Modes of Leadership: Mentorship, Direction, Performance Evaluation Ethical Leadership SeriesMetro Fire Chief Officers Association Session 4 April 25, 2011
Agenda • Quick Review – last time • Mentorship • Discussion: Buddy to Boss • Driving Intrinsic Motivation • Performance Evaluation • Program Evaluation
John Kotter’s Perspective on Change Primary concern:Kotter’s Overcoming Resistance to Change work isclassic… Four Primary reasons people resist: 1. Parochial self-interest 2. Misunderstanding/confusion 3. Low tolerance of change in general 4. Different assessments of situation or projected outcomes
Kotter and Schlesinger prescribe 6ways to lead change:1. Education and communication2. Participation and involvement3. Facilitation and support4. Negotiation and agreementAnd if needed and time is precious…5. Manipulation and co-option (win over)6. Explicit and implicit coercion
Edgar Schein on Culture… The “Primary embedding mechanisms” of culture are largely driven by the leadership of the organization: 1. What leaders regularly pay attention to, measure, control 2. How leaders react to critical incidents & crises 3. Criteria by which leaders allocate scarce resources 4. Deliberate role modeling, teaching and coaching 5. Criteria by which leaders allocate rewards and status 6. Criteria by which leaders recruit, promote/demote employeesSource: Edgar Schein, 1990
Edgar Schein on Culture Too often, indirect, “secondary embedding mechanisms” are over-stressed in change efforts. 1. Organization design and structure 2. Organizational systems and procedures 3. Organizational rites and rituals 4. Design of physical space, facades, and buildings 5. Stories, legends, and myths about people and events 6. Formal statements of organizational philosophy/valuesSource: Edgar Schein, 1990
Who are our mentors?
What makes a great mentorship?• Knowledge/Experience• Insight• Opportunity• Trust• Clarity• And…
Three Motives • Biological – Sustenance, Shelter, Sex, etc. • Instrumental – Incentives: Carrots/Sticks • Intrinsic – Expression of our humanityAdapted from Daniel H. Pink, Drive, 2009
The Keys to Intrinsic Motivation • Autonomy – Task – Team – Technique • Mastery – A mindset – A pain – An endless journey • Purpose – Words, goals, and policies – A life of meaningAdapted from Daniel H. Pink, Drive, 2009
We tend to discount autonomyMinimally constrained by human rights.Employment at Will is a logical evolution from this view.Eugene Genovese’s economic conclusion: slavery didn’t pay!(The Political Economy of Slavery: Studies in the Economyand the Society of the Slave South, 1965).
Sisyphus: the Power of Purpose • Sisyphus angered gods through a variety of antics. “Accounts vary.” • His sentence was the worst thing the storytellers could imagine for a smart, engaged person.
The oldest leadership seminar If we • Safety and comfort aren’ttellingstories, • Tactical informationotherssurely are! • Problem-solving • Strategic decisions • Who are we???
A key mistake: motive confusion • Biological – Sustenance, Shelter, Sex, etc. • Instrumental – Incentives: Carrots/Sticks • Intrinsic – Expression of our humanityAdapted from Daniel H. Pink, Drive, 2009
Rewards work for routine tasks, but: • Try to improve the task – Vary challenge or repetitiveness – Look for ways to promote autonomy • Empathize – Recognize that some tasks are boring • Connect to Purpose – Explain why performance is importantAdapted from Daniel H. Pink, Drive, 2009
Giving Feedback • Past: What happened – Observable events and facts Fair – First person and objectiveProcess is working WITH • Present: Why it matters others – Consequences of actions. – Implications • Future: Required Changes, Directions – Changes in actions or behaviors – Reinforcement to repeat positive actions What does “Relational Leadership” teach us about giving feedback?
ELA’s Foundation for Standardsin Public Safety Agencies• Excellent Public Service• Sound Stewardship of Resources• Fairness
Please Evaluate this ProgramHow useful was this program? (1-10)1-3 things that you learned:1-3 things that we should KEEP:1-3 things we should CHANGE:Other comments:
Thank you for your attention!Chad WeinsteinEthical Leaders in Action, LLCcweinstein@ethinact.com651-646-1512 “We enable ethical leaders to achieve extraordinary results”