Ginseng And Cervical Cancer


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Refined panax ginseng promotes health and wealth esp cervical cancer.

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Ginseng And Cervical Cancer

  1. 1. Ginseng and Cervical Cancer Eugene Fung
  2. 2. Where is The Cervix Located? <ul><li>The cervix ( neck of the uterus in Latin ) </li></ul><ul><li>The lower, narrow portion of the uterus where it joins with the top end of the vagina . </li></ul><ul><li>It is cylindrical or conical in shape and protrudes through the upper anterior vaginal wall. </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately half its length is visible with appropriate medical equipment; the remainder lies above the vagina beyond view ( For diagram, see next slide) . </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Cervix
  4. 4. Cervical Cancer-1 <ul><li>Cancer of the Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Malignant neoplasm </li></ul><ul><li>One of the most common symptoms is abnormal vaginal bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases there may be no obvious symptoms until the cancer is in its advanced stages </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical cancer affects more than 10,000 women in the United States each year. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cervical Cancer-2 <ul><li>Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer for women worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Deaths from cervical cancer in the United States continue to decline by around 2 % a year. </li></ul><ul><li>This decline is primarily due to the early detection of the Pap test </li></ul><ul><li>Cancer of the cervix tends to occur during midlife. </li></ul><ul><li>Half of the women diagnosed with the disease are between 35 and 55 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Around 20 percent of diagnoses are made in women older than 65. That’s why Pap screening should be done for females till 70 years of age. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Cancer in Situ
  7. 7. Epidemiology <ul><li>Cervical cancer behaved like a sexually transmitted disease. </li></ul><ul><li>Cervical cancer was common in female Sex workers </li></ul><ul><li>It was rare in nuns, except for those who had been sexually active before entering the convent. </li></ul><ul><li>It was more common in the second wives of men whose first wives had died from cervical cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>It was rare in Jewish women </li></ul><ul><li>Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection </li></ul>
  8. 8. Signs and Symptoms <ul><li>The early stages of cervical cancer may be completely asymptomatic. </li></ul><ul><li>Vaginal bleeding, contact bleeding or (rarely) a vaginal mass may indicate the presence of malignancy. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderate pain during sexual intercourse and vaginal discharge are symptoms of cervical cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of advanced cervical cancer may include: loss of appetite, weight loss, fatigue, pelvic pain, back pain, leg pain, single swollen leg. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Causes <ul><li>Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection with high-risk types has been shown to be a necessary factor in the development of cervical cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>HPV DNA may be detected in virtually all cases of cervical cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Not all of the causes of cervical cancer are known. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Human papillomavirus infection <ul><li>In the United States each year there are more than 6.2 million new HPV infections in both men and women </li></ul><ul><li>That is why HPV is known as the &quot;common cold&quot; of the sexually transmitted infection world. </li></ul><ul><li>It affects roughly 80 percent of all sexually active people, whether they have symptoms or not. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important risk factor in the development of cervical cancer is infection with a high-risk strain of HPV. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cofactors (Provided by the American Cancer Society) <ul><li>HPV infection </li></ul><ul><li>Smoking </li></ul><ul><li>HIV infection </li></ul><ul><li>Chlamydia infection </li></ul><ul><li>Stress and stress-related disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Dietary factors </li></ul><ul><li>Hormonal contraception </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple pregnancies </li></ul><ul><li>Early age at first intercourse </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cervical Cancer Stages <ul><li>Stage I : The carcinoma is strictly confined to the cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Stage II : Cervical carcinoma invades beyond the uterus, but not to the pelvic wall or to the lower third of the vagina. </li></ul><ul><li>Stage III : The tumor extends to the pelvic wall and/or involves lower third of the vagina and/or causes non-functioning kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Stage IV : The carcinoma has extended beyond the true pelvis or has involved (biopsy proven) the mucosa of the bladder or rectum. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Prevention <ul><li>Vaccination – HPV vaccine </li></ul><ul><li>Condoms offer some protection against cervical cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Carcinogens from tobacco increase the risk for many cancer types, including cervical cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition- Fruits and vegetables </li></ul><ul><li>Screening - Pap smear </li></ul>
  14. 14. Panax ginseng <ul><li>Panax ginseng is considered the most efficacious among the different types of ginseng available. </li></ul><ul><li>Ginsenosides: are said to be responsible for the preventative and curative effects of ginseng. </li></ul><ul><li>Combat many different conditions like diabetes, cancer, fatigue and stress. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Ginseng and Cancer-1 <ul><li>A group of researchers studied the effects of ginseng, especially its potential to cure cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>Ginseng has also been extensively used in oriental medicine to treat cancer. </li></ul><ul><li>The pharmacological effects of ginseng are due to its bioactive constituents like ginsenosides, peptides, polysaccharides, minerals and vitamins. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Ginseng and Cancer-2 <ul><li>A report published in the Chinese Medicine Journal, ginsenosides have anti-tumor effects. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to induce death of the tumor cells, anti-proliferation, anti-invasion and metastasis. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Ginsenosides-1 <ul><li>Saponins found in ginseng </li></ul><ul><li>Control metastasis </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit invasiveness of cancer </li></ul><ul><li>Destroy the tumor cells </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate preventative effects </li></ul><ul><li>Stop the cell growth in tumor cell line </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ginsenosides-2 <ul><li>Rg3 and Rh2 have emerged in China and Taiwan as anti-cancer drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Chemotherapy supplemented with Rh2 was 60% more effective than chemotherapy alone </li></ul><ul><li>Rh2 also showed promise to mitigate adverse effects of chemo like hair loss, nausea, anemia and poor appetite </li></ul>
  19. 19. For More Information <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>