Cause for consumer distrust.
People will say ANYTHING to sell stuff.
People don’t rely exclusively on
advertisers for information, product
comparisons, facts, features & benefits.
US Advertising 2% GDP highest in world.
Makes products cost more? Or less???
In an economy that produces more
goods and services than can be
consumed, advertising plays 2 crucial
roles: 1) Keeps consumers informed
of their alternatives (complete
information) and: 2) Allows companies
to compete more effectively for
consumer dollars (self-interest.)
Placing hidden messages in ads to
influence consumer behavior at a
subliminal (subconscious) level.
Fear that advertisers mess with our
Wilson Bryan Key: to seduce consumers,
advertisers intentionally create ads with
sexual messages hidden in the
Advertising lowers our collective values
by promoting hedonistic, materialists
way of life.
Continuous proliferation in ad messaging
that bombards consumers.
Per Nielsen, 16-21 minutes of an hour’s
TV programming is advertising.
Stereotypes played out through
insensitivity to women, minorities, the
disabled, elderly, and others.
Advertising’s negative impact on
Supreme Court distinction between FREEFREE
speech & “CommercialCommercial” speech.
1980 Supreme Court case: “Central Hudson
Gas…” presented 4 key considerations for
• Does the commercial speech at issue concern a
• Will the restriction of commercial speech serve
the asserted Gov’t interest substantially?
• Does the regulation directly advance the Gov’t
• Is the restriction no more than necessary to
further the interest asserted?
The current Supreme Court is EXTREMELY
Library of Congress.
DECEPTION: Any ad that contains a
misrepresentation, omission or any other
practice that can mislead a significant #
of reasonable consumers to their
UNFAIRNESS: Occurs when a consumer
is “unjustifiably injured” or there is a
“violation of public policy.”
Advertising agencies regulate
Most have “In-house” legal counsel.
4A, Amer. Advertising Federation, Assn.
of National Advertisers and the BBB.