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    Cooperation through the eyes of journalists in the East Cooperation through the eyes of journalists in the East Document Transcript

    • FOREWORD FOREWORD A flavour of A flavour of Neighbourhood neighbourhood cooperation cooperation “What exactly are you achieving with all this money?” This is a key question we are asked on a daily basis when we talk about cooperation with our Neighbours in public. Explaining projects in their specific context is difficult enough. But what is even more difficult is to show the concrete added value of our Regional cooperation. Our best link to the public in the Neighbourhood countries is the media that can capture, analyse, and finally, tell a story. I’m therefore proud to present this first story magazine, written through the ENPI Info Centre under the Regional Information and Communication Programme. The Partnership through “the eyes of the journalists” is meant to give readers a flavour of our cooperation in the 16 countries benefiting from the European Neighbourhood Partnership Instrument. And, hopefully, it will help to give an answer to the recurrent question on what exactly we achieve. Marcus Cornaro Director Europe, Southern Mediterranean, Middle-East and Neighbourhood Policy EuropeAid Development and Co-operation Directorate-General2 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 3
    • Index No political boundaries for forests Interview with Alexei Grigoriev 43 Saving the Black Sea by Ilona Iarmoliuk – Ukraine 44A flavour of Neighbourhood cooperation 3 Purer water for the Caspian Sea by Shahin Abbasov – Azerbaijan 47Regional cooperation through the eyes of journalists 6Our network of journalists 8 EnergyPeople Carbon footprints leading into the future by Iryna Tuz – Ukraine 51Education with European standards South Caucasus united by common electricity gridby Shahin Abbasov – Azerbaijan 11 by Maia Edilashvili – Georgia 55Students, parents and teachers to heal Blending loans and grants to finance investmentsthe wounds of Chernobyl for the Neighbourhoodby ITAR TASS/ENPI Info Centre – Belarus 14 Interview with Richard Weber 58BikeLand is transforming Ukrainian Carpathiansby Irina Tuz – Ukraine 17Working across borders to bring people togetherInterview with Bodil Person 20 TransportWill Europe save the old house in Vladimir? First TRACECA Investment Forum may help propelby ITAR TASS/ENPI Info Centre – Russia 22 Moldovan apples to European supermarkets by ENPI Info Centre – Moldova 61Local authorities – a bridge across the neighbourhoodInterview with Frank Samol 25 Safer ports in cleaner waters: towards international standards of maritime safety by Shahin Abbasov – Azerbaijan 64 Maritime highways to unlock a key transport route Environment Interview with Marc Abeille 67 Borders Divide Countries not Rivers Better regulations for safer air travel in TRACECA Partner by Irina Severin – Moldova 27 Interview with Thibault Raisson 68 Rivers to bridge the Caucasus divide At the cross-roads of development by Aghavni Harutyunyan – Armenia 30 by Shahin Abbasov – Azerbaijan 69 Managing water resources The big IDEA: coordination for an ambitious programme by Iryna Tuz – Ukraine 33 Interview with Ashraf Hamed 73 Water quality at stake A faster and safer railway for Armenia Interview with Steve Warren 36 by Aghavni Harutyunyan – Armenia 74 Forest protection and cranberry pies TRACECA training: teaching the teachers to teach by ITAR-TASS/ENPI Info Centre – Russia 37 Interview with Rene Meeuws 77 Moldovan Forest under EU Protection by Dmitri KALAK – Moldova 40 Find out more 78
    • Regional cooperationthrough the eyesof journalists Cooperation between the European Union and the countries participating in Telling the story the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) and benefiting from the Euro- The ENPI Info Centre, in cooperation with journalists and photog- pean Neighbourhood Partnership Instrument (ENPI) exists on two levels. raphers in the partner countries, has tracked down, written about The first is the political. The meetings where leaders get together to decide the and photographed some of the projects funded. The journalists re- All the stories are available on the “Feature policy areas on which emphasis should be given. The second deals with turning searched projects’ activities and spoke to the people who have ben- Section” of the ENPI Info Centre’s website these decisions into actions on the ground, through the funding of projects, of- efited from them about their experiences, what they have gained, www.enpi-info.eu in English, French, fering the Partners practical support in their efforts to bring about change and Russian and Arabic, depending on the their considerations and thoughts about the future. On their part, modernization. country. the photographers captured the story with their lens. This support is given to Partners mainly on a bilateral level. However, there is Detailed information on and news from the This magazine includes stories covered in 2010, and gives a flavour Regional projects funded is also available a regional dimension, whereby funds are allocated to projects involving more on the ENPI Info Centre Website. of Neighbourhood Cooperation on the ground. The reportages are than one Neighbourhood country. This regional cooperation programme is divided into four main categories: people, energy, environment, managed by EuropeAid. transport. It brings partner countries around the table to discuss and act upon issues of They tell the story of a Partnership. common interest, be they economic, political or cultural. It supports over 80 programmes and projects in both the Eastern European Neighbour countries and in the Southern Neighbours. These programmes have a direct or indirect impact on the lives of ordinary citizens. Through the projects funded, new poli- cies and actions are promoted within the countries themselves, an on-going dialogue is maintained and relationships and networks are built. Regional cooperation is truly a “Channel of Change” in 16 countries, namely: Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Moldova, Morocco, Occupied Palestinian Territory, Russia, Syria, Tunisia, Ukraine. 6 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 7
    • Our networkof journalistsJournalists collaborating with the ENPI Info Centre. Iryna Tuz is a Ukrainian journalist andPartner news agencies: CNA/ITARTASS. correspondent of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty in Kyiv. Prior to Maia Edilashvili is a Georgian journalist this she worked as an presently working as assistant editor Information Expert of and contributor with the EU-funded project the Tbilisi-based “The Implementation of Twinning English bimonthly Operations in Ukraine”. magazine Investor. ge. She attended Ilona Iarmoliuk is a Ukrainian journalist based several international in Kyiv. She is a correspondent for the “Ukrainian training programmes News” nationwide news agency focusing on in journalism. international relations. Prior to that she worked for an Internet Daily newspaper, proUA, which specializes in Ukraine’s domestic policy. Aghavni Harutyunyan is an Armenian journalist based in Yerevan. She attended several local and foreign training programmes in journalism. Since 2001, Aghavni Harutyunyan has Irina Severin is a Moldovan freelance been covering regional issues, conflicts journalist based in Chisinau. She is a in South Caucasus, regular contributor to RFE/RL broadcasts legal and human rights and a communications consultant. issues working for the Her professional experience also includes AZG Armenian Daily. work as a columnist for the Analytique newspaper in Chisinau and a TACIS Communications Expert for the “Border Management – Simplification and Harmonization of Customs Procedures Shahin Abbasov is an Azerbaijani in Moldova” Project. journalist and correspondent of Eurasianet, a New York based on-line resource in Azerbaijan. Previously he contributed to Country Forecast Dmitri Сalaс is a Moldovan journalist on Azerbaijan for EIU (Economist based in Chisinau. He is deputy editor- Intelligence Unit, London) and worked as in-chief of “Ekonomicheskoe obozrenie” a correspondent and editor-in-chief for (Economic Survey), a weekly private several leading Azerbaijani newspapers. newspaper. Dmitri Calac attended He attended several several training programmes for international programmes journalists including a course offered for researchers and by the Berlin Institute for European journalists in the US, Politics (2003) and Germany, France, a summer school Morocco, Turkey and on investigative Ukraine. journalism in St-Petersburg (2002). 8 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 9
    • People AzERbAijAn Education withEnergy European standardsEnvironment “It was just cool,” says Zaur Mutallimov, a student from the Azerbaijan Tourism Institute on his return from an exchange programme in Portugal. “I really enjoyed studying and being in touch with young people from many European countries. It turned me into a more open-minded person, aware of European culture and values.” About 100 people from Azerbaijan have benefited from the country’s participation in the EU-funded Erasmus Mundus programme over the last three years – enough to launch an Alumni Network of EU education programmes in the country.Transport Text and photos by Shahin Abbasov Baku – More than 20 projects worth €6 million have been implemented in Azerbaijan since 1995 under the EU-funded programmes Tempus and Erasmus Mundus. Thanks to Tempus, says Parviz Bagirov, head of the National Tempus Office in Azerbaijan, universities have enriched their curriculums in engineering, oil and gas, civic avia- tion, management of emergency situations, environmental studies, economy, for- eign languages, ICT subjects and European studies. And what’s important, he adds, “I really sectors and subjects for cooperation have been chosen by the Azerbaijani side. enjoyed The European Union Tempus programme offers many forms of cooperation, which studying include experience sharing in European education standards, elaboration of educa- and being in tional agendas, provision of modern teaching literature, professional training, stud- touch with ies abroad, improvement of university management and reform. young people The Azerbaijani State Oil Academy and the State University of Sumgayit have im- from many plemented a joint project with the University of Cologne (Germany) to improve the European teaching of energy resources management. “It was a long and successful project, countries. approved and renewed by the EU several times,” Bagirov said. Finally the work re- It turned me ceived support of the Azerbaijani government and ‘Energy resources management’ N The EU-funded immunology into a more became a separate subject at graduate level. lab at the Azerbaijan Medical University is the first such facility open-minded in Azerbaijan. person, aware Tempus success story of European Another Tempus success story is the establishment of an culture and immunology laboratory at the Azerbaijan Medical Univer- values” sity (AMU). “It is the only research lab on immunology, not just at AMU but in Azerbaijan as a whole,” Parviz Bagirov said. “Before, there was no immunology lab at the AMU,” said Professor Gulnara Nasrullayeva, head of immunology at the Azerbaijan Medical University. AMU joined Tempus in 2003 along with universities from Georgia, Armenia, UK, France and Italy. As a result, the EU funded the establishment of the first immunology lab in Azerbaijan. “The facility is equipped 10 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 11
    • with modern medical equipment and has trained personnel,” Nasrullayeva said, add- ing the lab is part of the teaching process while also conducting modern research. In 2005, a special immunology course was introduced at AMU thanks to Tempus. Four top students from AMU went to the University of Westminster and to University“Erasmus College London in the UK to study immunology. Then two of them were trained inMundus is very France. Three of these students are now immunology teachers at AMU, Professor TEMPUS IV for higher educationpositive as it Nasrullayeva said.gives young Supports the modernisation of higher education, creates Thanks to contacts her university maintained with its European partners, a newAzerbaijanis a three-year grant agreement within Tempus was signed in 2010 that would help in- opportunities for cooperation among actors in the field andchance to visit troduce a distance learning method of teaching immunology to graduate students. enhances understandingEurope, to study The most successful students will be granted Masters’ diplomas of two universities Participating countries Objectivethere and be – AMU and the University of Westminster. Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, The Trans-European Mobility Scheme formore attached Regional universities also benefit from the programme, for example in Ganja, Na- Moldova, Russia, Ukraine (East) Algeria, University Studies (Tempus) supports theto European kchivan, Sumgayit, Lankaran and Mingachevir, where they take an active part in the Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, effort of the Partner Countries to modernizevalues” process, Bagirov said. occupied Palestinian territory, Syria, Tunisia their higher education systems and creates Another EU-financed education programme, Erasmus Mundus, has been operation- (South) opportunities for cooperation among higher education actors of the EU and the al in Azerbaijan since 2007. It is a cooperation and mobility programme in the field Timeframe participating countries through joint projects. of higher education that supports student and teacher exchange and cooperation “Young people 2008-2013 It also enhances understanding between between the EU and local universities. change a lot cultures as it promotes a people-to-people for the better approach and promotes convergence with Budget Numbers to increase as a result of approximately € 35-39 million per year EU developments in higher education More young Azerbaijanis are pursuing a European education, with about 2,000 cur- Erasmus Mundus (ENPI) leading to more jobs and growth. rently at European universities. Azerbaijan’s Education Minister, Misir Mardanov, said exchanges. recently that the numbers would increase with the implementation of the State pro- They get new gramme on funding university studies abroad for 2008-2015. knowledge, skills, Erasmus Mundus is one of the vehicles providing additional possibilities to study in and learn to live Europe. in a multi-cultural A consortium of three universities, the Azerbaijan State Tourism Institute (ATI), Ganja environment” State University, and the private Khazar University, was established in Azerbaijan in Erasmus Mundus II – Action 2 Partnerships the frame of Erasmus Mundus. Nigar Abbaszade, head of International affairs and Promotes cooperation between higher education institutions through encouraging projects department at ATI, says similar consortia were established in Georgia and partnerships, mobility and exchanges of students, researchers and academic staff. Armenia, together with an international consortium of 18 universities from Azerbai- jan, Georgia, Armenia, Greece, Latvia, Bulgaria, Romania, Portugal, the Netherlands and France. Participating countries Objective Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, The Erasmus Mundus II - Action 2 About 100 people from Azerbaijan have benefited from the country’s participation Moldova, Russia, Ukraine (East) Algeria, Partnerships seeks to promote better in Erasmus Mundus in three years. Abbaszade says they are all professionals who will Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, understanding and mutual enrichment not have problems finding good jobs. Parviz Bagirov from the National Tempus office occupied Palestinian territory, Syria, between the EU and third countries and adds the Alumni Network of EU education programmes will be created in Azerbaijan Tunisia (South) in the medium term strengthens political,N A new secondary schoolin Baku – the government this year, and will “facilitate and promote exchanges within Erasmus Mundus.” cultural, educational and economic links.invests part of its oil revenues Timeframeinto education infrastructure “Erasmus Mundus is very positive as it gives young Azerbaijanis a chance to visit 2009-2010improvement. Europe, to study there and be more attached to European values,” Nigar Abbaszade from ATI said. She recalls a girl from an Budget IDP family who had grown up in a refugee € 29 million camp. Her father was killed during the Kara- bakh war. “Despite tough living conditions, she passed university exams, learned Eng- lish and took part in Erasmus Mundus. The programme changed her a lot – from a shy girl she turned into a young, self-confident Find out more leader,” Abbaszade said. Tempus IV http://eacea.ec.europa.eu/tempus/index_en.php It is not the only example. “Young people Tempus in Azerbaijan www.tempus-az.org/ ENPI Info Centre webpage – Tempus www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=248&id_type=10 change a lot for the better as a result of Er- ENPI Info Centre webpage – Erasmus Mundus II asmus Mundus exchanges. They get new www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=246&id_type=10 knowledge, skills, and learn to live in a multi- cultural environment,” Abbaszade said. 12 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 13
    • bElARusStudents, parents “Together, common people and authoritiesand teachers to are identifying and addressing the most urgent social by local authorities and residents proper. “The idea behind this project,” explains An-heal the wounds and economic drey Pinigin, the project manager, “is to improve quality of life through a specific problems of interaction between local communities and administrative bodies. Together, com- a particular mon people and authorities are identifying and addressing the most urgent social region” and economic problems of a particular region.” “What has been And thanks to the project, some of theses problems find an immediate solution. “The achieved hereof Chernobyl idea of a dynamic interaction between communities and administrations is quite thanks to the new,” continues Pinigin, “and that is why one of the most important elements of our joint efforts of initiative is the organisation of training sessions and workshops for all programme parents and participants. We hope that the interaction model we are establishing could in future teachers, as spread throughout Belarus.” well as local, But there is more to this project than community participation, says Pinigin: “The national and condition for including each initiative into the project was equal financial participa- international tion of the Belarusian side.” Local administrations, communities and international organizations,How do you deal with the consequences of such a disaster as Chernobyl after so donors have thus joined their efforts in support of something that is more than just is impressive: it a selection of initiatives, but a vision of local development. The project has been of- is a celebrationmany years? In a town in Belarus, some students, teachers and parents have joined ficially endorsed by the Government of Belarus, which has put in charge the Ministry of life”efforts and refurbished a school. In other villages, people have equipped their for Emergency Situations. Other partners are the Gomel Executive Committee, askindergarten, or opened a music school, or restored drinking water wells. well as executive committees of four administrative districts in Gomel region – Buda-This is how a joint EU-UNDP Programme – funded to minimize the consequences Koshelev, Vetka, Zhitkovichi and Hoiniki, where the project operates.of the Chernobyl accident – is bringing local communities and administrationstogether to heal the suffering and to improve the quality of life. School is our home! Out of the 60 initiatives submitted under the project, many have already been im-Text by ITAR TASS/ENPI Info Centre plemented. In the farming town of Krivsk a music school has been opened; an antiPhotos by ITAR TASS/UNDP flash-flood dam has been built in Zapesochiye; in five villages of Buda-Kosheleb, 27 drinking water wells have been restored, while in Velikiye Nemki the secondary school has changed beyond recognition as a result of a fundamental overhaul. N The opening of the In September 2010, three projects were completed in the same region: after ma- wells after renovation. jor refurbishing a school was opened in Minsk – Refurbishing a school; equipping a rehabilitation centre for children with Pyhan, a kindergarten in Vetka and the special needs; providing games and physiotherapeutic support to a kindergarten: in Centre for Correctional-Developmental a word, healing a suffering territory through community-based small scale projects, Training and Rehabilitation for children mainly addressing children and youth needs. This is the overall aim of a EU-UNDP with special needs was inaugurated in joint project, launched in August 2010 to the tune of €2.2 million to minimize the the town of Hoiniki. Thanks to the finan- consequences of the Chernobyl accident in the territory of the Republic of Belarus. cial support received, Vetka kindergar- ten has been provided with game sets Bringing together communities and local administrations aimed at helping children improve their The project took off in August 2010 and was due to be completed by the end of skills, as well as up-to-date physiothera- 2010. Sixty different initiatives are being implemented within the project frame- peutic equipment. Rooms were also work. Their overall purpose is to improve people’s life and to rehabilitate a territory refurbished, for a total disbursement of which has suffered enormously from the consequences of the Chernobyl accident. €22,600 from the EU and UN, while Be- What is peculiar about the project, is that individual initiatives are being suggested larusian partners matched the funding. 14 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 15
    • Now teachers at the kindergarten are able to put in place a comprehensive system for physical develop- ukRAinE ment and rehabilitation, using traditional and non- From skiers to cyclists: traditional physical exercise and herbal therapy. “These funds are As for the school in Pyhan, the project’s authors invested into our called their initiative “School is Our Home!”. Here, future: our kids” the students themselves, their parents and teach- ers – 50 volunteers all together – managed to raise BikeLand is the funds to match the international support. For the first time in 20 years, and thanks to the build- ing skills acquired by the volunteers, the school was refurbished, opening its door to enthusiastic pupilsN Young patients and staff transformingof the Centre for Correctional- who could proudly sit in rooms they themselves had helped to restore.Developmental Training in Finally, the 300 kids with special needs living in Hoiniki region will benefit immense-Hoiniki. ly from the new equipment acquired through the project by the Centre for Correc- tional-Developmental Training and Rehabilitation for children with special needs of Hoiniki town. Recently, the children from the Centre have won prizes in regional and the Ukrainian national arts festivals, including a ballet festival called “The Autumn Express”. Jumping on a trampoline to celebrate life Completing all three projects at once has been a big event for the local communi- ties. Adults and children have celebrated their accomplishment through a number Carpathians of fairs, concerts, theatre performances and competitions. In Hoiniki on inauguration day, guests visiting the Rehabilitation Centre ended up jumping on the trampoline Two years ago, people in with the children… Yaremche, Western Ukraine, started “These funds are invested into our future: our kids.” This is what Jean-Eric Holzapfel, Chargé d’affaires for the European Union in Belarus, thinking about an alternative to had to say about this project. “What has been achieved here thanks to the joint ef- the traditional skiing, and borrowed forts of parents and teachers, as well as local, national and international organiza- the idea of bicycle tourism from tions, is impressive: it is a celebration of life.” Europe. Several enthusiasts - supported by a Cross Border Cooperation programme funded by the EU to the tune of €512,000 - decided to lay out cycling routes, to publish the maps and to get local people interested in hosting cycling tourists. This is how the BikeLand project began. Area Based Development of the Text and photos by Iryna Tuz Chernobyl-Affected Areas of Belarus Specific socio-economic problems in the Chernobyl-affected areas of Belarus are addressed Yaremche – Dmitry Boiko is surrounded by bicycles through a participatory community development approach. Projects are selected thanks of all conceivable shapes and sizes. There are moun- to a dynamic interaction between local communities and administrations. International tain bikes, a white tandem bicycle, a battery-driven EU and UN funding are being matched by an equal participation of the Belarus side. bike, as well as children’s seats, gloves and helmets. Dmitry works at a bicycle rental agency called Velo- http://undp.by/en/undp/db/ac732319d40cdfd9.html tur, which opened in May 2010 in the small town of Yaremche, in the Carpathian Mountains. Here jobs Participating countries Objective are available mostly in winter, when tourists come to Belarus (Minsk, The project aims to enhance the livelihoods of rural residents in the Chernobyl-affected areas of Belarus. ski. In the summer, the chance of finding an occupa- Mogilev and Gomel This is done through the promotion of participatory community development approach, meaning that tion is slim. But bicycle tours came to help. “Thanks districts) the planned output of the project is a working model of interaction and cooperation between the rural to the BikeLand project,” says Dmitry, “many tourists residents, the local authorities and other organizations and institutions. Timeframe find out about cycling sports for the first time. And 2009-2010 Find out more new employment opportunities are created.” Project fiche http://undp.by/en/undp/db/ac732319d40cdfd9.html Budget Project results http://undp.by/en/undp/doc/ee6418705ce01.html It is to everyone’s advantage €1,504,259 It is not by chance that the Carpathians were chosen: this region is undergoing a deep economic crisis. 16 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 17
    • With the disintegration of the Soviet Union, logging stopped almost entirely, so What Victor Zagreba is aiming at is a deep cultural change: “I have been in Europe “Our main many Ukrainians have been forced to look for seasonal jobs in the EU or Russia. and the bicycle is part of European culture, part of everyday life there. Government challenge now“On a larger The overall objective of the EU-backed initiative is to attract Ukrainian and foreign officials and mayors all use bicycles. In Ukraine, it is not as popular yet, but our proj- is to makescale, our tourists through the creation of biking networks and facilities, and through an ap- ect is promoting the bicycle idea because it is great, cool and fashionable, it is a sure that themission is propriate information campaign. A highly competent and dedicated team of people democratic means of transport and recreation, and a pastime that is environmen- whole ideaeconomic was put together to manage the project. Many local associations have joined in, em- tally friendly and local culture conscious, as well as good for your health.” and networkdevelopment barking on the task of spreading the word about new tourism opportunities in the of BikeLand isof the region” region. And two years down the road – the project started in 2008 and ended in July Bicycle as a vehicle preserved” 2010– local residents welcome cycling as a good source of income. For Yuri Karpin, Head of the Recreation Department in Yaremche District Council, Natalya, the owner of a guesthouse, has been putting up tourists for six years; last the bicycle is a nice way to spend time with family and friends, as well as a means year her usual skiers were supplemented by cyclists. Her B&B ‘Nastusya’ is equipped to keep fit. According to him, local people have recently changed their attitude to to receive cyclists. This means tourists who come with their own bikes can leave the bicycle. They have realized that cyclists are tourists them in a special parking space and wash them after a trip in rainy weather. This who can bring profit. Bike rentals are being opened status has been granted to her guesthouse as a result of a competition, which was “The bicycle for holiday-makers, and the number of people who conducted by the BikeLand project. “The winners of the competition,” she says, “were makes tourists come with their own bicycles has grown about three given Karcher washers, an allowance for building a bike-parking station, and were stay in the times since the start of the project, although official included in the tourist catalogue which gives information about the region, advises Carpathians data is not yet available. “The bicycle makes tourists on what to see and where to stay and have a meal.” longer” stay in the Carpathians longer,” says Karpin. “One day they can go on a walking tour, the next day they can Cycling enthusiasts drive a quadro-cycle, and on the third rent a bicycle.” “Four wheels carry the body, two wheels carry the soul.” This is the motto of Vic- BikeLand was at first designed for the Carpathians, tor Zagreba, BikeLand’s project leader. He was among the enthusiasts who began where bicycle tourism was given a powerful impetus. developing bicycle tourism in western Ukraine: “In winter, the Carpathians do not Now the organizers are sure that it will cross these need any advertising,” Victor explains, adding: “Everywhere you look, you see tourists boundaries. One day everybody in Ukraine will mount with skis on their shoulders. While in summer the cottages stay empty. This is how their bicycles and the country will turn into a BikeLand we came upon the idea of the project – increasing the influx of tourists in between in the true sense of the word – this is what Victor Za- the skiing seasons. On a larger scale, our mission is economic development of the greba and his team believe in. region.” In order to achieve their aim, Zagreba’s team followed two parallel tracks: creating N The beauty of the Carpathian mountains is one of the major attractions “hard” and “soft” infrastructure. The first category includes cycling routes and the for bicycle tourists to visit. BikeLand network, incorporating guesthouses and recreational facilities. The second involves disseminating information on what has been done and promoting active lifestyle in general. “We have published quite a number of maps, brochures, cata- logues and magazines in Ukrainian, Russian and English, as well as calendars, stick- ers, advertisements in the media and press-tours,” says Zagreba. However, the project leader feels there is more to be done: “The financial support BikeLand Project from the EU ended in July 2010, and it was obvious that our overall objective could Helps attract Ukrainian and foreign tourists to ecologically safe, accessible and active not be achieved within the two-year duration of the project. Our main challenge recreation in the Carpathian region during the non-winter season now is to make sure that the whole idea and network of BikeLand is preserved.”N Velotur bicycle rental http://bikeland.com.ua/page/en/project/agency’s shop in the smalltown of Yaremche, in theCarpathian Mountains. Participating countries Objective Romania, Ukraine The project aims to create and maintain a network of biking and hiking routes and facilities for bicycle tourists; by doing so it seeks to create new opportunities for local economic activity Timeframe 2008-2010 Find out more ENPI Info Centre webpage – Environment www.enpi-info.eu/list_projects_east.php?subject=6 Budget ENPI Info Centre webpage – Economy www.enpi-info.eu/list_projects_east.php?subject=4 € 572680 (EU co- EU Neighbourhood Programme - Romania-Ukraine www.susidstvo.od.ua/page.php?45/ funding € 512680 under PHARE Cross Border Cooperation and TACIS) 18 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 19
    • Interview with Bodil PerssonWorking “Cross-border co-operation is “The idea is to help develop the only initiative with third “Large scale investment projects neighbouring regions by tackling countries embracing fully such as road construction have a common challenges in fields such as environment, education and health,across balanced participation between very direct impact on the citizens” Member States and the secure borders and boost people-to- Partner Countries” people exchanges”borders to Q: What are the programmes trying to achieve? Bodil Persson Cross-Border Cooperation under the ENP (called ENPI CBC) is a whole family of programmes, whose Is CBC run from Brussels? Not at all, it is a shared management system, with neighbou- ring Partner Countries on an equal footing with Member What is the expected impact on the citizens of Partner Countries? The main beneficiaries of the projects are local and regionalbring main objective should be seen in the context of the EU’s big States. They take joint decisions on how to spend the money administrations, but NGOs and civil society organizations – enlargement in 2004 and within the identified priorities, and select the projects them- from women’s groups to chambers of commerce – benefit 2007. When the new Member States joined the EU, an ini- selves. The role of the European Commission is to monitor as well. It’s their initiatives that largely underlie the project tiative was needed to prevent new dividing lines emerging the implementation of the programmes. Each of our 13 pro- proposals. Those organisations act on behalf of the localpeople in Europe. So ENPI CBC was launched, building on the Inter- grammes has a Joint Managing Authority (often hosted by communities whose life eventually improves if a hospital is reg model of cross-border cooperation within the EU itself. a local or regional administration), which is responsible for renovated or pollution is reduced due to CBC funding. And The underlying concept is cooperation among regions defi- launching the calls for proposals, the selection of projects, of course large-scale investment projects like road construc- ned around a border rather than divided by a border. signing the contracts and managing the projects. For the tion have a very direct impact on the citizens. What are thetogether time being, all of them are based in EU- Member States, as challenges the CBC programmes face today? One challenge What is the focus of ENPI CBC? you need the technical capacities and experience to run a is the sheer magnitude of the programmes, with so many We work with 13 main programmes along the EU’s external programme. But in the next generation of CBC program- countries involved. Another is that regionalism and free- border; each programme will manage hundred of projects. mes, we would like to see Joint Managing Authorities being dom of initiative are instrumental for successful CBC under- The idea is to fund and help to develop border regions. In based also in the neighbouring Partner Countries. Each of takings. But that kind of culture is relatively new in neigh- particular by: contributing to economic and social deve- the programmes answers to a Joint Monitoring Committee, bouring countries. Co-operation experience and capacities lopment; assisting Partner Countries in tackling common which includes all the participating countries. In fact, the evolve over time. For example, challenges in fields such as the environment, education CBC programmes are based on a fully balanced participa- when we started with Moldova in the late 90s, they came up and health; helping to ensure efficient and secure borders tion between EU Member States and Partner Countries. It with 3-4 project proposals under each call. Now lots of ideas while enhancing communication across those borders; and is this body that decides when calls for proposals should be are being generated and lots of proposals coming from Mol-To prevent the EU’s new external borders finally boosting people-to-people exchanges. Our aim is to held, how much money to allocate for different types of pro- dovan organisations. The same happens in other countries.from turning into dividing lines, the help local administrations in the border regions to deve- jects and after the call, which projects should be funded. People need time to build up experience. lop the necessary skills and capacities. These programmesEU put in place the comprehensive range from the North to the South and currently includeEuropean Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) 15 EU member states, 13 neighbouring Partner Countriesincluding an ambitious initiative focusing and Norway and Turkey in three types of programmes: land border, sea crossing and sea basin programmes.on cross-border cooperation (CBC)between outlying EU Member States and How are such complex programmes funded? The total budget is €1 billion for the period 2007-2013 CBC - Cross-border cooperationtheir neighbours. While the European CBC, a key priority of the ENPI, seeks to reinforce cooperation between (10% of the ENP budget). Those funds come from the Eu-Neighbourhood Policy targets external ropean Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI) EU Member States and Partner Countries along the external EU borders.relations with the neighbouring countries as well as from the EU’s European Regional Development Fund (ERDF). In fact, it is the first time that we are able toas a whole, the CBC programmes put the http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where/neighbourhood/ regional- merge allocations coming from two different budget lines.focus on equal cooperation across borders There are also contributions from the participating coun- cooperation/enpi-cross-border/index_en.htmat local and regional level, explains Head of tries, which in some cases can be very substantial. Russia for example has decided to put €103 million into the CBC “pot”,CBC Sector at the European Commission almost 40% of the EU’s contribution for the programmes inBodil Persson in an interview with the which it participates. Russia differs from other neighbours, ENPI Participating Countries Objectives Armenia, Belarus, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, CBC aims to promote economic and social development in borderENPI Info Centre: “It is a true partnership as it is not part of the ENP but wants to see its relations with Jordan, Lebanon, Moldova, Palestinian areas. It strives to address common challenges, ensure efficient and the EU as a strategic partnership. Russia’s matching of CBCprogramme. Partners take joint decisions Authority, Russia, Syria, Tunisia and Ukraine. secure borders and promote peopletopeople cooperation. funding reflects these ambitions. The ENPI CBC programmeon how to spend the money within the budgets go to everything from smaller people to people Timeframe Find out moreidentified priorities, and jointly select the networking projects to large-scale projects investing in 2007-2013 ENPI Info Centre CBC fiche > technical equipment, improving border crossings, and roadprojects themselves.” www.enpi-info.eu/mainmed.php?id=171&id_type=10&lang_id=450 construction, etc. Projects are selected through calls being Budget Regional Capacity Building Initiative > launched throughout 2010 to 2012 or awarded directly in €1,1 billion www.enpi-info.eu/mainmed.php?id=373&id_type=10 the case of the large scale projects. However, the division of INTERACT ENPI > the budget and the types of projects vary from programme www.enpi-info.eu/mainmed.php?id=374&id_type=10 to programme. 20 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 21
    • Veneto Region (Italy), stressed that, “the RussiA European Union is actively expanding its dialogue with Russia in search of new fields for cooperation, where EuropeanWill Europe save experience could come in handy”. The meeting brought together experts, municipal staff, scholars and public of- ficials from six SPINE countries.that old house European know-how in a historical setting The aim of integrating energy-efficient technologies is a pressing issue. Elvira “This project will Gasanova, project manager from thein Vladimir? contribute to the EU Delegation to Russia, pointed out preservation of that one of the discussion points at the cultural heritage recent EU-Russia summit in Rostov-on- in Vladimir Don concerned the Partnership for Modernization initiative, which also involves N The Vladimir puppet theatre - one of the candidates for the oblast... EU support in developing energy efficiency. “SPINE serves directly to apply ener- SPINE project. Its success gy-efficient technologies in historical buildings,” she says. Most importantly, while largely depends being changed inside, they do not change on the outside. Gasanova is sure “thisWhen reconstructing a historical building, experts are often faced with the challenge on effective project will contribute to the preservation of cultural heritage in Vladimir oblast”.of finding the right balance between using energy-efficient technologies and interaction “Its success largely depends on effective interaction between all partners,” Gasano-preserving the building’s authenticity. This is precisely what the EU-funded Energy between all va says. “We rely on active involvement of local administration and other stake- “The overall goalEfficiency and Urban Development Planning Programme (SPINE) is trying to partners” holders”. of the projectachieve. It helps the EU’s neighbouring countries learn from European experience The total project cost is €752 581, to be distributed among the participating coun- is to establishto breathe new life into old historical buildings using cutting-edge energy saving tries. “This will cover the cost of proposal preparation, situation and strategy as- an active sessment, recommendations, as well as implementation of the necessary mea-technologies. In Russia, Vladimir oblast has become the site of a pilot project. partnership sures and pilot initiatives,” said Lyudmila Sushkova, deputy head of the work team, network which Head of the Department of Bio-Medical Engineering, Vladimir State University. “InText by ITAR-TASS/ENPI Info Centre will continue future we will have to find our own funding sources.”photos by ITAR-TASS work after the Russia’s case is peculiar in that architects of the past mainly focused on religious project cycle is buildings. According to Sushkova, “with religious monuments it is easier – the Vladimir – This magnificent town with its white-stone cathedrals and civil architec- over” Church now takes care of them”. But the situation for civil monuments is more dif- ture is one of the most ancient urban settlements in Russia. It towers on the high ficult. One of SPINE’s tasks is summarizing the experience of various countries – for Klyazma bank, 180km northeast of Moscow. The task today is to prevent Vladimir’s instance, that of Italy, which has a vast heritage of civil architecture. historic landscape from being submerged by modern construction. Vladimir State University and Vladimir Regional Administration have taken a lead, forming a partnership in the framework of the EU-funded Energy Efficiency and Ur- ban Development Planning Programme (SPINE), together with municipalities from Italy, Serbia, Croatia, Turkey and Ukraine. Together they will identify one building out of Vladimir’s numerous historical sites. The building will be restored using new solutions that will make it possible to pre- N The city of Vladimir, serve its authentic character and apply energy-saving technologies. The project is inside the puppet theatre. the expected to help fund restoration of historical buildings and objects of cultural heritage elsewhere in Russia, particularly in smaller towns. SPINE is part of the €14 million EU-funded CIUDAD programme, aimed at helping local authorities in the EU’s neighbourhood to address urban development problems in a sustainable manner. At a presentation of the project in Vladimir in early July, Andrea Baggioli, the representative of Union- camere del Veneto - the Association of the Cham- bers of Commerce, Industry, Crafts and Agriculture of 22 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 23
    • Vera Shamota, leader of the project working group and head of external relations Interview with Frank Samol of the Vladimir oblast administration, gave the example of the former Muromtsevo Local authorities estate. In order to restore this unique ensemble with the “Gothic” palace, a park and pond cascade next to the mansion, large investments are needed, as well as state-of-the-art technical solutions. All this may come true due to the European project. Similar solutions have already been tested in Serbia and Turkey. Among the 3,500 historical and cultural monuments on the territory of Vladimir oblast, there are many as important as Muromtsevo, including the Red Cross hos- pital building, the Nobility Assembly House, gymnasium for boys, the old Ampir a bridge across the neighbourhood cinema theatre and Imperial Stud Farm building in Alexandrov. Obviously, they all need help, but by 1 December only one out of 14 will be selected to take part in the European programme. Partnership of experts Baggioli believes that the project will attract the public sector – both at the federal and the local level, as well NGOs. “It is founded on the idea of expert partnership,” The Cooperation in Urban Development and Dialogue (CIUDAD)N The Vorontsov Mansion, he stresses. It involves dialogue between the target groups. These include town programme seeks primarily to promote cooperation and dialogue betweenVladimir oblast. councils, state officials, real estate owners, “green” technology developers, manu- local and regional authorities in the EU and ENPI partner countries. On the facturers of energy-efficient construction materials and build- ing companies. ground, CIUDAD aims to help local governments in the ENPI region enhance Experts from the Department of Architecture and Civil Engi- their capacity to plan for sustainable, integrated and long-term urban neering of Vladimir University are also ready to join the team. development using good governance principles. “Being implemented at Their facilities make it possible to produce 3D laser images of local level, the ultimate beneficiaries of CIUDAD projects are citizens of urban the objects, which is necessary for further restoration work on communities in the partner countries,” explains Frank Samol, team leader of the historical buildings. The experience gained in the Vladimir Re- CIUDAD Supporting Mechanism, in an interview with the ENPI Info Centre. gion can be later disseminated across Russia. Nemanja Petrovic from the Serbian municipality of Savski Ve- nac says “the overall goal of the project is to establish an active partnership network which will continue work after the project Q: What is the programme trying to achieve? cycle is over”. A website has been developed with information communities involved. CIUDAD encompasses 10 projects Frank Samol: The Cooperation in Urban Development and in the South, 6 in the East and 5 interregional, i.e. involving on the partners and links to relevant publications. Soon infor- Dialogue (CIUDAD) programme’s primary objective is to partners both from the South and the East. It is one of the mation will be available on funding opportunities for activities promote cooperation and dialogue between local and re- first programmes that encourage partnerships covering within the project. gional authorities in the EU and ENPI partner countries. It both ENPI regions. Andrea Baggioli is confident for the long-term: “the SPINE aims to boost the exchange of experience and know-how, and strengthen the interaction between local authorities What is the expected impact on the citizens of the partner project will not end after its 30 months’ cycle. It is designed to countries? and civil society actors in the beneficiary countries. It acts move along.” at the local level (cities and municipalities), seeking thus Being implemented at local level, the ultimate beneficiaries to improve the level of involvement of local governments of CIUDAD projects are citizens of urban communities in the and the participation of civil society. On the ground, CIU- partner countries. Most projects aim to improve the quality DAD aims to help local governments in the ENPI region of basic urban services in an environmentally sustainable enhance their capacity to plan for sustainable, integrated way, and thus benefit citizens of the city/municipality where and long-term urban development using good governance they are implemented. A good example is a project being im- CIUDAD – Sustainable urban development principles. By creating new partnerships and strengthening plemented in Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco, which promotes existing ones among local and regional authorities in the the establishment of efficient systems of Solid Waste Mana- The programme “Cooperation in Urban Development and Dialogue” (CIUDAD) helps local ENPI region (South-South, East-East and South-East), it also gement using a participatory community-based approach. hopes to achieve long-term benefits that would have an im- Some projects benefit a certain category of the population. governments in the ENPI region address urban development problems in a sustainable pact beyond the life of the programme. One project, for example, promotes innovative and socially manner, promoting cooperation between local actors and their EU counterparts. inclusive governance in sports and outdoor activities with a What are the areas on which the programme focuses? focus on women and youth as final beneficiaries. www.ciudad-programme.eu/index.php CIUDAD covers three main themes of urban development: Environmental sustainability and energy efficiency, Sustai- What are the challenges you expect to encounter nable economic development and reduction of social dis- in the implementation of the programme? Participating countries Objectives Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, parities, and Good governance and sustainable urban deve- Given CIUDAD’s broad scope and the many partners invol- It aims to promote the concept of sustainable urban development Moldova, Russia, Ukraine (also Algeria, lopment planning. A total of 21 grant projects address these ved, one of the biggest challenges will be to develop a com- Creates sustainable partnerships between local authorities in the EU Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, themes. Each project will be implemented by a Consortium mon understanding of all stakeholders in working jointly to- and in the ENPI regions. It identifies and formulates sustainable urban Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia) of at least three partners including local authorities, thema- wards tangible achievements. Sustainability of the projects development projects by local authorities in a suitable format to be tic networks, academic and research institutions, and civil is another challenge, as one of the objectives of CIUDAD is presented to International Financial Institutions for investment. Timeframe society organizations in a minimum of two ENPI countries. to build lasting partnerships that would survive beyond the Budget 2009-2013 These work together on specific issues of relevance to all programme. € 14 million 24 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 25
    • People MOlDOVA Borders DivideEnvironment Countries not RiversEnergy Common water related challenges Economic growth in the modern world comes at a price. Pollution from urban and industrial waste, overexploitation and unsustainable use of water in one country may affect water resources way beyond its borders. Water protection and effective management gains even more importance in the context of climate change.Transport Keen to share its experience in water management with its neighbours, the European Union funds a project Water Governance in Western EECCA (Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia), which helps Partner Countries improve water legislation and contributes to their convergence with EU standards. Text and photos by Irina Severin Vanishing river Moldova is one of the most vulnerable countries in the region in terms of water resources, ranking among the last in Europe in water supply per capita. The sym- bol of the country’s water problems is the River Bic, which flows through its capital Chisinau and is now on the verge of disappearance. The older generation remembers that not long ago, the Bic was navigable. Younger people find it difficult to believe, with the river completely dry during the hottest summer months. N Paul Buijs, Key Expert and Ludmila Gofman, Moldovan Moldova shares two of its big rivers, the Dniester and the Prut, with neighbouring national coordinator of the water management Ukraine and Romania. The country is land-locked, with no access to the Black Sea, project discuss the project’s but geographically it belongs to the Black Sea basin. Cooperation with other Black implementation progress. Sea countries could assist Moldova in tackling its own problems of water supply, but for that adequate legislation should be developed and mechanisms for the effective manage- ment of transboundary water resources be put in place. The EU Water Governance Project seeks to help the country and its neighbours advance towards these goals. In Moldova, it focuses on several key issues, including the development of norms and regulations, support to new wa- ter legislation and the overhaul of water qual- ity standards. 26 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 27
    • Step-by-step Convergence New approaches need new institutions “For us, participation in this project and in the EU Water initiative is an opportunity The Basin Water Management Agency, “Apele to get access to valuable EU experience and best practices and to introduce them in Moldovei”, is a new institution in Moldova. It ap- Moldova,” says the Moldovan national coordinator of the water management project peared recently thanks to the new basin water“We are Ludmila Gofman. management approach foreseen in the EU Wa-monitoring the The common challenge for all partner countries was to leave behind the obsolete ter Framework Directive. Its head Victor Bujacsituation now. practices, inherited from the Soviet Union . Key expert of the project, Paul Buijs ex- summarized the new approach in cross-borderThe assessment plained: “For example the standards for fisheries in the old Soviet system included N Valentina Tsapesh cooperation: “Moldova and Ukraine share the deputy head of the Statemission is just limits for 1349 substances. This may be fine from the environmental point of view, Environmental Inspection hopes same Dniester river basin, which means that thethe first step” but but for many there is no analytical method that can measure at the low concen- that with the help of EU water countries need to find a way to manage it jointly, management instruments, the trations of the standards and nobody knows if they are relevant for each country.” Bic River - that flows through and this approach creates a good platform for But, in his view, the EU Water Framework Directive is too complicated for Moldova the Capital Chisinau - will one cooperation.” day spring back to life. and the other EECCA countries to adopt in its entirety, mainly because of the neces- It is now accepted that the quality of surface wa- sity of assessing water quality status using hydrobiological data. In the absence of “For us, ter affects the entire ecosystem, which makes public cooperation and active involve- N Victor Bujac Director of the Basin Water extensive and reliable biological monitoring data they need a simpler way of setting participation in ment of environmental NGOs indispensable. Bujac believes the new legislation will Management Agency, says that objectives for water bodies that will provide a basis for water management until this project and improve the conditions for economic activities and will facilitate investments in the as Moldova and Ukraine share the same Dniester river basin, they can develop the necessary high level of biological monitoring. in the EU Water water management infrastructure. the countries need to find a Under the WATGOV WEST project Moldova has identified the most important com- initiative is an As for the River Bic, it has been subject to careful assessment from the project ex- way to manage it jointly, which creates a good platform for ponents of EU water legislation which can assist the country in addressing the en- opportunity perts. Deputy head of the State Environmental Inspection Valentina Tsapesh hopes cooperation. vironmental concerns, and which are feasible from the economic, institutional and to get access that with the help of EU water management instruments, the river will one day financial point of view. to valuable EU spring back to life. The system of water quality standards developed in Moldova was quickly accept- experience and “We are monitoring the situation now. The assessment mission is just the first step. ed by the other countries because they had all reached the conclusion that they best practices What would a European capital be without a beautiful river? The next step must needed to replace or reform the old soviet system. Since they had agreed to align and to introduce be to find practical ways to rehabilitate the river taking into account the EU’s best their water legislation and water management practice with the EU it offered them a them in practices,” she said. way towards implementing the principles of the WFD without having first to set up Moldova“ extensive and expensive biological monitoring programmes. The physicochemical system could be implemented quickly. Another benefit of the project is its role in consolidating cooperation among stake- holders over measures to reduce water pollution and improve the treatment of waste- water, with clear benefits for the public in its impact on drinking and bathing water. Water Governance in Western EECCA Assists Eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) Countries in aligning with EU standards to ensure fair distribution of water, and supports the development of regulatory mechanisms and institutional procedures for River Basin Management Plans. http://wgw.org.ua/about.php Participating countries Objective Armenia, Azerbaijan, The project aims at helping to reduce pollution, foster fair sharing and effective use of scarce water Belarus, Georgia, resources and to improve the quality of shared water resources, such as trans-boundary rivers. Moldova, Ukraine The project seeks to improve, implement and enforce water legislation as well as contribute to convergence on EU standards. The Western Partner Countries, namely Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine, as Timeframe well as Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in the South Caucasus share river basins and waters with the EU, 2008-2010 which makes transboundary water management a crucial issue. Budget Find out more € 2.2 million Water Governance in Western EECCA fiche www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=209&id_type=10 + € 0.8 million ENPI Info Centre – Environment thematic portal http://www.enpi-info.eu/list_projects_east.php?subject=6 for equipment 28 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 29
    • but waters are relatively clean since Armenia has not yet experienced as heavy indus- ARMEniA trial pressures on its water resources as Europe has. The country can still boast ample water resources, but the human pressures on waters are growing”. ”Armenia should try to avoid the mistakes of the West in water management,” he says. Rivers to bridge “Of course The project, funded by the EU with a total of €5.2 million from 2008-2011, aims to en- there are hance the capacities of national environmental authorities engaged in water man- problems, and agement and help them understand that with the constantly increasing pressure on improvements water resources, it is better to prevent pollution than fight its consequences. One of in water its key components is the application of the EU Water Framework Directive on the management the Caucasus divide N Seryan Minasyan basis of five pilot river sub-basins of which three are within the countries national deputy head of the are needed Armenian Environmental borders (Aragvi in Georgia, Aghstev in Armenia and Ganjachai in Azerbaijan) and Monitoring Centre. but waters are two transboundary sub-basins (Debed/Khrami river basin shared by Armenia and relatively clean Georgia and Alazani/Ganykh river basin shared by Georgia and Azerbaijan). since Armenia Pichugin says the at the moment the most significant impacts on Armenian rivers has not yet are, untreated sewage disposal and waste that people dump in the rivers, though experienced as most rivers are still cleaner than many rivers in Europe. heavy industrial Volodya Narimanyan is deputy head of the Water Resources Management Agency pressures on of the Armenian Ministry for Nature Protection. He says the Armenian partners of The Kura River and its tributaries span a vast geographical area embracing, among others, water resources the project have already completed the introduction of the legislative-institutional Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. as Europe has. amendments. The country can The EU-funded Kura River basin transboundary river management project aims “We seek convergence with EU legislation by including the clauses of the EU Water still boast ample to improve the quality of natural water resources and help the three South Caucasus Framework Directive into our national legislation and regulations,” says Narimanyan, water resources, countries preserve their common natural heritage. Armenia’s role in this task is to look adding that the water basin management projects in Armenia are being elaborated, but the human after some of the Kura’s tributaries, the Debed River and the Aghstev River. with the Debed and Aghstev selected as pilot river basins. pressures on Text and Photos by Aghavni Harutyunyan “In the framework of this project, draft management plans for the basins of Debed waters are and Aghstev are being put together which will provide a methodological basis for growing” the six other river basin management plans in Armenia,” says Narimanyan. Monitoring the rivers together The project in Armenia is due to receive technical support for its monitoring activities, and will develop a database platform to provide information on trans-boundary rivers. In the framework of the project, joint river monitoring is carried out by the Armenian The community angle Environmental Monitoring Centre together with its counterparts in Georgia and Alaverdi, Armenia – At the bottom of the Debed River gorge, nestled in the folds of rugged mountains in the far north of Armenia near the Georgian border, lies the N Debed river small town of Alaverdi. The river that runs through the town is the heart of the local in the city Alaverdi. community. “In summer, the river becomes a recreation area for the small nearby town of Ala- verdi,” says local resident Gayane Poghosyan, 48. “Local people descend on its banks “We seek to relax, as they can’t go elsewhere. We swim and catch fish here.” convergence with But since the 18th century, Alaverdi has also been home to copper mines, and the EU legislationN Volodya Narimanyan town today still hosts an important mining complex, often blamed by Armenia’sdeputy head of the Water by including theresources management agency. neighbours for polluting the waters of the river. Residents are unwilling to point fin- clauses of the EU gers, but they too say the river is not as clean as it used to be. Water Framework “The citizens of Alaverdi don’t want to speak about the river in public,” says one el- Directive into derly man, identified only as comrade Barseghyan. “There is still some fish here but our national frankly the number of species is down.” Others say the water is dirty because “people legislation and dump things into the river”. But they avoid blaming any particular industrial polluter regulations” located in the vicinity. “It’s none of my business,” one says. Project leader:“To avoid the mistakes of the West” For the EU-funded Kura River regional project, however, such problems are at the core of its business. And for project team leader Anatoly Pichugin, things in Armenia look not as bad as they seem: “People tend to overdramatize, often exaggerating problems. Of course there are problems, and improvements in water management are needed 30 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 31
    • Azerbaijan. Water samples jointly taken are analyzed by the national laboratories ukRAinE which are also involved in the inter-labora- tory testing carried out by an independent Managing internationally certified laboratory in the EU “These tests show that the Khrami River in Georgia is often more polluted than the Debed River [in Armenia]. Now, the Geor- gian experts no longer insist that Arme- water resources nia pollutes the Kura. Even Azerbaijan has toned down its accusations,” says Seyran Minasyan, deputy head of the Centre.N The Debed river valley. Vahagn Tonoyan, the Armenian national coordinator and expert in water resources management, agrees: “The South Caucasian countries frequently accuse each other “We hope that of pollution. In reality, they haven’t carried out joint monitoring before to see the some initiatives, reason of the differences in the indices.” for example, the The national coordinator says the three countries should work towards common joint monitoring Why does water stop running from the tap? Sometimes it is because it just methodologies in taking and examining water samples as a way to stop making project will be unsubstantiated accusations against each other, and hopes the progress made can stops flowing in the river. In order to prevent this from happening, the EU has continued by the outlive the project. We hope that some initiatives, for example, the joint monitoring South Caucasian developed its Water Framework Directive, which is aimed at restoring rivers project will be continued by the South Caucasian countries without foreign financial countries without in their original state. support,” says Tonoyan.” foreign financial And because water does not have any boundaries and flows from the EU On the banks of the Debed in Aleverdi, however, residents remain convinced that support” to its neighbouring countries and back, the EU has decided to share its their waters are polluted, highlighting the need for credible information, a gap the advanced practices with six of its neighbours through a project called EU-funded river project aims to fill, keeping the public informed of any potential Water Governance in the Western Regions of Eastern Europe, threat to the environment. Lusine Taslakyan, expert on public participation and capacity building, believes the Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA). openness is crucial, and the first tangible result of efforts to increase public aware- Text and photos by Iryna Tuz ness will be a brochure about the River Aras. According to her, “It will help attract public interest to the history and culture of the Aras River. The purpose is not only to present the Aras basin but also to draw people closer to nature” – an essential first Kyiv - Bila Tserkva – Many years ago, the Ros’ River used to run clean and clear; step to ensure public participation in saving a common heritage. then it became stagnant, like broth gone bad. Storage reservoirs had hampered the river flow, and the Ros’ had lost its natural ability for self-purification. It had fallen into the power of green algae, which were sucking oxygen from the water, turning the river into a dead pool and posing a threat to public health. The Ros’ is an average-sized river in Ukraine, starting in Vinnitskaya oblast, flowing Transboundary river management for the Kura river through Kyiv oblast and into the Dnipro in Cherkasskaya oblast. In summer, when a significant volume of water evaporates from the vast reservoir surfaces, the river N People on the Dnipro River – Phase II stops flowing. “We could still live through the hot period,” says Petro Babiy, Head in Kyiv: Ukraine is following the advice and learning from the of the Basin Administration, “if the towns and cities did not continue to take water Reinforces regional cooperation in monitoring and managing water resources in the Kura river basin, western experience through the from the river and pour back untreated wastewater.” Water Governance in the EECCA through training, capacity strengthening, streamlining data collection, information and know-how project. According to Babiy, the water could not be post-treated, as the algae were blocking exchanges the filters, and the water quality was www.kuraarasbasin.net below any existing standards. When more chlorine was added, toxic com- Participating countries Objective pounds were formed similar to dioxin, Armenia, Azerbaijan, It aims to improve the water quality in the Kura River basin through trans-boundary cooperation and which remained in people’s bodies Georgia implementation of the integrated water resources management approach. The project supports the for their whole life. The situation bor- development of a common monitoring and information management system to improve transboundary Timeframe cooperation and enhances the capacities of environmental authorities and monitoring establishments dered on the emergency. And once 2008-2011 engaged in long-term integrated water resources management in the Kura River basin. the settlements downstream from the city of Belaya Tserkov’ remained with- Budget Find out more out water for three weeks running, the €4.0 million Transboundary river management for the Kura river - Phase II fiche regional administration got seriously + €1.2 million www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=200&id_type=10 alarmed. for equipment ENPI Info Centre – Environment thematic portal www.enpi-info.eu/thememed.php?subject=6 32 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 33
    • Half way towards and integrated approach Basin Councils have already been set up for most rivers in Ukraine. Yet the implementa- tion of the integrated approach has only gone half way. Petro Babiy believes the basin coun- cils should be able to take decisions, while so far they only have advisory functions. He would also like the budgeting system to be changed: “Water users and polluters pay tax- es that go to the centre, and only a small part returns into the region afterwards,” he says. “In Europe the price of water is established locally, the funds remain at the disposal N The Dnipro River in Zaporizhzhya and the largest of the basin administration, and their use is decided by the basin boards. I hope we hydro power-plant in Ukraine. will do the same, but I am not sure how long it will take,” says Babiy, adding what Ukraine needs is a ‘polluter pays’ principle. The Water Governance in the EECCA project helps to make sense of this complex integrated approach. Ukraine is following the advice and learning from the western experience, although, according to Babiy, there are some who would not listen, and it is often very difficult to negotiate with them. There is a saying in Ukraine: water does not flow under a lying stone. Petro Babiy Calling on European experience believes in action. He deems that sooner or later his country will join EU. Ukraine is “The main“The problems of In order to solve the problem, one of the solutions was to call on European experi- already moving there, albeit slowly. As for the concrete results, the Head of the Basin thing here isthe rivers should ence. The Project Water Governance in the EECCA offered real support in implement- Administration is happy that over the last three years there have been no emergen- integrationbe solved by ing an integrated approach to the problem. This involves governing the Ros’ basin as cies on the Ros’. betweenthose who live a whole, rather than its parts divided between different regions. Now Babiy is work- But he hopes that the river will not lose its ability for self-purification, because chlo- the peoplein the area, not ing in the Basin Administration specifically created for this purpose, monitoring from rine added to water makes it dead. Babiy himself drinks water from a spring, because and finding “We could stillby sanitary and Belaya Tserkov’ the waters of the Ros’, from its source to the estuary. even the most expensive filters cannot ensure the needed effect: water is a live or- consensus live through theepidemiologic This approach is being extended to the other five project member-countries. Ac- ganism that requires common sense to manage. among the hot period, ifinstitutions, cording to Steven Warren, Head of the European Expert Team, Ukraine, Belarus, Mol- stakeholders” the towns andthe Ministry of dova, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan have their Soviet past in common. However, cities did notEnvironment or during the 20 years of independence, these countries have developed varying leg- continue to takeofficials from islation systems, “straggling” in diverging legal directions. Meanwhile, they continue water from theBrussels” to share the same waterways. river and pour For instance, Ukraine and Moldova share the Dniester River. And even if one country is engaged in purifying the river, the neighbouring country may go on using it to back untreated wastewater” Water Governance in Western EECCA dump waste: on both sides of the border, people will suffer. This is why the Project Assists Eastern Europe and southern Caucasus countries (Western EECCA) align withN Petro Babiy, Head of the suggests such countries should move forward together, with objectives in line withBasin Administration with the EU standards to ensure fair distribution of water, and supports the development ofRos River, in Ukraine in the the tasks established by the EU Water Framework Directive. The point is not to chasebackground. The water expert brownie points, but to restore the natural state of the river. regulatory mechanisms and institutional procedures for River Basin Management Plansis happy that over the lastthree years there have been no Yet another piece of European know-how is to involve the public in governing wa- http://wgw.org.ua/about.phpemergencies on the Ros River. ter resources. The Project helps set up Basin Councils, and as project expert Andriy Demydenko explains, the new approach is fostering Participating countries Objective broader involvement. “In the basin council,” he says, Armenia, Azerbaijan, It aims at helping to reduce pollution, foster fair sharing and effective use of scarce water resources and to “all stakeholders are represented: the administration, Belarus, Georgia, improve the quality of shared water resources, such as trans-boundary rivers. The project seeks to improve, Moldova, Ukraine implement and enforce water legislation as well as contribute to convergence to EU standards. The Western which governs the river, the businesses who are using Partner Countries, namely Belarus, Moldova and Ukraine, as well as Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia in the the river water, as well as the environmental organiza- Timeframe South Caucasus share river basins and waters with the EU, which makes transboundary water management tions. The problems of the rivers should be solved by 2008-2010 a crucial issue. those who live in the area, not by sanitary and epidemi- ologic institutions, the Ministry of Environment or of- Budget Find out more ficials from Brussels. The main thing here is integration € 2.2 million Water Governance in Western EECCA fiche www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=209&id_type=10 + € 0.8 million ENPI Info Centre – Environment thematic portal http://www.enpi-info.eu/list_projects_east.php?subject=6 between the people and finding consensus among the for equipment stakeholders.” 34 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 35
    • Interview with Steve Warren RussiAWater Forest protection For two years an EU-funded project has been working to help develop Integratedquality Water Resource Management (IWRM) in Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia.at stake and cranberry pies The €3 million two-year project, Water Governance in the Western EECCA countries has helped promote changes in water law, build institutional capacities, improve technical data exchange and introduce new methodologies. The project has been able to assist each of the partner countries with advice on different aspects of water The Bezhanitski District in the Pskov Region offers a typical portrait of Russia’s legislation, Team Leader Steve Warren says in an interview Northwest – agricultural and economically weak. Its distinctiveness lies in its with the ENPI Info Centre. “Five of the six countries have proximity to the external borders of the European Union (a mere 150km) and agreed a new system of water quality standards and a sixth, the fact that it is home to one of the largest wetlands and wildlife reserves in Belarus, is considering the advantages of changing to the Europe – the Lovatsko-Polistovskaya Wetland System. This partly explains why new system.” the area has been designated as the pilot site for the FLEG Project (Forest Law Enforcement and Governance) financed by the EU. This is a regional initiative with the participation, alongside Russia, of Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova,Q: What is the project trying to achieve? ters. Each country now has available, and some have plansSteve Warren: The project aims at supporting the develop- to adopt, a system of standards that is very similar for each Georgia and Ukraine.ment of Integrated Water Resource Management (IWRM) in country. This will facilitate agreement on the physicochemi- Text by ITAR-TASS/ENPI Info Centrethe six project countries – Belarus, Ukraine, Moldova, Arme- cal status of transboundary water bodies. Photos by ITAR-TASS/FLEGnia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. This, however, is only a first step. The next will be the ac-The six countries currently manage water in ways derived ceptance that, for a water body that does not meet thefrom the former Soviet system in which planning is concer- standards for its uses, these standards will then become the water quality objective. Bezhanitsy – According to 2009 statistics, employment in the Bezhanitsy Districtned mainly with ensuring the availability of sufficient waterresources and not at all with water quality. It takes a rather This will require the imposition of reduced Emission Limit in the Pskov Region is below the region’s average. The forest remains “underused”narrow view of water and has no place for stakeholder parti- Values for discharges over a period of time until the stan- – “hence the unemployment,” says Anatoli Trofimov, Head of Bezhanitsy Municipalcipation. In contrast to this IWRM is a process of setting and dards are met. Government.achieving objectives for water bodies that: What is the impact on the citizens of partner countries? Mr. Trofimov considers the EU FLEG Project as a timely initiative: “It’s good that peo-• Uses the entire river basin as the management unit; Over a period of time (years rather than months) there ple started to care and managed to obtain funding in order to raise public awareness• Includes water in all its forms (surface and underground);• Takes account of all water uses, actual, prospective and potential; should be a gradual improvement in surface water quality about the issue.”• Takes account of the effects of water (flooding, erosion, etc.); and the aquatic environment. Environmentalists, representatives of the District Government and local businessmen• Takes account of quantity & quality; essentially share this opinion. Indeed, their round-table discussion held in snow-clad Is it expected to have a long term impact or a ripple effect?• Considers water-related resources (wetlands, riparian habitats etc.); If a country rolls out the adoption of IWRM river basin by Bezhanitsy in February 2010 was centred on the subject. Together with the FLEG ex-• Takes account of the needs and views of stakeholders and of public opinion. river basin there will be a ripple effect but the real benefits perts, they discussed how the project could help local authorities, small businessesHow does it achieve its objectives? What are the areas on will come when water and environmental quality improve and residents efficiently and legitimately to use their forest resources, as well as ex-which it focuses? over a period of years. ploring potential new woodland managementThe implementation of IWRM requires changes in water law What do you consider as your most important achievements? opportunities (including tourism).and in institutional structure and function, better technicaldata and new methodologies. Five of the six countries have agreed a new system of water A key objective of the FLEG Project is to assist inIWRM is implemented in the EU through the Water Fra- quality standards and a sixth, Belarus, is considering the ad- countering illegal wood harvesting and othermework Directive but this requires extensive and very high vantages of changing to the new system. We were able to forest offences, by promoting lawful and sustain-quality biological monitoring data that does not at present help each of the partner countries with advice on different able woodland management and the rule of law,exist in the EECCA countries. aspects of water legislation. as well as by developing local sources of income.The project therefore focussed on the acceptance by the What is the biggest challenge you faced in its implementa- It is also important to increase the sector infor-partner countries of a 5-class system of physicochemical tion?water quality standards based on different uses for the wa- mation transparency and ensure the right of the The biggest difficulty we encountered is common to nearlyter. This starting point was a system developed for Moldova local population and small businesses to legal all the EECCA countries, which is the low priority affordedunder an OECD project, which was adapted in each country to the environment in the partner countries and in conse- use of forests, which cover almost half of the dis-to accommodate natural background concentrations and, quence the low level of resources available in the Ministries trict area.in some cases, the inclusion of some additional parame- of Environment to agree and implement changes. Valentina Ivanova, First Deputy Head of the Dis- 36 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 37
    • “Lack of trict Government agrees: “Lack of regulation gives rise to numerous violations, in- lieves that “the FLEG Project will contribute to strategic devel- “Man does not visit certainregulation gives cluding unauthorised logging, debris build-up, land and road defacement. Forests opment of the Bezhanitsy District as a whole and the natural remote areas surroundedrise to numerous are not conserved and reproduced... Ripened trees are not felled – they ail, rot and reserve in particular.” by windfall timber in years.violations, clutter up the forest.” Local businessmen support the initiatives. Yuri Novikov, repre- Anthropological impact on theincluding There is a clear need for change, and the Bezhanitsy gathering considered how to sentative of a wood-processing enterprise proposes to develop nature is minimal. Only scientificunauthorised go about it. In particular, government authority should be extended to enable it to ecological trails, tourist campsites and, if necessary, build tour- researchers and natural reservelogging, debris participate in approval of plans and forestry regulations. There was also a proposal ist wooden lodges. “This could translate into new job creation rangers work in the forest”build-up, to simplify procedures for renting smaller forest plots (up to 400 hectares) to local at our enterprise,” he says.land and road residents and small businesses. As for unrented plots, it was suggested to revive thedefacement” system of auction-based timber sale to small businesses. Cranberry Pies The discussion revealed that the financial crisis, the forestry management reform According to Mr. Yablokov, development of tourism in the region “requires compre- and the adoption of the new Russian Forestry Code created a difficult situation for hensive efforts, good tourism publicity, quality catering based on natural products traditional forest users in the District. Even the best equipped enterprises face seri- and traditional local cuisine, as well as wooden furniture and souvenir manufactur- ous challenges, while many smaller ones simply go out of business. ing.” There is an idea of compiling and publishing a book of traditional Bezhanitsy The Pskov Region the project’s objective is to promote the use of non-wood forestry N Cranberry recipes. Another idea is to hold cranberry fairs. The area is famous for its delicious products (berries, mushrooms and medicinal herbs), as well as facilitate legal access cranberry infusions, and to wood for the local population and small businesses. Promotion of forest ecotour- cranberry pies. Indeed, ism in the protected area of Polistovski Natural Reserve is expected to be one of the Bezhanitsy has a lot with project focus areas. which to welcome and surprise its visitors. On the Tourist Trail All Year Round Tourism and forest are directly related. The forest is not a mere agglomeration of trees. The forest is pure air, lakes, berries, and mushrooms. “The objective of our programme is to create jobs by spurring the segment through the support of local initiatives,” said Alexei Grigoriev, the FLEG Project adviser. “The forest should be an “Tourism in the region orderly place. And, of course, forest protection against fire is a top priority.” Grigoriev requires quality catering is convinced that “all good intentions in the area of tourism development may end based on natural products“The area is ideal up in one huge blaze in the absence of proper woodland management.” and traditional local cuisine”for ecotourism. The Polistovo-Lovatskaya Wetland System is Europe’s largest natural filter. Accord-the FLEG Project ing to experts, the upper swamp traps various pollutants, retaining them in the soilwill contribute together with peat, while “at the outlet” the wetland produces pure water, whichto strategic supplies Russia’s north-western water basins.development ofthe Bezhanitsy “This is a specially protected area”, says Mikhail Yablokov, Director of the Polistovski Natural Reserve. “The law prohibits tree felling and forest use. There is no permanent Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG)District” population and no roads. Man does not visit certain remote areas surrounded by Supports governments of participating countries, civil society and the private windfall timber in years. Anthropological impact on the nature is minimal. Only sci- sector in the development of sound and sustainable forest management practices, entific researchers and natural reserve rangers work in the forest.” including the prevention of illegal forestry activities. The area is ideal for ecotourism. The natural reserve director is convinced that the forestry programme combined with ecotourism will help create new jobs. He be- www.enpi-fleg.org N FLEG project meeting. Participating countries Objective Armenia, Azerbaijan, It aims to tackle the growing problem of illegal forest activities in the Partner Belarus, Georgia, Countries by promoting legal and sustainable forest management and utilisation Moldova, Russia, practices and seeks to strengthen the rule of law and to enhance local livelihoods. Ukraine The European Commission grant has been provided to the World Bank through a multi-donor trust fund. The project’s implementing partners are the World Bank, the Timeframe IUCN (World Conservation Union) and the WWF (World Wildlife Fund), ensuring that 2008-2011 the public and private sectors as well as civil society are consistently included in the project’s activities. Budget €6 million Find out more Fleg fiche - www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=205&id_type=10 38 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 39
    • MOlDOVA “The problem of protecting theMoldovan Forest forests against illegal logging is quite pressing for many countries and for our region inunder EU Protection particular”The Codru forestland in Moldova, which covers the entire central part of the country, is celebrated Timber auctionsin songs and folklore. But specialists are sounding the alarm: the forests are in poor health and are By the end of February 2010, the first two open auctions were held to sell harvesting contracts for standing timber to private companies and state enterprises as part ofdegrading; they suffer from lack of attention and funding, illegal logging and crude exploitation. the Moldovan Government reforms. The money collected, over 12 million MoldovanTo help resolve at least one of the problems, leus (approximately €750,000), will be spent on the development and protection ofthat of unauthorised activities in the forests, the EU has launched a programme called the country’s forest resources. The contribution by the FLEG project to these auc-Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG), which is collaborating not only tions is the tracking and analyzing of their effects.in Moldova, but also in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Russia and Ukraine. Aurel Lozan and his small team of five advisers are also supporting the study of the situation. Four working groups were created to cover various aspects of forest pro-Text and photos by Dmitri KALAK tection and management, including the improvement of legislation, undertaking a “Moldova study of the market of timber materials and the country’s needs for timber, an analy- recently held sis of the current state of the forestry sector and raising awareness of the population the first two with respect to forest-related problems. Chisinau – Moldova’s forests are in trouble. Once the stuff of folklore, the area they open auctions cover is being whittled down by human action – and inaction – causing irreparable Timber market problems to sell a number damage. The statistics speak for themselves. According to official registers, the net for- “We have already prepared the first report on the timber market and the problems of harvesting est area of the Republic totals 362,700 hectares, or 10.7% of the territory, considerably in this field based on the results of the first three months of this year,” says Andrei contracts for “Human action, less than the 15-20% average in most other European countries. And even these scarce Cheresku, Chairman of the non-governmental organisation Silva Meleniu-III, with standing timber but also inaction, resources are under threat. According to official data, from 2000 to 2007 approximate- which the IUCN signed a contract for the implementation of surveys within the FLEG to private may cause ly 35,000 cubic meters of timber were logged illegally – a figure experts fear may be programme. “Many interesting facts, even at the initial stage, were revealed, illus- companies irreparable just the tip of the iceberg. trating the depth of the problem,” he says, adding that, “during the exportation of and state damage toN Forest Law Enforcement and “The problem of protecting the forests against illegal logging is quite pressing for timber, the customs declarations employ quite different systems of measurement:Governance (FLEG) project. enterprises” Moldovan many countries and for our region in particular,” says Aurel Lozan, of the International cubic metres, running metres, tons... Naturally, this does not ensure due accounting Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). He is national co-ordinator forests” of the timber that is being commercialised, which creates a loophole to manipulate of the EU-funded Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG) pro- the volumes of logging.” In his words, the local authorities do not maintain the regis- gramme in Moldova, a €6 million regional programme aiming to promote ters of households with gas supply, so it is difficult to define the actual need for fuel legal and sustainable methods of management in forestry and forest utili- timber. “We have already requested all village and district authorities to provide us sation, including the of illegal activities in the forests. The FLEG project is with the information about the total number of houses and farmsteads having gas being implemented by the World Bank in close co-operation with the IUCN supply,” says Cheresku. and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF). The problems of refining the legislation and the efficient management of forest re- Lozan recalls that in 2005 an international conference was held in St. Peters- sources were discussed at the initiative of FLEG Moldova, which brought together burg where 44 participant countries from Europe and North Asia signed the representatives of various interested agencies, including the government agen- the Declaration on Forest Law Enforcement and Governance. Each of the cy Moldsilva, academia, NGOs and private companies. signatories committed to the development of an indicative National Action “The economic activities of timber processing enterprises and the population’s need Plan for combating violations of the law and illegal wood-cutting. Moldova for timber make the problem of conservation and regular reproduction of forests approved such an indicative plan in 2009, covering the period until the end ever more critical,” said Dmitri Galupa, Director of the Forestry Research and Man- of 2011. “Our project, whose timeline coincides with that of the national agement Institute. “Insufficient state funding of scientific research and the imple- Action Plan, also supports its implementation,” says Lozan. mentation of modern mechanisms of forestry management costs money already 40 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 41
    • today, but may lead to even graver consequences in the future. For the EU Member Interview with Alexei Grigoriev States the conservation of forests is part of state policy. We hope that the ENPI-FLEG No political programme will become the first step for Moldova in this direction.” Forestry Code “We need a new Forestry Code, which will be harmonised with EU law and provideN Moldovan landscapes. for efficient mechanisms of management of forest resources and their protection against illegal logging,” said Petru Rotaru, Moldsilva’s Head of Forest Fund Division. boundaries for forests The concept of the new edition of the Forest Code substantiating the need for major amendments has already been drafted under the participation of the Only 100-200 kilometres away from the boundaries of FLEG Moldova experts. Alexei Palanchan the European Union, there is a prima facie plain Russian from the Botanics Institute is certain that remote forest area which has been endowed by nature the forestry law needs a profound over- with high quality woods although its population remains haul, although this should not be the starting point. “Let us admit that we cur- rather poor, at least if compared with neighbouring EU rently have sufficient levers for ensuring Member States. It is important for this difference not a more cautious utilisation and protec- to be so drastic, says Alexei Grigoriev, an expert from tion of forests,” he said. He proposes “the the Europe and North Asia Forest Law Enforcement and EU develops a new programme to make Governance (ENA–FLEG) project which is funded by the us look at the status of Moldovan forests European Union. from a new angle and to get involved in the solution of the accumulated prob- lems. In my opinion, this is the main merit Q: Why have Russia and the European Union decided that in most cases it is impossible to find any information on of this project.” to co-operate in this field? the internet about the activities of state authorities in the Alexei Grigoriev: The European Union, which is a very large field of forest management in the regions of Russia. We will importer of wood products, is illustrating the ever-growing rely upon the Law of Russia of 19 February 2009 on Ensuring public interest in the ecological and social consequences of Access to Data Concerning the Performance of State Autho- timber-felling in those countries from which it imports these rities and Local Self-Governance Bodies. We will be monito- items. Russia is one of the EU’s largest partners in the timber ring and promoting the observance of this Law. industry. We must admit, however, that there are cases of Do you have to get over the resistance of functionaries illegal cutting in our country. It is also apparent that there as well? are serious problems in the context of forest management, There are such functionaries, too. But there are also a great including corruption. Both Russia and the EU are interested number of splendid managers and specialists, especially in Forest Law Enforcement and Governance (FLEG) in the settling of these problems. regions, with whom we have already worked and will work in the future as well. We need openness and publicity in the Supports governments of participating countries, civil society and the private Unlawful cuttings – is this the main problem your project will forestry field, the rights of the local population should be sector in the development of sound and sustainable forest management practices, be concerned with? regulated normally and we must help the population and including the prevention of illegal forestry activities. No. Although it will be an important one within our activi- small business in the development of traditional (wood har- ties. It is necessary to find the reasons in order to minimise vesting) and alternative modules of forest management. www.enpi-fleg.org the violations of forestry law which are the result of not only The forest is not only the trees which are cut. Is also implies a deficient legal framework but also of the arrangement of wildlife, natural foodstuffs such as mushrooms and berries, Participating countries Objective the state system of forestry management. This field has wi- recreation, hunting, fishing and many other things. We will Armenia, Azerbaijan, It aims to tackle the growing problem of illegal forest activities in the Partner Countries by tnessed major changes in the past years. also rely upon the already existing and currently growing Belarus, Georgia, promoting legal and sustainable forest management and utilisation practices and seeks to The old system of forest utilisation which was oriented, first experience of our neighbours: Belarus, Latvia and Estonia. Moldova, Russia, strengthen the rule of law and to enhance local livelihoods. of all, upon tree cutting, has virtually collapsed. As compa- My personal goal within the framework of this project is to Ukraine The European Commission grant has been provided to the World Bank through a multi- red with the Soviet period, the volume of wood-cutting has promote the improvement of the life of the inhabitants of donor trust fund. The project’s implementing partners are the World Bank, the IUCN decreased by several times. A great number of forest settlements; to minimise the Timeframe (World Conservation Union) and the WWF (World Wildlife Fund), ensuring that the settlements of wood-cutters, as a result, have “It is also apparent that difference between the Russian ter- 2008-2011 public and private sectors as well as civil society are consistently included in the project’s nothing to do. there are serious problems ritory and that of the neighbouring activities. Currently, hundreds of kilometres of forests in the context of forest EU states. A border should only be a Budget have no permanent population – they have just management, including line on a map and not another “iron € 6 million Find out more turned into wildlife areas. curtain,” be it economic, legal or corruption. Both Russia cultural. FLEG website www.enpi-fleg.org/home.html It will be very important to ensure the openness of the information in the field of forest manage- and the EU are interested Fleg fiche www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=205&id_type=10 ment. We were surprised when we discovered in the settling of these problems” 42 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 43
    • ukRAinE Saving “The dotted pattern on the seabed is the Black Sea not just pretty to look at. It also provides scientific evidence that flat-browed mud The Black Sea countries have long exploited ample resources of the sea they share, largely shrimps oblivious to the harm being inflicted upon nature. are capable of Environment Collaboration project for the Black Sea in three countries of the region, living in such big Over time, pollution, coastal development and overfishing undermined the unique Ukraine, Moldova and Georgia. colonies here” ecosystem. It became clear that a wide international effort was needed to reverse the “Environment matters to us, and this is one of the reasons we are supporting this downward trend. That is why the EU took a leading role and funded the Environmental project… The protection of the ecosystem of the Black Sea is important”, says Hans Collaboration for the Black Sea project that sought to support the effort to save Pontus Rhein, Head of Operation at the EC Delegation in Ukraine. Euxinus or the ‘hospitable sea’ as the ancient Greeks and Romans used to call it. The project aims to assist in the preservation of the Black Sea and its coast through the development and improvement of the legislative base. It also helps save the Text by Ilona Iarmoliuk natural resources and biodiversity of the Black Sea through support to the Partner Photos by ECBSea Countries in resolving common issues. The overall goal is to make the Black Sea healthy and clean. Among the project’s major achievements at the regional level is the development KIEV – Underwater studies in the Karkinitsky Bay, north-west of the Crimean penin- of the amendments to the Convention on the protection of the Black Sea against sula, provided scientists with interesting observations, according to Boris Aleksan- pollution (Bucharest Convention). The Bucharest Convention is the most important drov, an expert at the Odessa branch of the Institute of Biology of Southern Seas. legal instrument that facilitates decision making on issues related to the Black Sea While diving in this area they came across sites with big numbers of holes made by environment. flat-browed mud shrimps. These shrimps dig holes in the seabed, and the number of holes equals the number of shrimps – one hole, one shrimp in it. When the tiny The Ukrainian angle creature leaves its home, the hole is rapidly filled up with sand or silt, and eventually One of the key components of the work to improve the marine environment is the vanishes from the surface. development of marine protected areas (MPAs) in the Black Sea. MPAs help preserve “Can you imagine, we found vast settlements of flat-browed mud shrimps with up to the ecosystem and the resources that are vital for healthy environment, fisheries and 100 holes per square meter”, says Boris Aleksandrov. “The dotted pattern on the sea- “Environment tourism. bed is not just pretty to look at. It also provides scientific evidence that flat-browed matters to us, and N A press-conference. The Ukrainian experts and scientists have put together comprehensive guidelines mud shrimps are capable of living in such big colonies here”. this is one of the for the management of the MPAs in the Black Sea. These guidelines take into ac- Also thanks to the underwater studies the Ukrainian scientists were able to observe Hans Rhein reasons we are Head of the Operation Unit: count all specific parameters of the Black Sea, crucial for developing new MAPs that and describe another phenomenon which is unusual for the Black Sea, the sea reefs. Energy, Transport, Environment, supporting this EU Delegation to Ukraine can also be used by other countries of the region. “As a matter of fact, we do have coral reefs in the Black Sea, but here we are talk- project…” Stepan Lyzun Under the Environmental Collaboration for the Black Sea project, experts prepared ing about oyster reefs. Some of them are about 1,5 meters high”, adds Aleksandrov. First Deputy Minister for background information for the establishment of a marine protected area in the Kar-N Underwater studies A great number of mussels, crayfishes and colourful sea sponges have found their Environmental Protectionin Karkintsky Bay. in Ukraine kinitsky Bay, between the Crimean peninsula and Kherson oblast, called the Small homes in the oyster reefs, he says. Yelena Panina Phyllophora Field. This area is a popular site for fishing, hunting, recreation and mari- National Team Leader EU: “Environment matters to us” in Ukraine The crayfish and the oyster reefs are not the only victims of Richard Lisovsky Local Expert, Ukraine human activity in the Black Sea region. There is ever grow- Scientific Centre for Ecology ing recognition in the Black Sea littoral states that human of Sea (UkrSCES) habitat is also in peril. The question is how to address the Victor Karamushka National Expert on problem in the most effective way. The EU has taken the Sustainable Development leading role in fighting the environment challenges by en- and Institutional Policy gaging its financial resources and institutional capacity. Boris Aleksandrov Local Expert, Institute of Biology In practical terms, the European Commission launched the of Southern Seas, Odessa branch 44 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 45
    • time transport. Today this part of the sea is endangered by pollution from agriculture AzERbAijAn and industry, as well as uncontrolled hunt- ing and overfishing. The experts chose this bay ecause it contains Purer water for vast resources of Phyllophora - the red algae. Phyllophora is not just a unique biological object. One hundred and eighteen species of zoophytes depend on this algae. “Ten out of them are already in the endan-N Research in the Black Sea. The EU has the Caspian Sea gered-species list”, explains Boris Aleksandrov. Also, about 48 species of fish depend on the red algae for their livelihood. helped the The project has also developed the Draft Law on the Coastal Zone and submitted it countries in to the Ukraine Ministry of Environmental Protection. the region to improve their Good results are the best reward legislation in As a result of the two and a half years’ work by international and national project order to protect experts in cooperation with the Environmental Ministries of Ukraine, Georgia and the Black Sea. Moldova, the project has prepared draft legislation documents, guidelines, reports Now Ukraine, Georgia and In the 1990s the ecosystem of the Caspian Sea, a habitat for sturgeon, seals and and surveys, which were handed over to the relevant government bodies in the Part- Moldova have to other species, was endangered by pollution, oil spills, coastal discharges etc. ner Countries. In this way the EU has helped the countries improve their legislation in order to pro- engage actively and the littoral states could not undertake regular water quality monitoring tect the Black Sea. Now, as Hans Rhein points out, Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova in monitoring the to understand the status of its environment and ecosystems. The problematic have to engage actively in monitoring the sea and keeping the situation under con- sea and keeping situation aggravated after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The littoral states trol. But of utmost importance is that all recommendations developed by the project the situation in collaboration with the international community have, in the late 1990ies under control. team should be put into practice by the governments. “Soon we hope to see the initiated the protection of the unique Caspian Sea, by establishing the Caspian results of this work”, he adds. Environment Programme (CEP) and by signing the Tehran Convention. The In Ukraine this project is considered one of the most successful of those funded by Caspian states have all ratified the Convention and committed themselves to the the EU, and the representatives of the Ministry of Environmental Protection promise to do their best towards implementing its aims. But to be honest, only time will show Strategic Action Plan. In order to support two of the targets of the CEP’s Strategic whether we fulfill our commitment to care for the ‘clean’ future of the Black Sea. Action Plan, the EU has financed the CaspianMAP project (Caspian Water Quality Monitoring and Action Plan for Areas of Pollution Concern). Text and photos by Shahin Abbasov Environmental collaboration for the Black Sea Improves regional cooperation and the national capacity Baku – “The monitoring of water quality in the of participating countries to protect the Black Sea Basin, and region plays a very important role to under- implements activities decided by the Black Sea Commission standing the Caspian Sea’s environment and major trends,” said Mirsalam Ganbarov, head of www.ECBSea.org the Caspian Complex Environmental Monitor- ing Administration of the Azerbaijan Ministry Participating countries Objective of Ecology and Natural Resources. “It allows Georgia, Moldova, The project contributes to the sustainable development of the Black Sea Basin by Russia, Ukraine us to determine the impact of new industries preventing and reducing the input of pollutants through river or direct discharges into the sea, as well as through sustainable management and protection of natural and the exploitation of natural resources, and Timeframe resources, including water resources and biodiversity. It aims to help control land- helps evaluate the efficiency of measures ap- 2007–2009 based sources of pollution and prevent the dumping of waste and supports joint plied to protect its environment.” To upgrade action in the case of accidents. laboratory capacity, the EU supplied sophis- Budget ticated sampling and analyzing equipment € 2.2 million Find out more and supported its installation, the Azeri official Environmental collaboration for the Black Sea fiche > www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=203&id_type=10 said;monitoring was now conducted regularly, N The most polluted areas of ENPI Info Centre – Environment thematic portal > the Caspian are now constantly with samples taken from the surface, the water www.enpi-info.eu/thememed.php?subject=6 monitored. column and the sea bottom. The EU-supplied 46 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 47
    • “Only a few years multi-functional equipment allows Government efforts ago there were high accuracy of registrations and high- The Azeri state appears determined to undertake measures for the Baku bay water some places on speed proceeding of data on the pres- purification. President Ilham Aliyev has said new environmental ships with special the Caspian coast ence in the water of hard metals, pesti- equipment on water purification will be delivered in 2010. The government is taking where the level cides and oil products. Project Manager steps to clean the Caspian from metal wastes resulting from oil industry activity. of colon bacillus at DG EuropeAid in Brussels, Lena Niels- Rovnag Abdullayev, president of the State Oil Company (SOCAR), said there are substance in en, said the project, which ended in more than 500,000 tons of metal wastes only in the Azerbaijani sector of the Sea water was several September 2009, made “in-depth as- – old pipelines, sunken ships, etc. “However, during the last three years 32,000 tons times higher sessments of the monitoring practices of metal waste was taken out from the Azerbaijani sector of the Caspian. Work will allowed norms. and capabilities of water laboratories increase in 2010 and we are planning to clean 82,000 tons of metal from the sea.” Now the situation in the region, on the basis of which an Ganbarov believes all these measures will significantly improve the situation. “It has changed inter-calibration exercise was designed.” will increase the sea’s self-recovery potential and will serve to preserving of biodi- completely” The results of the exercise, which implies harmonizing the monitoring methodology versity of the Caspian.” and standards, allowed the laboratories to develop their capacities to work with the samples they received from sea expeditions organized by the project. Cruises to draw a CaspianMAP Four sea expeditions were carried out in ‘hot-spot’ areas of Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan known for having high pollution. The goal was to deter- mine the main characteristics of the water and the sediments on the seabed. In Azer- baijan, the cruise was organised by the Caspian Complex Environmental Monitor-“The monitoring ing Administration. Samples were taken from the territorial waters near Baku bay N Water at Caspian beaches inof water quality and in the deep-water side of South Caspian, said Ganbarov. Based on the outcome Azerbaijan is now much purer of these expeditions, the Regional Plan for Water Quality Monitoring was developed. than even few years ago.in the regionplays a very It included recommendations to Azerbaijan, Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan onimportant role to defining places of heavy pollution as well as regular sample taking, and set criteria forunderstanding new standards of water quality that create good conditions for marine life. A plan forthe Sea’s proposed priority investments, for example the construction of purification plants andenvironment and measures to avoid pollution, was developed by the project. Azerbaijan was excludedmajor trends… from this recommendation as it had already invested in purification plants.To upgrade Improving water quality and purity Caspian Water Quality Monitoring and Actionthe capacity ofregional labs on Water-borne and industrial waste of Baku, Absheron and Sumgayit city as well as the Plan for Areas of Pollution Concern (CaspianMAP)water quality Kura River are considered ‘hot-spots’ of pollution in Azerbaijan. However, with the EU’s technical support and within the country’s plans to improve its environmental Supports the objectives of the Caspian Environment Programme (CEP) by helping to develop aresearch, the situation, the water purification infrastructure in Baku and the Absheron peninsula common Regional Water Quality Monitoring Programme and a Regional Pollution Action Plan.EU suppliedand installed was modernised and new facilities established. Every year, more than 600 million www.caspianmap.orgsampling and cubic meters of waste water goes into the sea of Baku and the Absheron peninsula,analyzing the most serious sources of Caspian pollution in Azerbaijan. “In the mid-2000s, onlyequipment” 30-35% of these volumes were purified whereas now thanks to all these measures purification has reached up to 70%,” said Ganbarov. And the work on the establish- Participating countries Objective ment of new purification facilities continues in Azerbaijan. Ziyaddin Kazimov, head Azerbaijan, The project, with a regional office in Turkmenistan, sought to contribute to an improved of division at the Republican Centre for Hygiene and Epidemiology, says the quality Russia and Iran, quality of the marine and coastal environment of the Caspian littoral states. The CaspianMAP of beach water has significantly improved as a result of the new purification plants. Kazakhstan, was financed under the TACIS programme to support the Caspian Environment Programme “A few years ago, there were places where the level of colon bacillus substance in Turkmenistan (CEP), whose mission is to help Caspian littoral states achieve the sustainable development water was several times higher allowed norms. Now the situation has changed com- and management of the Caspian environment in the long term. Its implementation began Timeframe in 1998 with EU support and the participation of all five littoral states – Azerbaijan, Iran, pletely.” But the Azerbaijan Green Movement chairwoman, Farida Huseynova, be- 2006 –2009 Kazakhstan, Russia and Turkmenistan. lieves the measures are insufficient. “For example the capacity of the Hovsani water The TACIS programme (Technical Assistance to Commonwealth of Independent States) has purification station was increased, but it was not modernised.” Budget been replaced by the European Neighbouhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI). Even so, ordinary Azerbaijanis appear to see positive changes. “The water in the Cas- €1.5 million pian, at least at Absheron beaches, is definitely purer now. A few years ago it was Find out more really dangerous to swim there because of high level of microbe concentration and Caspian Environment Programme www.caspianenvironment.org/newsite/index.htm ENPI Info Centre – Environment thematic portal http://www.enpi-info.eu/list_projects_east. household rubbish pollution. Since last summer the water is obviously purer,” said php?subject=6 Ogtay Mammadov, 42, an IT-specialist. 48 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 49
    • People ukRAinE Carbon footprintsEnergy leading intoEnvironment the futureTransport Everyone seems to agree that coordinated international efforts are needed to tackle climate change. The task now is to translate this conviction into real actions. Countries have to develop climate change strategies, get their citizens and industries interested in energy saving clean technologies, find the necessary investments and build adequate institutional capacities. To help neighbours advance towards these goals, the EU has funded a project Support to Kyoto Protocol Implementation (SKPI). Text and photos by Iryna Tuz Kyiv – “You live as if you have the resources of not just one but two planets. Your “We just lack carbon footprint is 2.33 planets and 9.58 tonnes per annum” – reads Nastia Zaretska, awareness. a ninth-grade student of a Kyiv school, on the internet after completing her first cli- The internet mate quiz. The website offering the quiz claims it will take five minutes to complete quiz How Big Is but it takes Nastia over half an hour to fill out the questionnaire. Why so long? Be- Your Ecological cause she is using an electronic translator. “It would have been better if the quiz was Footprint gives in my native Ukrainian. Few people I know would be motivated enough to spend us a good reason several hours with a dictionary even if they knew it would help the climate cause,” to think” says Nastia. The official title of this quiz is How Big Is Your Ecological Footprint? Plans exist to trans- late and adapt it for the twelve countries involved in the SKPI project. Alexei Sank- ovski, the project’s manager, says that such internet quizzes have become popular. You can visit the website free of charge and answer questions such as: Do you have a car? How often do you eat meat? How much do you spend on jewellery? What energy sources do you use to heat your home? 50 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 51
    • N Odessa port, Ukraine. Within the framework of the project, Sankovski and his team analysed existing calcu-”The problem lators and committed to adapt them to the needs of each partner country.is neither the “The carbon intensity of the power grid in Ukraine differs from that of Georgia, Ta-global nor jikistan or Russia,” he says. “For example, the exploitation of the same equipment inlocal rise of Tajikistan is associated with less carbon emissions than in Ukraine or Russia, because The climate is changing, and so should our habitstemperature in Tajikistan hydroelectric power is a key source of energy, and it is less polluting.” For the past 15 years, the average temperature on the planet has gone up from 13.5°but, rather, theupsetting of the to 14.2°-14.3° Celsius. Scientists agree that this rise in temperature is our own doing. Double reward Through consultancy and support, the EU wants to attain the global purpose of notclimatic balance.” The calculator is not the only task of the project. It also helps attract investments allowing the average temperature of the planet to increase by more than 2° Celsius. and find partners in the field of energy conservation. There are plans to substitute For this reason, the EU’s SKPI project plays the role of a technical and legal adviser for conventional filament light bulbs with energy-saving ones in the schools of Krama- “The more the twelve participating countries. torsk, Horlivka and Sloviansk in the Donetsk region by this summer, the energy-sav- countries The problem is indeed very serious: real disasters await small island states as they ing bulbs consuming five times less power. participate in may find themselves under water, even though some climate change impact might N Ecological footprint quiz. Why does the European Union find it profitable to support the implementation of this process, be positive, although temporary, for oth- the Kyoto Protocol in Russia, Eastern Europe and Central Asia? “The EU is interested the higher ers. There is no doubt that global emissions in the fulfilment of the Protocol and all of the subsequent arrangements which will the likelihood should be reduced. The Kyoto Protocol, come after to replace it,” answers Sankovski, “The more countries participate in this is that the which expires in 2012, should be replaced process, the higher the likelihood is that the arrangements will be implemented.” arrangements by a new treaty. The twelve project member-countries are former Soviet republics. For this reason, will be ”The problem is neither the global nor lo- they still maintain common infrastructure, engineering solutions and legal frame- implemented” cal rise of temperature but, rather, the up- work, even though each of them has their own particular political, economic and setting of the climatic balance,” says Alexey local nuances. The countries with major industrial potential, like Ukraine, Russia and Kokorin, one of the project’s main experts. Georgia, are more successful, while certain Asian countries, such as Turkmenistan The SKPI project seeks to assist the twelveN Alexei Sankovski. and Tajikistan, have less human and economic resources for the fulfilment of the participating countries in negotiating an provisions of international agreements like the Kyoto Protocol,” says Sankovski. international treaty that will take over from All the member-countries have a legal framework, but abidance by the law is weak, Kyoto. “If they adhere to a new treaty, this especially the level of observance of laws on energy conservation and renewable en- will partially be the accomplishment of our ergy. Sankovski believes that in an ideal world, the laws should be directly enforce- project,” believes Sankovski. able and should include the economic constituent, i.e. business incentives, supple- menting the stick policy with a carrot. 52 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 53
    • Georgi Veremeichuk, from the Ministry of Environmental Protection of Ukraine, is of the opinion that the European Union is fully aware of the problem of global climatic GEORGiA change. “Not more than 2° C – this is a good policy. We are very grateful to the EU. This project aims at raising public awareness on climate problems, on the develop- “Not more than ment of national approaches and supporting institutional capacity building of the 2° C – this is a member-states.” good policy. South Caucasus “We just lack awareness,” says Nastia Zaretska. “The internet quiz gives us a good We are very reason to think.” For quite some time, Nastia has been rethinking her own habits. grateful to the EU” For example, she believes it is far better to ride a bicycle than to take an over-packed bus, but for this a shift in the culture of motorists is needed that would make it safe to ride a bicycle in the streets of a big city. united by common electricity grid With more than 26,000 rivers, Georgia is rich in hydropower potential. However, the limited capacity of the country’s electricity transmission grid prevent this natural advantage from translating into major economic benefit. The Black Sea Energy Transmission System, a project supported by the N Carpathian EU-funded Neighbourhood Investment Facility (NIF), is set to bring Mountains, Ukraine. change. The €300 million project will help connect the power grids of the Southern Caucasus countries and increase electricity exports to Turkey and Europe, while bolstering energy security in the region. Text and photos by Maia EdilashviliSupport to Kyoto Protocol Implementation, SKPISupports the fight against climate change through the extension of the flexible Tbilisi – In the 1990s, work on Georgia’s high voltage electricity grid was abandonedmechanisms of the UNFCCC/Kyoto Protocol as well as the development of appropriate in the midst of the post-independence turmoil. Now, it will soon be in full swing again, the key to a significant new role for Georgia.mitigation and adaptation strategies. While the previous projects focused on strengthening the domestic power system,www.inogate.org the new one envisions the rehabilitation and construction of a 315 km high voltageParticipating countries Objective grid connecting the Georgian and Turkish power networks. This opens the door toArmenia, Azerbaijan, Assists participating countries in combating climate change both by extending the use of mechanisms, such new investment in electricity generation and makes Georgia a regional hub for en-Belarus, Georgia, as the Clean Development Mechanism and Joint Implementation that are attached to the Kyoto Protocol, and ergy trade, according to Deputy Energy Minister of Georgia Mariam Valishvili.Moldova, Russia, by supporting the formulation of appropriate mitigation and adaptation strategies at each country level. The 500/400 kV line will link Zestaponi in western Georgia with Gardabani near theUkraine, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijani border via Akhaltsihke, close to Turkey. The project also includes con-Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Find out moreTurkmenistan, Support to Kyoto Protocol Implementation, SKPI website www.inogate.org/inogate_programme/inogate_ struction of a back-to-back converter station in Akhaltsikhe which is necessary toUzbekistan projects/ongoing-inogate-projects/inogate_programme/inogate_projects/ongoing-inogate-projects/ establish a synchronous link with the Turkish grid at Borcka. support-kyoto-protocol-implementation-skpi “Turkey is facing a demand-supply mismatch and everybody expects this gap toTimeframe grow,” says Michael Andres, Director of Sector Coordination for the South Caucasus,2008-2011 SKPI fiche www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=212&id_type=10 Energy/Transport of KfW, the German Development Bank, one of the major donors for the project.Budget€ 5 million 54 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 55
    • Joining forces kW/h annual capacity (Turkish-Korean investment). These plants, the government The project, dubbed the largest venture in Georgia’s power sec- hopes, will allow to export up to 4 billion kW/h electricity, compared to 1.2 billion tor, is supported by several international finance institutions: kW/h planned for 2010. This will be around 15% of total generation, making elec- KfW has allocated €100 million (€75 million loan plus €25 mil- tricity the top export commodity. lion grant), the European Bank for Reconstruction and Devel- “If you look at this line you will see the potential to make this Black Sea Energy opment (EBRD) and the European Investment Bank (EIB) have Transmission System a regional network embracing also Azerbaijan and Armenia,” “If all the earmarked €160 million (€80 million loan each), and the Neigh- Andres explained. Connecting the network to the Turkish grid, he added, will offer connections bourhood Investment Facility (NIF), has provided an €8 million a unique export opportunity. “If all the connections become operational the three become grant. The Georgian government, too, will cover expenditure of [South Caucasus] countries together might be able to export to the EU or Iran and operational the €20-40 million. can also exchange energy [among themselves],” he said. three [South Created in 2008, the NIF is an innovative financial instrument The project will also hugely benefit domestic consumers in terms of urgently Caucasus]N Michael Andres of the European Neighborhood Policy, aiming to help the Eastern and SouthernDirector Sector Coordination needed grid stabilization. Most of Georgia’s hydro resources are concentrated in countriesSouth Caucasus, Energy/ neighbours finance big infrastructure investment when they fail to get direct western Georgia, while the east hosts the majority of large industrial enterprises, together mightTransport of KfW, German funding from the private sector. The idea is to create a partnership, attract grantDevelopment Cooperation at “Sudden making an efficient transmission system critical for the stability of supply. Thus far, be able to exportKfW’s Tbilisi office, pointing at aid from the European Commission and EU member states, and use them to le- transportation of electric power relies on one single 500 kV line; in case anything to the EU orthe map, saying that there is disruptions of verage loans from International Finance Institutions and contributions from the happens to this line large parts of Georgia will be blacked out. The addition of a Iran and canpotential to make the Black Sea electricity supplyEnergy Transmission System a partner states. second line under the Project also exchangeregional network, embracing to the capital,also Azerbaijan and Armenia. Last year, €99.7 million of NIF grants generated a total contribution from European will prevent this. Zumburidze energy [among Tbilisi, and other finance institutions of around €2.5 billion. According to Richard Weber, Deputy is optimistic: “Sudden disrup- themselves]” eastern Georgian Director-General of EuropeAid, after 18 months of operation, the NIF’s global port- tions of electricity supply to regions will be folio stands at some €9 billion. the capital, Tbilisi, and other ruled out” For the Georgian project, the NIF grant, made available in late 2008, has been “a eastern Georgian regions will huge success”, said Andres, adding that this contribution allowed the launch of be ruled out.” technical preparations more than one year before the agreement for full financing was concluded in April 2010. In particular, the NIF’s €8 million has been used to pay the engineering and consulting company Fichtner for the technical appraisal, developing the conceptual design and budgeting. The company will supervise the project implementation. Remaining funds of up to €3 million will finance specific measures defined to mitigate environmental impacts of the line construction. N The substation at Zahesi hydro-power plant, Technical preparations have been completed, and the tender process is now un- located in Mtskheta region near Tbilisi that derway. Construction works started in July. In May 2012, the line will be at least has an average annual capacity of 160 million kW/h. Hydropower accounts for 85% of Georgia’s partly operational and is due to reach full capacity a year later. electricity, which is enough for local needs. “When the big Increased stability and trade plants start Hydropower accounts for 85% of Georgia’s electricity, enough for domestic needs. operation and The country imports electricity only in winter, while exporting surplus power in we have this line, we’ll be able summer. Neighbourhood Investment Facility (NIF) N The premises of the central The new transmission line will help diminish seasonal electricity losses: during dispatching centre of the to prevent the The NIF is an innovative instrument of the ENP that brings together grant funding heavy rains the hydro power plants get more water than they can cope with, so the Georgian State Elektrosystem losses and boost (GSE), the state-run electricity from the European Commission and the EU Member States and loans from water is spilled. “When the big plants start operation and we have this line, we’ll transmission company in exports” be able to prevent the losses and boost exports,” said Sulkhan Zumburidze, Chief downtown Tbilisi. The centre European Public Finance Institutions. is in charge of Georgian power of the Rehabilitation Department of Georgian State Elektrosystem (GSE), the state grid’s operating management. owned electricity transmission compa- Participating countries Objective ny, which will own and operate the grid Algeria, Egypt, Israel, It aims to mobilise additional funding for infrastructure projects in the Neighbourhood area. through its subsidiary Energotrans. Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, The NIF focuses on the key sectors of energy, environment and transport while also providing The new line will have a capacity of up Occupied Palestinian support to SMEs development and social sector infrastructures. By encouraging joint European to 1,000 MW, excessive for Georgia’s cur- Territory, Syria, Tunisia, operations, the NIF thus paves the way for concrete donors’ coordination, division of labour rent demand, but pertinent in the face Armenia, Azerbaijan, and harmonisation of procedures. Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, of increasing investment. “By 2018 the Russia, Ukraine Find out more big hydro power plants will have been NIF website constructed, and this line will be fully Timeframe http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where/neighbourhood/regional-cooperation/irc/investment_en.htm utilised,” Valishvili said. 2007-2013 NIF fiche Last year, Georgia saw construction start www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=321&id_type=10 of several new hydro power plants, in- Budget € 700 million cluding Namakhvani HPP with 1.5 billion 56 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 57
    • Interview with Richard WeberBlending loans “Environment, water treatment orand grants drinking water, big infrastructure installations for ports and airports, but also the construction “We have a global portfolio overto finance investments of hospitals and schools are among the priorities of the NIF.” 18 months of roughly €9 billion of operation, which is the total amount of potential investments.”for the Neighbourhood ved, or when they get direct access to drinking water. Their by these institutions, as well as the part that is financed byThe Neighbourhood Investment Facility Q: What is the NIF trying to achieve? quality of life is improved as a result. In Egypt in the South the Partner Countries themselves. Of these, €5 billion are(NIF) is an innovative financial instrument Richard Weber: The Neighbourhood Investment Facility is or Moldova in the East, the NIF is intervening to improve envisaged for the South and €4 billion for the East. a young instrument. It was created by the European Com- water quality. Of the total amount, €4 billion is the part financed by theof the European Neighbourhood Policy mission in June 2008 to try to help our neighbours in the The NIF is also, for example, financing with the Develop- loans of the IFIs, and the EU subsidies account for €170 mil-(ENP), whose primary objective is to kick- East and South finance big infrastructural investment when ment Bank of the Council of Europe, the refurbishment of lion. So you see that the leverage of our grant is very impor-start key infrastructure projects that require they cannot be directly financed by the private sector. These the central hospital in Chisinau, which is the key medical fa- tant. With these +/- €200 million we generate investments investments mainly concern public services to the citizens. cility in the country. In parallel, in Ukraine, the NIF finances worth +/- €9 billion.considerable financial resources, as well Such public goods need large scale funding which each the electricity networks and installations. All these projects Is there any conditionality attached to all these instruments?as to support private sector development country may find difficult to obtain on the market in the have a direct impact on the life of the people.in the neighbourhood region. The NIF is form of loans, especially in difficult times like the present Of course! A lot of money is at stake, so we need to nego- financial crisis. Then grants of the type that the NIF provides What is the distribution of funds for the East and the South? tiate with Partner Countries the matrix of cooperation. Weaimed at creating a partnership, pooling can be very useful. For the time being we have a global portfolio over 18 agree on the objectives and expected results together. Buttogether grant resources from the What are the priorities of the new facility? months of roughly €9 billion of operation, which is the total at the end of the day they are in the driving seat in imple-European Commission and the EU Member amount of potential investments. That includes the grants menting the reforms that will ensure a decent life for their Could you give some examples? and loans from the IFIs and partners of the consortia formed citizens.States and using them to leverage loans Environment, water treatment or drinking water, transport,from European Finance Institutions as well especially big infrastructure installations for ports and air- ports, interconnection between electricity networks, ener-as contributions from the partner countries. gy saving, renewable energy. The social sector is also highThe leverage effect of NIF contributions on the agenda, for example, construction of hospitals andis high: in 2009, €99.7 million of NIF schools. NIF - Neighbourhood Investment Facility There is also support to SMEs through risk capital envelo-grants generated a total contribution pes, when the private sector perceives risks as Timeframe 2007-2013from European Finance Institutions of too high to lend money to SMEs, and the NIF can promoteapproximately €2.5 billion – in other words innovation in our partner countries. Bringing together grant funding from the European Commission and the EU Member States andalmost €25 for each euro provided by the What are the challenges in implementing the NIF? loans from European Public Finance Institutions, the NIF (Neighbourhood Investment Facility) is anNIF – and the total cost of the investments The biggest one is to reconcile the NIF funds with the coun- innovative instrument of the ENP, aiming at mobilising additional funding for infrastructure projects tries needs. In the first 18 months of operations, the facilityconcerned reached over € 5 billion. The had at its disposal +/- €150 million of grants. This is clearly in the Neighbourhood area. The NIF focuses on the key sectors of energy, environment and transportprojects chosen – from water treatment to not enough to subsidise all submitted investments in nei- while also providing support to SMEs development and social sector infrastructures.hospitals – “have a direct impact on the life ghbouring countries, and a stringent selection, which is of NIF operations constitute a practical lever focusing on countries with ENP Action Plans agreed with course a challenge, had to be made.of the people,” explains Richard Weber, the EU. On a case-by-case basis, other Neighbourhood countries may also benefit from NIF grant What is the direct impact of NIF-funded projectsDeputy Director-General of EuropeAid support for projects of cross border or regional nature to which the EU and its Neighbouring partners on citizens in the Partner Countries?in an interview with the ENPI Info Centre. A project that funds a water treatment facility is a good attach particular interest. example of impact. The people concerned will immediately feel the difference when the quality of the water is impro- http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where/neighbourhood/regionalcooperation/irc/investment_en.htm 58 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 59
    • People MOlDOVA First TRACECA InvestmentEnergy Forum may help propelEnvironment Moldovan apples to European supermarketsTransport A new cutting-edge logistics node may emerge over the next decade on a 40-hectare plot of land near the town of Marculesti, 150km north of Chisinau. A feasibility study under the EU-funded International Logistics Centres in the Western NIS and the Caucasus project, which is part of the TRACECA programme, has marked the first step towards putting vision into practice. Text by ENPI Info Centre photos by TRACECA The next step is to present the project to the international financial markets. This is precisely what the first TRACECA Investment Forum, due to be held on 12 October in Brussels, will seek to do. The Forum will offer 22 priority projects, including the Marculesti International Logistics Centre, to investors. Chances are high that the Forum will help put Marculesti firmly on track. Among sources of financing the future ILC, the draft feasibil- ity report released in July 2010 suggested the Neighbourhood Investment Facility (NIF). With a relatively small share of funding to cover the cost of a container terminal (€0.61 million at 60 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 61
    • Five companies have expressed varying degrees of interest, including two local transport/logistics service providers, which are considering long-term leases of the future warehouses and other facilities, as well as two local pro- cessing companies in the agricultural sector. Creating new jobs If the Marculesti project materializes, the northern regions of Moldova will become a regional hub, thus improving the competitiveness of the TRACE- CA route in terms of liability of transport, reduction of travel time and costs.N Sergiu Ciobanu, the GeneralManager of the FIAM. N Andreas Schoen, team leader There will be ample opportunities for small and medium size businesses of the International Logistics in the local freight transport and logistics sector. A major logistics hub will foster a current prices of the total estimated cost of €16.7 million), Centres in the Western NIS and the Caucasus project. more balanced regional development and help relieve poverty by boosting employ- NIF will be crucial for attracting larger investment by the ment in the agricultural sector. It will enable a greater volume of exports, especially EBRD and other International Financial Institutions. fresh and processed agricultural products. “Air cargo operations started here in 2009, and today they are mostly related to Chi- Why Marculesti? nese imports,” Sergiu Ciobanu, the General Manager of the FIAM told the ENPI Info Several factors make Marculesti an excellent choice for a Centre. “The future ILC could help local farmers consolidate their harvested apples N Eduard Biriucov, TRACECA logistics hub. The area is an important juncture of a major and other fruits widely cultivated in the region, in order to export them to the Euro- National Secretary of Moldova. TRACECA corridor between Romania and Ukraine. Also pean market,” he added. through existing railway and road connections it links the TRACECA region with its neighbours to the north (Ukraine), east (Ukraine and Russia), south (the Black Sea region) and west (Romania and beyond). “And last but not least, the future logistics centre will build on the facili- ties of the former military airfield, which has been converted into the Free Interna- tional Airport Marculesti (FIAM),” said Eduard Biriucov, TRACECA National Secretary of Moldova, in an interview with the ENPI Info Centre. The team of the EU-funded International Logistics Centres project led by Andreas Schoen investigated the perspectives of the endeavor. The idea is to construct the Marculesti ILC in three phases, adding modules like in a LEGO toy structure. When fully developed, provisionally by 2022, the Centre will incorporate a container service centre with packing, repairing and washing facilities, as well as an open stor- age for railroad containers. There will also be a Customs terminal with its own ware- houses and open storage. Logistics-intensive industries and trade will develop as long-term leasing tenants will be able to build their own facilities for processing, storage, etc. International Logistical Centers (TRACECA) Reputation matters The project supports international trade and facilitates the movements of goods along the TRACECA Transport operators are already eyeing the Free International Airport Marculesti. corridor through improving logistics capabilities, interoperability and multimodal transport. They find the FIAM attractive due to its reputation of a well-managed and financially sound company whose credentials have been recognized by commercial banks.N The Free InternationalAirport Marculesti (FIAM)is up and running. www.traceca-org.org Participating countries Objective Armenia, Azerbaijan, It tackles in particular the lack of modern logistic transport centres/nodes and common legal ground for its Georgia, Moldova, integration and development, since technological connection between these centres directly affects the Ukraine Bulgaria, development of trade and international transport (import, export and transit) in the Caucasus and Black Sea Romania, Turkey region countries. closely associated Find out more Timeframe TRACECA main fiche www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=272&id_type=10 2009-2011 International Logistical Centers (TRACECA) fiche www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=268&id_type=10 ENPI Info Centre – Transport thematic portal www.enpi-info.eu/themeeast.php?subject=8 Budget ENPI Info Centre report – “First TRACECA Investment Forum opens a gate to financial markets” € 3.440.500 http://enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=22367&id_type=1&lang_id=450&subject=2-4-6-7 62 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 63
    • the water by the ships during navigation,” says Bakhtiyar Muradov, adding: “Today “Today strict AzERbAijAn control must be this practice is not allowed any more, and strict control must be applied by port authorities over how much oil ships take on board, and how much oil-waste is applied by port handed over once docking in.” authorities overSafer ports in cleaner how much oil The issue of waste management ships take on Thus sea ports should be equipped with relevant infrastructure for waste process- N Bakhtiyar Muradov board, and how ing and utilisation. According to Muradov, Azerbaijan does have waste manage- much oil-waste ment practice, but the country could definitely improve it through the applicationwaters towards is handed over of different methodologies and best practices. once docking in” One example: “Today in Baku sea port we have several operators responsible for vessels waste management,” continues Mr Muradov, “but EU experts have ex- plained that a single operator fully responsible for the job, even working throughinternational standards subcontractors, could allow a more transparent tariff policy and would ensure more efficiency in the anti-pollution protection. This practice seems to be working well in other countries of the region, and it could be good for us too.” “I learned The TRACECA-SASEPOL project represents an opportunity for the beneficiary a lot from countries to capitalise on international experience available from experts provid- internationalof maritime safety ed by the EU and, with their national experience, develop and implement ‘joined experts about up’ policy packages at regional and national levels. reactions to The project seeks to raise technical standards so that the partner countries can ad- oil-spills and vance in meeting the requirements of the IMO (International Maritime Organiza- prevention of tion) Conventions on safety of navigation, security of transport and environmental pollution spread” protection. The creation of a State Port Control Service is one such requirement. ItsA country with a rich history of maritime cargoes and transportation is taking serious officers should have the right to inspect that weather safety norms are applied, and should not allow ships to enter ports if they do not meet necessary standards.steps to foster higher standards of environmental safety at sea and in its ports. “As far as ports are concerned,” says Muradov, “the project aims at providing tech-This is how Azerbaijani officials, supported by European experts through the nical assistance for the creation of one role-model port, which would meet inter- national safety standards, in each of the five participating countries, Azerbaijan,TRACECA-SASEPOL project, are modernising their country’s maritime transport Georgia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Ukraine. This has already begun in Odessa,of passengers and goods, keeping an eye on environmental protection. and recommendations were passed on to the other countries. As far as we are con- cerned, due to the upcoming transfer of port facilities from Baku to Alat suburb, allText and photos by Shahin Abbasov requirements will be applied to the new port construction, which will be erected according to the highest maritime standards.” BAKU - “Safety is a basic element for the development of maritime transport: we are not only talking about human safety, which is very important, but also about environmental protection, protection from sea pollution, and also protection of port facilities. Today more than ever it is important to respect high maritime safetyN The “Koroglu” Oil tanker standards” says Bakhtiyar Muradov, the coordinator of the EU-funded TRACECA- SASEPOL (maritime SAfety, SEcurity and POLlu- tion) project. The initiative – funded to the tune of €3.5 mil- lion – aims at facilitating international maritime transport of passengers and goods, and to sup- port maritime safety, security and environmen- tal protection in the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea regions. For example, oil spills and similar catastrophes nowadays heavily affect the ma- rine environment. “But there is another major issue, less known by the public at large, the so called under-shale wa- ters, the gathering of oil and waste thrown into 64 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 65
    • Interview with Marc Abeille The transfer of knowledge from expert to expert An essential component of the EU-funded project concerns the training of per- Maritime sonnel involved in maritime safety, security and prevention of pollution. Namik The Motorways of the Sea Askerov, environmental protection engineer of the state-owned Caspian Shipping – Black and Caspian Sea“The existence Company (CASPAR), attended one of the seminars dealing with reactions to oil- project, funded by the EU asof well-educated highways to spills. “These seminars are really useful, I learned a lot from international expertsyoung specialists about experience concerning reaction to oil-spills and prevention of pollution part of its broader efforts togive reasons for spread,” he says. consolidate a direct transport corridor fromoptimism that The issue of professional development of those involved in maritime safety is a Europe to Asia through the Caucasus, was unlock a keythe country will key aspect of the EU-funded project: specialists from six government institutions launched at the beginning of 2009.keep on pursuing of Azerbaijan are attending the training sessions. “This country has a rich history These maritime highways aim to establishthe introduction of maritime cargoes and transportation,” says John Ostergaard, key expert in mari- “sustainable, quality transport logistic transportof high maritime time policy and training; “however not everything here meets international safety networks”, Marc Abeille, project team leaderstandards” standards. But the existence of well-educated young specialists give reasons for optimism that the country will keep on pursuing the introduction of high mari- told the ENPI Info Centre in an interview. It time standards.” seeks to identify bottlenecks in the chain route connecting land and maritime routes. Harmonization of national legislation The reward would see huge economies Last but not least, the TRACECA-SASEPOL project supports the harmonization of in transport costs, an ecological windfall, national legislation in order to meet International Conventions. Although Azerbai- and a strong development potential by jan joined most of the IMO and International Labour Organisation conventions, “So you realise the enormous rerouting traffic currently forced into detours their recommendations have not been fully implemented in law. According to Ah- development potential that mad Ismayilov, head of legal issues and international relations department of the would be unleashed through a of thousands of kilometres to reach its State Maritime Administration, “TRACECA SASEPOL plays an important role in the central transport route – this is destination. process of efficient and comprehensive integration of these conventions’ results the great prize at stake”N An oil tanker at into national legislation.” In addition, the project also supports Azerbaijan rein-the Caspian Sea forcing cooperation with the other Caspian Sea countries in order to strengthen Q: What is this project trying to achieve? has a border with China, and to cross it, goods take the the Tehran Convention which foresees an Marc Abeille: Our aim is to try to find ‘motorways of the sea’ Chinese maritime route to the Baltic ports, before travelling overall improvement of the Caspian Sea en- solutions along every link of the chain – good practices, in- overland through Russia back down to Kazakhstan – and vironment. frastructure, equipment, organisation, partnerships, trans- this with Kazakhstan wanting to develop a direct transit role port policies, facilitation, identification of bottlenecks. from Asia to Europe. Azerbaijan is taking serious steps towards The project is part of the TRACECA (Transport Corridor Eu- So you realise the enormous development potential that the modernisation of the country’s maritime would be unleashed through a central transport route – this rope-Caucasus-Asia) transport programme, an alternative transport: the road ahead might be long, but to the dominant freight routes through Russia and Turkey, is the great prize at stake. no efforts are being spared and results are at both entirely overland. We are trying to encourage trans- What are the greatest difficulties you face? hand for safer ports in cleaner seas. port networks that make sense, both in distance and sus- Political tensions are a major obstacle: the conflict between tainability, working on intermodality between maritime and Russia and Georgia in the summer of 2008 did nothing to land transport along the route. encourage international operators to use the TRACECA cor- Maritime safety, security and pollution (SASEPOL) How do you go about achieving these objectives? ridor. This project focuses entirely on diagnosis and technical as- At the same time, we have to overcome a number of ad- Supports the development of common security management, maritime safety and ship sistance. Once we have established the diagnosis, we ask ministrative hurdles, through which the operators on the pollution prevention for the Black Sea and Caspian Sea what improvements can be envisaged, and at which point ground themselves have to pass. It’s not always easy to ex- along the chain. Until the end of 2010, we will be working plain the value of preliminary tasks, when what people are www.sasepol.eu on the design of two pilot projects, before handing over for often asking for is direct financing. implementation. We do not have our own budget for the What are the perspectives emerging in this initial phase? projects, just for their preparation, and we will have to iden- The motorways of the sea are a new type of solution, which Participating countries tify appropriate financing instruments to match with the Objective can build on the existence, on both the Black Sea and the Azerbaijan, Georgia, necessary investments. The project aims to assure safe and secure maritime links for passengers, crews, ships and cargoes; Caspian, of ferries capable of carrying trains. It’s a mode of Ukraine, as well it fosters higher standards of environmental safety at sea and in the relevant ports; it contributes to What is the expected impact on the Partner Countries? transport that has almost completely disappeared in Eu- as Kazakhstan, creating a fully integrated multimodal transport corridor, and strives to provide transport customers rope, but which exists in the region, with quality vessels. You can identify the potential by looking at the existing si- Turkmenistan with highly developed supply chains. It could act as a powerful lever: tuation. There are plenty of exchanges between the Partner Countries themselves, with Europe, and with Asia, and the- you could go from Turkmenistan “We are trying Timeframe Find out more refore there is transport traffic. The region is a hub for trade to Ukraine and Turkey by rail, a to encourage 2009-2011 TRACECA Maritime safety project fiche www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=309&id_type=10 far more direct, more secure transport networks between China and Europe. ENPI Info Centre – Transport webpage www.enpi-info.eu/themeeast.php?subject=8 The central freight route should be an obvious choice, it route than the alternatives. that make sense, Budget European Commission – transport relations Caucasus/Central Asia should be competing with the southern maritime route both in distance € 3.5 million http://ec.europa.eu/transport/international/regional_cooperation/caucasus_central-asia_en.htm through the Suez Canal. But take an example: Kazakhstan and sustainability” 66 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 67
    • Interview with Thibault Raisson AzERbAijAnBetter The Civil Aviation Safety and Security Project, funded by the EU under the broaderregulations TRACECA Transport Programme, may focus on At the cross-roads the details of standards andfor safer air regulations, but ultimately it aims to help save lives in the air, according to Project Director Thibault Raisson.travel of development The project aims to improve air transport safety and security by helping national authorities meet international and Europeanin TRACECA standards, through training, technical assistance and exchange of best practices. But ultimately it is the public that draws thePartners benefit: “Passengers will feel more secure if they know that their national carriers have a decent safety record. Eventually the project will help save people’s lives.” With major infrastructure projects under way to open up the trans-Caucasus route from Asia to Europe, the InternationalQ: What is the project trying to achieve? such accident triggers an investigation. The list of parties Logistical Centres financed under the EU’s TRACECA programmeThibault Raisson: We are promoting best practices in the touched by such an enquiry is quite long: the manufacturer, will provide key logistical hubs for increased intermodality andcivil aviation sector standards in the Partner Countries, na- the maintenance company; the carrier, the pilot, the search and rescue authority and the investigating authority. In this efficiency of the transport corridor.mely Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine aswell as four Central Asian countries. We work on improving chain, the Civil Aviation Authorities directly impact safety At the new Caspian Sea port being built in Alat, one such centre isair transport safety, security and environment. through the regulation implementation and oversight. By set to make Azerbaijan a vital link in the chain.This sounds rather abstract, but let me give one striking dedicating most of the technical support to them, we hopeexample. The average cost of an airplane crash is €56 mil- to help Authorities to globally improve safety. The same reasoning applies to security and environment-related is- Text and Photos by Shahin Abbasovlion in material damages, while the loss of human lives isof course priceless. Now, our entire project costs €5 million. sues.If we succeed in achieving the goals set, we can make an The EU has a so-called ‘black list’ for airlines from third coun-important contribution to improve the safety and security tries with non satisfactory safety records. We help countriesof all travelers. get out of this “black list”. Naturally we help other countriesThe issuing authority for safety rules that are recognized not to get into it. N Abid Sharifovworldwide is the International Civil Aviation Organization What is the expected impact of your project on the citizens? Baku – Some 70km south-west of the Azeri capital Baku, at Alat on(ICAO). Our project helps Civil Aviation Authorities of each It is straightforward. Passengers will feel more secure if they the Caspian Sea, a sprawling new port will soon cover 450 hect-Partner Country to reach these minimum standards. There know that their national carriers have a decent safety record. ares of land: on that site, 50 hectares have been set aside to hostare also European regu- “Passengers will feel more Eventually the project will help save people’s lives.lations, which are more Azerbaijan’s first International Logistical Centre (ILC), a key projectstringent than the in- secure if their national What are your main challenges? financed by the European Commission to facilitate development ofternational, therefore carriers have a decent I would single out the following one: we have to be flexible the Europe-Caucasus-Asia transport corridor (TRACECA).we also support Partner safety record. Eventually since we deal with two different groups of countries. One According to Akif Mustafayev, TRACECA national secretary in Azer-keen to adopt them in the project will help save includes the EU’s neighbours, namely the three South Cau-reaching this goal baijan, the ILCs are one of five EU-funded technical projects to de- people’s lives” casus states, Moldova and Ukraine. The objective vis-à-vis these countries is to help them reach European standards. velop the transport corridor at a total cost of € 15 million. For the ILCHow are you planning to achieve these objectives? The other group involves Central Asian states. For them the project, the EU has allocated just under € 3.5 million for 2009-2011.First, we assess the situation and the needs in each country. expectations are different. We want to help them to fully The project supports international trade, and facilitates movementThis gives us a clear idea of what we can offer by way of sup- comply with the ICAO standards and develop their capaci- of goods along the TRACECA corridor by improving logistic capaci-port. Normally it would be training, technical assistance and ties. ties, interoperability and multimodal transport, and the developmentbest practices exchanges. In principle, life-long training in “We promote best practices in the civilcivil aviation is crucial. Every pilot has to go through trai- of regional cooperation. Azerbaijan, Armenia, Georgia, Moldova and aviation sector standards… and workning every six months. Ukraine, as well as countries of Central Asia, and Bulgaria, Romania on improving air transport safety,Let us again consider a grave accident with fatalities. Any and Turkey participate in the ILC project, which aims to establish security and environment” 68 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 69
    • “If we manage to for everybody – for cargo senders, receivers and finally for consumers.” attract even 3-4% of This position is shared by independent expert Togrul Juvarly, a member this flow [of container of Azerbaijan’s National Public Committee for European Integration. He traffic from China to said that due to overpriced transit tariffs, Central Asian countries cur- Europe and America], rently prefer to route cargoes via Russia. it will be a huge “We need to remove administrative obstacles and reduce tariffs for ef- success for TRACECA” ficient use of the TRACECA corridor,” Juvarly said. “The logistical centres will facilitate the development of multimodal traffic and use all means of transport. In emergency situations, when you need re-direction of traffic and change of transport mean, logistical centres are indispensable.” The two-year TRACECA technical project has organised a national seminar for gov- ernment officials and private sector, as well as a roundtable in the Transport Minis- try to increase awareness of the advantages of logistics for cargo traffic. Training in logistics is key to modernizing transport infrastructure. Currently, the Baku-based Aviation Academy provides courses, while two more institutions – the Azerbaijan State Technical University and the Marine Academy – will follow soon. Boosting container traffic Akif Mustafayev from TRACECA believes the creation of logistical centres will boost container traffic. “Most of the cargo in the world is carried by container. However, TRACECA countries lag behind due to the underdevelopment of logistical infra- structure. Container traffic is only about 10% of total freight in TRACECA, while in EU countries it reaches 50-60%,” he said. The value of logistical centres increases in view of the large infrastructure projects currently under way. The Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway will be launched in 2012, and a rail tunnel under the Bosphorus connecting the Europe- “Cargo transit is the most long-term and an and Asian shores of Turkey will open soon. Then, a sustainable economic resource of the N Modern freight traffic direct rail connection between Shanghai and London Southern Caucasus. But it is only possible cannot be efficient without will be established, allowing trains to go from China if modern infrastructure and coordinated logistical centres. to the UK without cargo reload. Large-capacity ferries tariff and customs policy are established”“The idea is to provide high-quality modern logistical transport centres to top EU standards.transport of larger volumes of cargo The technological connection between these centres di-within a short time and using less rectly affects trade and international transport (import,transport means… It’s win-win for export and transit) in the Black Sea, Caucasus and Centraleverybody” Asia. “Alat is very well located for Azerbaijan’s first Logisti- cal Centre. It will accept ships and ferries including large-capacity vessels. The rail- way and highway which are part of the TRACECA corridor’s central segment pass nearby,” Mustafayev said. Construction, which begins in early 2010, will take five to six years, financed by the Azerbaijani government and IFI loans. €160 million in EU funds since 1993 Since 1993, the EU has financed 15 investment and 61 technical projects within the TRACECA programme, in total worth € 160 million. Thanks to the programme, cargo transport had increased from 3 million tons in 1993-1997 to 53 million in 2007. More than 150 million tons of cargo were carried via the corridor since 1998. Modern freight traffic cannot be fully efficient without logistical centres that handle the automated processes of unloading, uploading, sorting of products, their pack- ing and containerization. Until now, Azerbaijan did not have centres “Thanks to the programme, meeting EU standards. Alat should change that: “The idea is to provide cargo transport had high-quality transport of larger volumes of cargo within a short time increased from 3 million and using less transport means. It avoids the spoiling of goods and en- tons in 1993-1997 to 53 sures full utilization of transport means,” said Mustafayev. “It’s win-win million in 2007” 70 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 71
    • will be used at the only sea section of corridor through the Caspian, said Mustafayev, Interview with Ashraf Hamed with the Azerbaijan State Caspian Shipping Company purchasing special ferries able The big IDEA: to carry 52 wagon rakes. Every year, China ships 10 million containers with cargoes to Europe and America and mostly uses ocean transport. “If we manage to attract even 3-4% of this flow, it will be a huge success for TRACECA,” Mustafayev said. coordination for an Expert Togrul Juvarly is optimistic about development of the region’s transport infra- structure: “Cargo transit is the most long-term and sustainable economic resource of the Southern Caucasus. But it is only possible if modern infrastructure and coordi- ambitious programme nated tariff and customs policy are established.” For an initiative as wide-ranging as the EU-funded TRACECA (Transport Corridor Europe-Caucasus-Asia) programme, coordination is all-important. This is the role of the €6.6 million Regional Transport Dialogue and Networks Interoperability (IDEA) project, the current phase of which began in May 2009. “Our main objective is to support TRACECA in ‘doing’ things,” Dr. Ashraf Hamed, Transport Project Development Expert told the ENPI Info Centre, adding: “We prioritize projects, select the best and help move them from the feasibility studies to the N Baku railway today: the Baku-Tbilisi-Kars railway implementation.” For Dr. Hamed, the ultimate impact is clear: improved transport links will be launched in 2012. feed into economic growth, which impacts into the life of local communities. “We assist the implementation of Q: What is the project trying to achieve? What is the expected impact of transport investment Dr Ashraf Hamed: Our main objective is to support TRACECA your project on the citizens? projects through in ‘doing’ things, by which I mean assist in the implementa- When you improve transporta- studies, developingInternational Logistical Centers (TRACECA) tion of transport investment projects by providing studies, developing business and master plans, analyzing financial tion you get a positive impact on the economy. A new road or business and master plans, analyzingThe project supports international trade and facilitates the movements of goods along the TRACECA and technical feasibility and promoting public-private par- an improved one will attract bu- financial and technicalcorridor through improving logistics capabilities, interoperability and multimodal transport. tnerships. The project’s principal task is coordination. There siness, services, create new jobs. has always been a project like this from the early days of It will impact the life of the local feasibility, etc” TRACECA, and normally it would run for two years. Our term communities. is three years. What are your main challenges?www.traceca-org.org How are you planning to achieve these objectives? There are many bottlenecks. To begin with, TRACECA corri- We prioritize projects, select the best and help move them dors are not all that attractive. Say, a container leaves BerlinParticipating countries Objective from the feasibility studies to the implementation. We also and gets to Odessa in two days. Then it sits at the borderArmenia, Azerbaijan, It tackles in particular the lack of modern logistic transport centres/nodes and common legal ground aim to diversify the funding by tapping into international for 10 days… Border crossings in TRACECA countries areGeorgia, Moldova, for its integration and development, since technological connection between these centres directly financial institutions and mobilizing resources of the private notoriously time consuming. Practices should be changed,Ukraine Bulgaria, affects the development of trade and international transport (import, export and transit) in the sector. I believe that for TRACECA to become more effective and maybe there should be a common visa regulation forRomania, Turkey Caucasus and Black Sea region countries. its structure should be reformed. The ownership should be drivers. Another challenge is getting countries to agree onclosely associated with the participating countries, rather than with the EU. common positions. All our projects should have a regional Find out more This will not happen overnight. Some countries are active, dimension, which means there should be more than oneTimeframe TRACECA main fiche www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=272&id_type=10 others are less active. country involved in each. And it is difficult to get them agree2009-2011 International Logistical Centers (TRACECA) fiche www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=268&id_type=10 In addition, we need a higher level of engagement, a more on things. ENPI Info Centre – Transport thematic portal www.enpi-info.eu/themeeast.php?subject=8 intensive dialogue betweenBudget When you improve the Partner Countries. The task Some may see this challenge in the different approach to€ 3.440.500 transportation you is to show progress in terms of tackling problems and pursuing targets in this part of the get a positive impact projects, for which feasibility world. For me, this is not a reason for lowering expectations. on the economy. It will studies are a prerequisite. One simply has to be supportive, adaptive and responsive impact the life of the to our Partners’ needs and initiatives. This is what our team local communities. will continue to do. 72 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 73
    • “Armenia is suffering from its The Yerevan-Tbilisi railway rehabilitation also needs to se- ARMEniA closed borders. The better its cure cooperation between Armenian and Georgian admin- transport facilities the better istrations, according to Giovanni Mastrandrea. its export possibilities”A faster and safer Uffe Holst Jensen Opening borders Three studies were undertaken by the project: the first was a feasibility study for the rehabilitation of the Tbilisi- N Gagik Grigoryan. Yerevan railway line, the second on the rehabilitation of the Hrazvan-Ijevan section of the line towards Azerbaijan, where a severe landslide blocked traffic, and the third was arailway for Armenia study on the technological rehabilitation of the main Geor- gian railway. It also made a preliminary assessment of the possibility of opening a new link between Vanadzor and N Railway stations in Armavir, Araks, Qober and Alaverdi. Fioletovo, shortening the current route between Yerevan and Tbilisi by around 100 km. It was found that €640-800 million were necessary for the modernization of the railway lines. “It is a very high figure,” says Uffe Holst Jensen, “but trans- Providing better, faster and safer railway services and connecting port infrastructure is important as it will better connect land-locked Armenia to its neighbours, while at the same time Armenia to the neighbouring countries. My view is that it supporting the competitiveness of its economy, was the aim of links to the opening of borders, facilitating the EU aim to promote regional development and cross-border coopera- the Rehabilitation of Railway between Tbilisi and Yerevan tion.” project, funded by the EU. The project assessed the possibility of Gagik Grigoryan, head of foreign relations at the Ministry rehabilitating the Yerevan-Tbilisi railway as well as the alternative of Transport and Communication, explains that “the num- railway link between Yerevan and Tbilisi via Azerbaijan so they ber of damaged parts and those not meeting the minimum security standards is high.” He said the studies showed the meet international safety standards. maximum investments needed and “now we can negotiate Text and photos by Aghavni Harutyunyan with donor companies and the concession operator”. Ashot Melikyan, of the ‘South Caucasian Railway’ company, says the studies show what can be financed by donors but “The studies Yerevan – “Armenia is suffering from its closed borders. The better its transport can also act as a guide for further actions. showed the facilities the better its export possibilities,” says Uffe Holst Jensen, Head of ENP and maximum Operations Section at the EU Delegation in Yerevan. He adds that under the EU’s Railway: the citizens’ choice investments Eastern Partnership policy, negotiations for comprehensive trade agreement will be The feasibility study allows potential investors, such as needed. Now we launched: “The EU is offering Armenia the possibility to export many goods free of IFIs, immediately to start work that will help provide pas- can negotiate costume duties. Improving transport infrastructure could be a good environment for sangers with faster and more secure railway links, eventu- with donor that.” ally increasing the use of trains over the present-day fixed- companies and According to Giovanni Mastrandrea, from the project, “the railway is fairly old. Ini- run taxis (marshrutkas), the electric line trains or buses. the concessionN A railway map tially it was properly managed and maintained, but the 1990s saw a gradual lack of They would be more comfortable, safer and time-saving, operator”of the CIS. maintenance and technical improvements, leading to a rapid decline of the line.” and also enable people to carry more. Gagik Grigoryan The Tbilisi-Yerevan railway line was inaugurated in 1899 and electrified in 1967, According to Murad Aleksanyan, head of Gyumri station, and is a typical mountain railway. The line the Yerevan-Gyumri 154km railway takes 4.5 hours, when a is in desperate need of improvements and marshrutka takes 1.5 hours, therefore people prefer the lat- modernisation, especially as the alternative ter. “But in case of high speed, the train will gain advantage Yerevan-Tbilisi link via Azerbaijan has for over marshrutkas, as they will be more comfortable and years now gone no further than Dilijan. The you can carry more.” Even today, the Yerevan-Tbilisi (12.5 result of improvements on the Tbilisi-Yere- hours) and Yerevan-Batumi (19 hours) trains are a more van line would be: 50 trains running per day convenient choice compared to buses and marshrutkas in both directions at a maximum speed of and are largely full over summer. 140 km/h for passenger trains covering the Many people and especially students prefer the Armavir- distance in five hours, instead of more than Yerevan electric train to get to Yerevan in 40 minutes and 12 hours today, and maximum 80/100 km/h more comfortably than in buses and marshrutkas, howev- for freight trains. er as Karine Khanoyan, 19, a student from Armavir says “it’s a pity the trains are few in a day.” Departing from Armavir 74 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 75
    • “Offering faster for Masis by electric train, 63-year-old vine grower Vladimir Melkumyan, from Met- Interview with Rene Meeuwsand more secure samor, says “I prefer the train, as it is comfortable and we can get to the place quicker TRACECA training:railway links than by marshrutkas.”will definitely The train is also more convenient for people taking their harvest to the Yerevan mar-increase the use kets. Rustam Sultanyan, 53, who lives in Artashar and works on his garden plot says:of trains over teaching the “We can’t carry more than a little package by bus or marshrutka, but by train we canthe present-day transport a lot more goods.”fixed-run taxis The environmental factor should be part of the equation, says Michal Nekvasil, Dep-(marshrutkas), uty Head of Operations of EU Delegation to Georgia. In his words, “It is crucial to re- teachers to teachthe electric line habilitate the Tbilisi-Yerevan railway as soon as possible, ideally before the road con-trains or buses” nection between the two capitals is modernised. Why? Because today most of the goods and many passengers, especially between Yerevan and the Black Sea coast, are transported by the railway, an environmentally friendly means of transport. A potential shift to the roads would have a damaging impact on the environment.” There is also a security issue today. “When we are travelling with our family we have Behind the development of modern transport infrastructures and services lay well-trained, no alternative to using a train. It qualified and competent staff. This is the target of the EU-funded project, Strengthening is hard for children to be in a car. Transport Training institutes in the NIS, part of the broader TRACECA (Transport Corridor It will be better if the train moves faster but we know the railway Europe-Caucasus-Asia) programme, an international transport cooperation initiative between the is not in a good condition,” says EU and its Partner Countries in Eastern Europe, South Caucasus and Central Asia. mother of two Taguhi Harutyu- Team Leader Rene Meeuws tells the ENPI Info Centre in an interview that this is a key link in the nyan, from Yerevan. transport chain: “We are trying to improve the training capacity of universities and other higher Considering all these factors, education establishments that breed transport specialists.” the improvement of this railway The project develops new curricula and teaching techniques in transport planning and teaches link will definitely make it more university professors how to teach these subjects. competitive to other transport “The project helps train means. staff, who would contribute to the development of sustainable transport Q: What is the project trying to achieve? tes and provide access to Rene Meeuws: The project aims to help train well qualified online libraries and other infrastructure and modern training materials transport services” and competent staff, who would in turn contribute to the development of sustainable transport infrastructure and One of our main outputs is an Atlas of TRACECA routes, modern transport services in the TRACECA countries. To be which we are planning to publish, and make available on- more precise, we are trying to improve the training capacity line for all stakeholders and the broader public. This is a of universities and other higher education establishments unique publication. TRACECA exists 16 years already, and to Rehabilitation of Railway between that breed transport specialists. date no such atlas has ever been produced. This atlas will serve three purposes, namely it can be used How are you planning to achieve these objectives? Tbilisi and Yerevan project The bulk of our work has to do with developing new curri- as an important promotional tool, a training material and a working document for all parties involved in the implemen- cula and introducing new teaching techniques in transport tation of the TRACECA projects. www.enpi-fleg.org planning. Essentially, we teach university professors how What are your main challenges? to teach subjects related to transport planning and invest- ment appraisal. Our counterparts do not have much experience in trans- Participating countries Objective But to come to this, one needs to prepare the ground. We port economy-related training methods. Most of the uni- Armenia, Georgia To rehabilitate the direct railway line between Tbilisi and Yerevan as well as the alternative start by reviewing course contents and curriculums in our versities we work with have neither the necessary knowled- railway link between Yerevan and Tbilisi via Azerbaijan so it can function as a safe and partner universities. In parallel, we disseminate informa- ge nor the people who would adopt and promote the new Timeframe reliable link for goods and passenger transport for land-locked Armenia reducing journey tion among the relevant university faculties about state-of- teaching techniques. From October 2008 times to a level that makes it competitive to other transport means. The project aims at the-art teaching techniques. My team then helps develop Overall, we have contacted around 50 universities across for 12 months defining, arranging and estimating the global cost of the execution of works and supplies for course materials on transport planning techniques, invest- the TRACECA region, only to discover that their interest and rehabilitation. ment appraisal and other subjects. In addition, we organize teaching capabilities as far as transport economy-related Budget discussions on how to establish regional training platforms subjects are concerned are limited. So rather than trying € 579,700.00 Find out more and networks, and conduct training courses for lecturers. to engage them all, we set up small groups of six or seven EU Delegation in Armenia www.delarm.ec.europa.eu For example we are planning to give master classes in two ‘champions’ who are really interested in cooperating with Land Transport Safety and Security www.enpi-info.eu/maineast.php?id=213&id_type=10 or even three languages (English, Russian and the local lan- us. guage). There is another challenge worth mentioning. All curri- The project also assists partners in mastering transport si- culums that we help universities put together have to go mulation and forecasting software. Besides, we disseminate through approval by government ministries, which is time cooperation opportunities with European training institu- consuming to say the least. 76 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours 77
    • Find out moreEuropean Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)It was developed after the EU’s enlargement in 2004 with 10 new countries, in order to avoidthe emergence of new dividing lines in Europe. Through it, the EU offers its neighbours a privi-leged relationship, building upon a mutual commitment to common values - democracy and hu-man rights, rule of law, good governance, market economy principles and sustainable develop-ment. The ENP offers a deeper political relationship and economic integration through reformsas a means of achieving peace, stability and economic prosperity. The participating countriesare: Algeria, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Egypt, Georgia, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Mol-dova, Morocco, the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Syria, Tunisia and Ukraine. Although Russia isalso an EU neighbour, and benefits from the ENPI, relations are developed through a StrategicPartnership.ENP http://ec.europa.eu/world/enp/index_en.htmEuropean Neighbourhood and Partnership Instrument (ENPI)The financial arm of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP), in place since January 2007. It www.enpi-info.euis the single financial instrument that replaced the MEDA (South), TACIS (East) and various otherfinancial instruments. The ENPI aims at supporting partner countries achieve sustainable devel- www.facebook.com/enpi.euopment and approximation to EU policies and standards, based on agreed priorities. For thebudgetary period 2007-2013, approximately €12 billion in EC funding are available to supportreforms in neighbouring states. twitter.com/enpi_infoENPI http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/where/neighbourhood/overview/index_en.htmUseful links Commissioner Enlargement and ENP http://ec.europa.eu/commission_2010-2014/fule/ ENP website http://ec.europa.eu/world/enp/welcome_en.htm EuropeAid http://ec.europa.eu/europeaid/index_en.htm External Action Service (EEAS) http://eeas.europa.eu/index_en.htmCopyright EU/ENPI Info Centre 2010-2011 78 Projects in Action – Eastern Neighbours