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Population and demography
 

Population and demography

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    Population and demography Population and demography Presentation Transcript

    • Population and demography
    • DEFINITION ALAND NATURE OF POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHY
      • THE STUDY OF POP ULATION IS OF MAJOR CONCERN TO SOCIOLOGIST AND SOCIAL SCIENTISTS.
      • POPULATION IS THE NUMBER OF PERSONS OCCUPYING A CERTAIN GEOGRAPHIC AREA, DRAWING SUBSTANCE FROM THEIR HABITAT, AND INTERACTING WITH ONE ANOTHER.
      • DEMGRAPHERS COMMONLY DEFINE POPULATION AS A COLLECTIVE GROUP OF INDIVIDUALS OCCUPYING A PARTICULAR PLACE AT A GIVEN TIME.
      THREE KEY WORDS ARE INVOLVED IN THE DEFINITION OF POPULATION:
      • GROUP
      • PLACE
      • TIME
    • POPULATION GROWTH
      • POPULATION GROWTH IS A MAJOR FACTOR IN ENERGY CONSUMPTION, HOUSING SHORTAGES,INFLATION, FOOD SECURITY, UNEMPLOYMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRATION.
      • POPULATION GROWTH HAS BEEN AND WILL CONTINUE TO BE AN INTEGRAL PART OF OUR LIVES.IT ACOUNT FOR THE EMERGENCE AND INTENSIFICATION OF MANY LOCAL, NATURAL AND GLOBAL PROBLEMS LIKE POVERTY AND INEQUALITY, ENERGY CRISIS, MALNUTRITION,AND SCARCITY OR FOOD SUPPLY, HOUSING PROBLEMS, CRIMINALTY, ECONOMIC CRISIS AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRATION;THE WORLD’S ALREADY DEPLETED RESOURCES RE CURRENTLY THREATENED BY AN UNCHECKED POPULATION GROWTH.
    • DEMOGRAPHY
      • IN THE BOOKS OF COLLINS DICTIONARY OF SCIOLOGY ,DAVID AND JULIA GARY DEFINE DEMOGRAPHY(FROM THE GREEK “DEMOS”, PEOPLE) AS THE STATISTICAL STUDY OF HUMAN POPULATION WITH REGARD TO THEIR SIZE AND STRUCTURE,THEIR COMPOSITION BY SEX,AGE,MARITAL,STATUS AND ETHNIC ORIGIN, AND THE CHANGES TO THESE POPULATION LIKE CHANGES IN THEIR BIRTH RATES,DEATH RATES AND IMMIGRATION.
      • DEMOGRAPHY IS THE STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND DESCRITION OF POPULATION AGGREGATES WITH REFERENCE TO THE DISTRIBUTION, VITAL STATISTICS, AGE, SEX AND RELATED FACTORS
      • THE SCIENCE OF DEMOGRAPHY LOOKS ALSO INTO FACTORS THAT MAY CAUSE POPULATION TO INCREASE OR DECREASE IN ANY GIVEN AREA.IT IS CONCERNED WITH NUMBERS AND QUANTITIES AND THE RELATION BETWEEN THEM.DEMOGRAPHERS USE THE STATISTICAL METHOD IN THEIR ANALYSIS OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA.
      • DEMOGRAPHERS IS THE STATTITICAL ANALYSIS AND DESCRITION OF POPULATION AGREGATES WITH REFERENCE TO THE DISTRIBUTION , VITAL STATISTICS,AGE,SEX AND RELATED FACTORS.
    • IMPORTANCE OF DEMOGRAPHY AND DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
      • CITING THE IMPORTANCE OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA, THE PROGRAMME OF ACTION OF THE UNITED NATIONS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT,CAIRO 1994,STATES”THE EVERYDAY ACTIVITIES OF ALL HUMAN BEINGS AFFECT COMMUNITY PATTERNS AND LEVELS OF USE OF NATURAL RESOURSES, THE STATE OF THE ENVIRONMENT, AND THE PACE AND QUALITY OF ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT ”.
      • DEMOGRAPHIC DATA PROVIDE A BASIS FOR PREDICTING FUTURE TRENDS AND MAKING INFORMED DECISIONS,AS PANOPIO STATES, DEMOGRAPHIC DATA ARE IMPORTANT FOR THE FORMULATION , IMPLEMENTATION, AND EVALUATION OF PLANS, POLIICIES, AND PROGRAMS FOR EDUCATION ,HOUSING,HEALTH, EMPLOYMENT, TRANSPROTATION ,RECREATIONAL NEEDS AND OTHER FORMS OF SOCIAL SERVICES.
      • DEMOGRAPHIC DATA CAN GUIDE POLICY MAKERS IN MEETING THE NEEDS AND OF VARIOUS SECTORS OF THE SOCIETY,SUCH AS THE YOUNG, THE ADULT AND AGED, THE UNEMPLOYED, THE POOR, AND THE VARIOUS CULTURAL GROUPS.
    • SOURCES OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA
      THERE ARE VARIED SOURCES OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA ARE:
      • POPULATION CENSUS LIKE POPULATION COUNT
      • VITAL REGISTRATION STATISTICS SYSTEM LIKE BIRTH, DEATH, MARRIAGE, AND DIVORCE.
      • SAMPLE OR SPPECIAL SURVEYS LIKE SURVEYS OF HUSEHOLDS
      • DEMOGRAPHIC DATA GATHERED AND PROCESSED BY GOVERNMENT AGENCIES.
    • COMPONENTS OF POPULATION CHANGE
      • FERTILITY(BIRTHS)
      -REFERS TO THE ACTUAL NUMBER OF CHILDREN BORN TO A WOMAN OR GROUPED OF WOMEM.A SIMPLE WAY TO MEASURE FERTILITY IS TO GET THE CRUDE BIRTH RATE;
      EQ.
      REGISTERED NUMBER OF BIRTHS IN YEAR * 1000
      CBR= -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
      TOTAL MID-YEAR POPULATION
      • MORTALITY(DEATHS)
      -REFERS TO THE NUMBER OF DEATHS PER 1000 OF THE TOTAL MID-YEAR POPULATION IN PARTICULAR PLACE AT A SPECIFIED TIME, AND IS MEASURED BY THE CRUDE DEATH RATE.
      EQ.
      REGISTERED NUMBER OF DEATHS A YEAR * 1000
      CDR=------------------------------------------------------------------------------
      TOTAL MID-YEAR POPULATION
      • MIGRATION(IMMIGRATION AND EMIGRATION)
      -REFERS TO THE SPATIAL MOVEMENT OF PERSON OR GROUPED OF PERSONS WITHIN A COUNTRY OR SPECIFIED TERRITORY, MORE OR LESS FOR PERMANENT RECIDENCY.
      -IMMIGRATION,WHEN ONE ENTERS THE COUNTRY OF DESTINATION.
      -EMIGRATION,WHEN ONE LEAVES ON COUNTRY IN ORDER TO MOVE INTO ANOTHER.
    • POPULATION PYRAMID
      • POPULATION PYRAMID REFERS TO TWO DIMENSIONAL GRAPH USED TO DISPLAY THE AGE AND GENDER STRUCTURE OF THE POPULATION.IF BIRTH RATE IS HIGH AS IT IS TODAY IN THE PHILIPPINES AND OTHERE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES ,THE PYRAMID WILL BE MORE TRIANGULAR BECAUSE OF THE LARGE BABIES ADDED TO THE BOTTOM EACH YEAR.AS BIRTH RATE DECREASES ,AS IT IS TODAY IN DEVELOPED NATIONS ,THE PYRAMID TAKES ON A MORE DIAMOND SHAPE.IT MEANS THAT A GREAT PORTION OF TH POPULATION ARE ADDED TO THE NATION’S PRODUCTIVE LABOR FORCE.
    • SOME CHARACTERISTICS OF POPULATION
      • AGE STRUCTURE REFERS TO THE PROPORTION OF PEOPLE AT THE DIFFERENT AGE AND LEVELS.
      • SEX COMPOSITION REFERS TO HOW THE TOTAL POPULATION IS COMPOSED IN TERMS OF BEING MALES OR FEMALES.
      • DEPENDENCY RATIO REFERS TO THE PROPORTION OF THE 0-4 AND THE 65-OVER AGE LEVELS PER ONE HUNDRED PERSONS AGED 15-64.WITHIN THE YOUNG AGE STRUCTURE IN THE PHILIPPINES ,OUR DEPENDENCY RATIO IS HIGH COMPARED WITH THE DEPENDENCY IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES A HIGH DEPENDENCY RATIO IMPLIES HEAVY FINANCIAL SUPPORT FOR MORE DEPENDENCIES.
      • POPULATION DENSITY REFERS TO THE NUMBER OF PERSONS THAT CAN BE EQUALLY AND STATISTICALLY DISTRIBUTED PER SQUARE KILOMETER IN A GIVEN GEOGRAPHICAL AREA CONCIDERING THE POPULATION IN THE SAID AREA.
    • THEORIES ON POPULATION GROWTH AND DECLINE
      • MALTHUSIAN THEORY(THOMAS MALTHUS 1766-1834)
      -”AN ESSAY N THE PRINCIPLE OF POPULATION”,THEORIZED PESSIMISTICALLY THAT POPULATION WAS UNCONTROLABLE AND THAT IT WOULD.
      -ARGUED THAT HUMAN POPULATIONS ARE INESCAPABLY CAUGHT IN A CONFLICT BETWEEN THEIR “NEED FOR FOOD” AND “PASSION BETWEEN SEXES”.POPULATION,HE MAINTAINED,INCREASES GEOMETRICALLY (2,4,8,16…..),WHILE FOOD SUPPLIES INCREASE ONLY ARITHMETICALLY(2,3,4,5…..)
      -NO POPULATIONCAN CONTINUE TO GROW INDEFINITELY,BECAUSE PEOPLE WILL INCREASE THEIR NUMBER TO THE LIMIT OF SUBSISTENCE.
      • MARXIAN THEORY(KARL MARX)
      - MARX BELIEVED THAT THE PROBLEM WAS NOT PRIMARILY ONE OF POPULATION BUT ONE OF THE OWNERSHIP OF THE MEANS OF PRODUCTION AND THE INEQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SOCIETYS WEALTH.
      • THE DEMOGRAPHIC TRANSITION THEORY
      -THE CONCEPT OF DEMOGRAPHIC THEORY REFERS TO THE THREE CHARACTERISTICS STAGES OF POPULATION:
      • FIRST STAGE-BOTH THE BIRTH RATE AND THE DEATH RATE ARE HIGH AND RELATIVELY STABLE.
      • SECOND STAGE-THE BIRTH RATE REMAINS HIGH BUT THE DEATH RATE DECLINES AS THE NUTRITION,HEALTH,AND SANITATION IMPROVE.
      • STAGE THREE-BOTH THE DEATH AND THE BIRTH RATE ARE LOW AND IN BALANCE AGAIN.
      -
    • THANK YOU
    • GROUP II
      Submitted by: Eunice Macapia
      ReymarkAggabao
      CristineZipagan
      Kimberly Sarmiento
      John Christopher Allauigan
      John Baui
      JoselitoZipagan
      EdmerTaguinod
      Paul CarlonDanao
      Jerome
      Ryan Fugaban
      Marlon Tagapan
      Submitted to: Christopher Vea