
Motivation
Variety
(0.29)
Feedback
(0.30)
Mastery
(0.28)
Purpose
(0.22)
Autonomy
(0.27)
Enviro...
MPS and MAP and MAPFV and…
34
0.40
0.41
0.44
0.50
MPS
MAP
M+A+P+F+V
Top 4 ENV’T + VARIETY 2 + MASTERY 1 + MASTERY 3
Daniel...
Multiple Motivation Factors
Motivation
Variety
(0.29)
Feedback
(0.30)
Mastery
(0.28)
Purpose
(0.22)
Autonomy
(0.27)
Enviro...
Asian vs All – Motivation Models
36
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6
MPS
MAP
M+A+P+F+V
Top 4
ALL
ASIAN
What (De)Motivates Testers?
37
Motivating Demotivating
#1 Challenges 17% Management 20%
#2 Feedback & Appreciation 15% Fee...
Different Life Cycles…
38
Different Organization Sizes…
39
Different Experience Levels…
40
Different Organization Types…
41
0.09
0.51 0.01
0. 15
-0. 05
Salary, Experience & Education
Tester
Experience
Perceived
Motivation
Tester
Salary
Tester
Edu...
Outside Interests?
43
Conclusions – All testers
• The generic theories work for testing….BUT
….we can now do better
• Testers are special
– the ...
Conclusions – Testing roles
• Testers perform quite different activities
depending on their role
– when moving between rol...
Conclusions – For you
• Help yourselves – you spend a large
proportion of your time working – so you
might as well enjoy i...
Go to:
More information is available
– please email
sreid@testing-solutions.com47
Thanks for listening
Any Questions?
1 FEEDBACK 1
The work itself provides feedback on how well I am doing in
my job. (POSITIVE)
2 FEEDBACK 2
My colleagues pro...
10 IDENTITY 1
My job allows me to see projects through to completion.
(POSITIVE)
11 IDENTITY 2
I often start tasks but the...
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Tester Motivation - the results of a 600 tester survey with Stuart Reid

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View the webinar here: http://testhuddle.com/forums/topic/tester-motivation-the-results-of-a-600-tester-survey/

Stuart Reid shares the results of a motivation survey of over 600 testers. The study separated out the survey respondents into six distinct testing roles: Developer/Tester, Test Analyst, Test Lead, Test Manager, Test Consultant and Head of Testing. The factors and job characteristics that affect testers in each of the roles are also taken into account and they are compared and contrasted, as are the range of activities they perform.

It is clear from the results that different roles are best motivated by different factors and job characteristics which Stuart will discuss.

Key Takeaways from the Survey:

Learn to to increase your team’s productivity by learning a smarter way of motivating your testers
Identify areas that will make you more motivated in your job as a tester or test manager
Learn how testers in different roles are motivated by quite different factors


For a second chance to view the webinar, or if you want to discuss the content, you can join the discussion on TESTHuddle.com.

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Tester Motivation - the results of a 600 tester survey with Stuart Reid

  1. 1. Tester Motivation - the results of a 600 tester survey Stuart Reid Testing Solutions Group London, UK www.testing-solutions.com ©Stuart Reid, 2014
  2. 2. Scope • Introduction to Motivation • Outline of the Motivation Survey • Survey analysis and results – What factors correlate best with motivation? – Do existing theories work for testing? – How does motivation change for different roles? • Conclusions & recommendations 2
  3. 3. Defining Motivation • a reason or reasons for acting or behaving in a particular way - Oxford Dictionaries • internal and external factors that stimulate desire and energy in people to be continually interested and committed to a job, role or subject, or to make an effort to attain a goal – http://www.businessdictionary.com 3
  4. 4. Motivation 101 4
  5. 5. Investigation Approach • Questionnaire – Paper-based – SurveyMonkey • 40 Questions – Demographic – Motivation-related (Likert-scale) – Open-ended – Qualitative & quantitative data • Responses from around the world (over 600) • Thanks to Tafline Murnane – KJ Ross – Australia 5
  6. 6. Respondents by Region 6
  7. 7. Industry Sectors Finance, Insurance Communications IT Utilities Health Care Government Services Transportation Media Non-profit Retail, Wholesale Construction Internet Manufacturing Other 7
  8. 8. Organization Types IT Organization Self-employed Consultant Self-employed Contractor Testing Services IT Department within an Organization Other 8
  9. 9. Company Size 9
  10. 10. Life Cycles 10
  11. 11. Testing Roles 11
  12. 12. Specified Variety - Test Analyst 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Exploratory Test Design Execution Automation Reviewing Management Improvement Env't Support 12
  13. 13. Different Jobs… 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Exploratory Test Design Execution Automation Reviewing Management Improve- ment Env't Support Head of Testing 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Exploratory Test Design Execution Automation Reviewing Management Improve- ment Env't Support Test Manager 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Exploratory Test Design Execution Automation Reviewing Management Improve- ment Env't Support Developer/Tester 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Exploratory Test Design Execution Automation Reviewing Management Improve- ment Env't Support Test Analyst 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Exploratory Test Design Execution Automation Reviewing Management Improve- ment Env't Support Test Lead 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Exploratory Test Design Execution Automation Reviewing Management Improve- ment Env't Support Test Consultant 13
  14. 14. Motivation Theories • Hierarchy of Needs – Maslow, 1943 • Motivation-Hygiene Theory – Herzberg, 1959 • Theory X & Theory Y – McGregor, 1960 • Expectancy Theory – Vroom, 1964 • Equity Theory – Adams, 1965 • Job Characteristics Model (MPS) – Hackman & Oldham, 1976 • Three Needs Theory – McClelland, 1988 • Temporal Motivation Theory (TMT) - Steel and Konig, 2006 • Motivation 3.0 (MAP) – Pink, 2010 14
  15. 15. 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 strongly disagree disagree neither agree nor disagree agree strongly agree Perceived Motivation “I am highly motivated to do my job in testing” 15
  16. 16. Perceived Motivation - Roles 120117 109 10310199 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Head of Testing Test Consultant Test ManagerTest LeadTest AnalystDeveloper / Tester
  17. 17. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient r = +0.70 or higher Very strong positive relationship r = 0.85r = 1 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 5 10 15 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 5 10 15 20 17
  18. 18. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient r = +0.30 to +0.39 Moderate positive relationship r = 0.35r = 0.55 r = +0.40 to +0.69 Strong positive relationship 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 5 10 15 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 5 10 15 20 18
  19. 19. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient r = 0 to +0.19 Negligible positive relationship r = 0.10r = 0.25 r = +0.20 to +0.29 Weak positive relationship 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 5 10 15 20 25 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 0 5 10 15 20 19
  20. 20. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient 20 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 r = -0.71 (Very) strong negative relationship
  21. 21. • Skill Variety (V) – range of different skills used • Task Identity (I) – degree of completing a whole job • Task Significance (S) – importance of the job • Autonomy (A) – level of control of your own time • Feedback (F) – degree of supervisory & results-based feedback • MPS = FA SIV ** 3 MPS from Hackman & Oldham, 1975. Motivating Potential Score Assign a score of 1 to 7 to each attribute... ...and then calculate your MPS 21
  22. 22. Feedback 22 (WORK ITSELF) (COLLEAGUES) (SUPERVISOR)
  23. 23. Variety 23 (# TASKS) (# PROJECTS)
  24. 24. Significance 24 (# AFFECT COLLEAGUES) (AFFECT PROJECT)
  25. 25. Identity 25 (PROJECTS TO COMPLETION) (TASKS TO COMPLETION)
  26. 26. Autonomy 26 (NEXT TASK) (WORKING HOURS) (WHO WITH) (HOW TO DO)
  27. 27. It works! MPS & Perceived Motivation 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 r = 0.40 Strong positive relationship 27
  28. 28. MPS – Different Roles 28 144 117114 101 91 85 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 Head of TestingTest Consultant Test ManagerTest LeadTest AnalystDeveloper / Tester
  29. 29. Daniel Pink’s MAP • Daniel Pink’s Motivation 3.0 Mastery PurposeAutonomy 29
  30. 30. Mastery 30 (CHALLENGE) (MASTERED SKILLS) (IN THE FLOW)
  31. 31. Purpose 31 (WIDER COMMUNITY) (PROFITS)
  32. 32. Environment 32
  33. 33. Multiple Motivation Factors Motivation Variety (0.29) Feedback (0.30) Mastery (0.28) Purpose (0.22) Autonomy (0.27) Environment (0.38) 33 Significance (0.13) Identity (0.18) MPS MAP
  34. 34. MPS and MAP and MAPFV and… 34 0.40 0.41 0.44 0.50 MPS MAP M+A+P+F+V Top 4 ENV’T + VARIETY 2 + MASTERY 1 + MASTERY 3 Daniel Pink’s Motivation 3.0
  35. 35. Multiple Motivation Factors Motivation Variety (0.29) Feedback (0.30) Mastery (0.28) Purpose (0.22) Autonomy (0.27) Environment (0.38) 35 Significance (0.13) Identity (0.18)
  36. 36. Asian vs All – Motivation Models 36 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 MPS MAP M+A+P+F+V Top 4 ALL ASIAN
  37. 37. What (De)Motivates Testers? 37 Motivating Demotivating #1 Challenges 17% Management 20% #2 Feedback & Appreciation 15% Feedback & Appreciation 16% #3 Making a Difference 15% Repetition 13% #4 Team & Work Env’t 10% Changing Exit Criteria 11% #5 Money 7% Team & Work Env’t 5% #6 Meeting Targets 7% Developers 5% #7 Autonomy 5% No Targets 5% #8 Management 5% Process 4% #9 Training / Career Path 4% Changing Requirements 4% #10 New Technology 3% Money 3%
  38. 38. Different Life Cycles… 38
  39. 39. Different Organization Sizes… 39
  40. 40. Different Experience Levels… 40
  41. 41. Different Organization Types… 41
  42. 42. 0.09 0.51 0.01 0. 15 -0. 05 Salary, Experience & Education Tester Experience Perceived Motivation Tester Salary Tester Education 42
  43. 43. Outside Interests? 43
  44. 44. Conclusions – All testers • The generic theories work for testing….BUT ….we can now do better • Testers are special – the most motivating factors are: • working environment • feedback • variety • mastery • autonomy • Testers love feedback – it’s a ‘win-win’ • it both improves motivation and decreases demotivation • and it doesn’t cost the earth 44
  45. 45. Conclusions – Testing roles • Testers perform quite different activities depending on their role – when moving between roles, training will be needed by most testers – the testing discipline is varied – we should be careful not to treat all testers as a homogeneous group - we are not all the same! • Different roles are motivated differently – so we need a smarter approach to select the most influential factors for the individual tester • The effects of role on motivation are far greater than the effects of the region – geography should be a secondary focus 45
  46. 46. Conclusions – For you • Help yourselves – you spend a large proportion of your time working – so you might as well enjoy it – compare yourself to the benchmark data to identify potential areas for improving your motivation • Education, education, education? – apparently not if you’re a tester – hopefully this is just an initial ‘blip’ and will change as the discipline matures • Testing – outside of work – is a good thing – for testers and employers 46
  47. 47. Go to: More information is available – please email sreid@testing-solutions.com47 Thanks for listening Any Questions?
  48. 48. 1 FEEDBACK 1 The work itself provides feedback on how well I am doing in my job. (POSITIVE) 2 FEEDBACK 2 My colleagues provide little or no feedback on how well I perform. (NEGATIVE) 3 FEEDBACK 3 My supervisor provides me with regular feedback on my performance. (POSITIVE) 4 AUTONOMY 1 Most of the time someone else decides what tasks I should do next. (NEGATIVE) 5 AUTONOMY 2 My job is flexible enough to allow me to decide which hours I work most days. (POSITIVE) 6 AUTONOMY 3 For most tasks I get to decide who I will work with. (POSITIVE) 7 AUTONOMY 4 I rarely get to choose the way that an activity is carried out. (NEGATIVE) 8 SIGNIFICANCE 1 My job is one that affects few other colleagues. (NEGATIVE) 9 SIGNIFICANCE 2 If not done well my job will have little impact on the project. (NEGATIVE)
  49. 49. 10 IDENTITY 1 My job allows me to see projects through to completion. (POSITIVE) 11 IDENTITY 2 I often start tasks but then pass them on to colleagues before I finish them. (NEGATIVE) 12 VARIETY 1 My job comprises a relatively small number of different tasks. (NEGATIVE) 13 VARIETY 2 In my job I get the chance to work on many interesting projects. (POSITIVE) 14 MASTERY 1 My job does not challenge or stretch me. (NEGATIVE) 15 MASTERY 2 I have mastered most of the skills required to perform my job. (NEGATIVE) 16 MASTERY 3 I often become so engaged in my work that I forget the time. (POSITIVE) 17 PURPOSE 1 My job includes the opportunity to work for the good of the wider community (beyond my employer). (POSITIVE) 18 PURPOSE 2 My organization is primarily focused on increasing its profits. (NEGATIVE) 19 PERCEPTION I am highly motivated to do my job in testing. (POSITIVE) 20 ENVIRONMENT My work environment encourages me to perform my job better. (POSITIVE)

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